Global Disclosure of Economics and Business

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2305-9168 / 2307-9592
Published by: ABC Journals (10.18034)
Total articles ≅ 120
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Omar Faruque
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v10i1.586

Abstract:
In the past 10 years, Bangladesh has experienced positive economic and social changes. Historically, labor mobility has been a common livelihood strategy of the people as well as the Bangladeshi people. Labor mobility has become an integral part of the current global economy. The primary objective of this study is to provide a review of the impact of labor mobility on living standards in the northern region of Bangladesh. To develop the paper, primary as well as secondary data are collected. The quantitative, as well as qualitative analyses, are conducted in this study. Primary data is collected through a set of well-structured questionnaires. In the study, it is observed that there is 8% of labor are migrated within the last three years. From 2011 to 2015, the maximum laborers are migrated i.e., 37% and 33% migrated labor were day labor. There are 35.56% of people with zero income level per day before their migration. On the other hand, after the migration, there are no people with nil income. Before the migration, 81.11% of people incur their expenditure for buying the inferior goods and the rest of the people incur for the necessary goods, but no one can consume the luxurious goods. On the other hand, after the migration, only 4.44% of laborers are availing of luxurious goods. So still they are not enjoying their life. Before the migration, they are 9% of people who are extremely dissatisfied with these types of facilities, and 33.33% of people were very dissatisfied. On the other hand, there are 23.33% of laborers are very pleased with their medical facilities, shelter, and child education facilities. The result shows that 41% of people are pushed for migration. It is assumed that there is a great impact of labor mobilization on the living standard. The labor is migrated in order to have a better living standard. There are two alternatives for their survival, first, we have to provide job opportunities near their residence, and the alternative is to provide a better living standard for the migrated people.
Allen Lim Chong Guan, Goi Chai Lee, Peter Dell
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 10, pp 17-36; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v10i1.596

Abstract:
This research contributes significantly to academic and practitioner knowledge in the areas of young generation customers' enticement for expanding the adoption of small companies and internet commerce. This is the first time that a study has been done especially on the behavioral usage of Canadian Young consumers' websites by Canadian retail businesses. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the Canadian Young Generation engages with retail firms' websites. The research model for this study is an adaptation of the UTAUT2 paradigm. It reaffirms the literature review's usage of the modified UTAUT2 model to describe this research. This research aims to fill a need in the existing knowledge about the Canadian Young Generation's use of retail firms' websites. It is critical that additional steps to protect security and privacy, as well as to create trust, be implemented to improve the Young Generation's confidence in the retail websites of small Canadian firms. Internet costs remain high in Canada, and it is proposed that the Canadian federal government provide additional licenses to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in order to increase competition among ISPs and therefore decrease Internet charges. Key Words: , , ,
Shobnom Munira
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 89-96; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i2.513

Abstract:
The effect of gender diversity on firm performance is a long debated topic in the business world. The percentage of women representation in the board of directors is comparatively low than women presence in the general population and in the corporate world. Some research suggests board diversity as one of the corporate governance mechanisms that improve firm performance whereas other research suggests the opposite. This study intends to investigate the association between women representation in the boardroom and the companies’ financial performance indicator of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) listed companies in Bangladesh. Total 259 companies’ data from 18 different sectors of DSE are collected from the audited published annual reports. The sample are selected through simple random sampling technique. The data are analyzed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and ordinary least square regression method. The study findings indicate that there is positive association between women representation in the boardroom and firm financial performance indicator.
Najmul Hasan, Shazia Afrin, Mostafijur Rahman, Alim Al Ayub Ahmed
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 67-88; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i2.511

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to assess the nature of the job satisfaction level of private bank employees in Bangladesh. It used a semi-structured questionnaire which contains both pre-coded and open-ended questions. All questions were rated with the Likert 5-point scale. A Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between independent and dependent variables. In this study, a significant inter-class relationship was observed between demographic characteristics namely sex, age, designation, salary, and family member, marital status, working environment, service period and family income, and job satisfaction indicators which are, participation in decision making, training facilities, autonomy in work, gender discrimination, working hour, chance of promotion, increase knowledge & capacity, the practice of MBO and surprisingly availability of tools and resources had no significant relation with any demographic factors. Employees who work as an officer (93.3%, p< .001) and withdraw salary 25,001-35,000 (88.2%, p< .000) cannot participate in decision making. But who works in the participative environment (83.9%, p< .000) get a proper training facility. Employees with
Praveen Kumar Donepudi
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 97-106; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i2.527

Abstract:
Change is indeed inevitable. In a world full of technological advancements there has been a change in retail marketing on how they conduct business. This has prompted a fast pace of automation and artificial intelligence (AI) as strategies that can be used to propel and reshape most business models. Machine intelligence is now more powerful, and it is changing the lives of people everywhere around the world. One such machine intelligence is the robot, which is almost being implemented on a daily basis to form part of the retail marketing solution. Hence, it is important to critically analyze the significance of robots in retail stores and how the same can be used to change the current status quo into a new business model. In answering the research questions, this research will adopt both secondary and primary data methods that will ensure that robust information is collected to meet the objectives of the study. Analysis of data revealed that change is inevitable in the retail industry, and it ought to be embraced in phases. The conclusion also revealed that robots have had both positive and negative impacts on the local stores. The idea of robots taking over various jobs in the industries may not be a good idea, but they have proved to be efficient and reliable.
Mani Manavalan
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 119-128; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i2.584

Abstract:
Internet of Things (IoT) has become one of the mainstream advancements and a supreme domain of research for the technical as well as the scientific world, and financially appealing for the business world. It supports the interconnection of different gadgets and the connection of gadgets to people. IoT requires a distributed computing set up to deal with the rigorous data processing and training; and simultaneously, it requires artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) to analyze the information stored on various cloud frameworks and make extremely quick and smart decisions w.r.t to data. Moreover, the continuous developments in these three areas of IT present a strong opportunity to collect real-time data about every activity of a business. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning are assuming a supportive part in applications and use cases offered by the Internet of Things, a shift evident in the behavior of enterprises trying to adopt this paradigm shift around the world. Small as well as large-scale organizations across the globe are leveraging these applications to develop the latest offers of services and products that will present a new set of business opportunities and direct new developments in the technical landscape. The following transformation will also present another opportunity for various industries to run their operations and connect with their users through the power of AI, ML, and IoT combined. Moreover, there is still huge scope for those who can convert raw information into valuable business insights, and the way ahead to do as such lies in viable data analytics. Organizations are presently looking further into the data streams to identify new and inventive approaches to elevate proficiency and effectiveness in the technical as well as business landscape. Organizations are taking on bigger, more exhaustive research approaches with the assistance of continuous progress being made in science and technology, especially in machine learning and artificial intelligence. If companies want to understand the valuable capacity of this innovation, they are required to integrate their IoT frameworks with persuasive AI and ML algorithms that allow ’smart devices/gadgets’ to imitate behavioral patterns of humans and be able to take wise decisions just like humans without much of an intervention. Integrating both artificial intelligence and machine learning with IoT networks is proving to be a challenging task for the accomplishment of the present IoT-based digital ecosystems. Hence, organizations should direct the necessary course of action to identify how they will drive value from intersecting AI, ML, and IoT to maintain a satisfactory position in the business in years to come. In this review, we will also discuss the progress of IoT so far and what role AI and ML can play in accomplishing new heights for businesses in the future. Later the paper will discuss the opportunities and challenges faced during the implementation of this hybrid model.
Apoorva Ganapathy, Redwanuzzaman, Mahbubur Rahaman, Wahiduzzaman Khan
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 107-118; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i2.557

Abstract:
Artificial intelligence-driven cryptocurrencies are cryptocurrencies created by Artificial intelligence using the traditional human cryptocurrency development framework without human intervention. An AI explores the data from each different stream and arriving at the framework which can host these cryptocurrencies following the standards of legality. Cryptography is the encryption of specific data to conceal it and keep it a secret from unwanted third parties. Cryptocurrencies are encrypted currencies with unique keys as developed by developers. Artificial intelligence is an advanced machine programmed to simulate and emulate human intelligence by carrying tasks and reaching conclusions with little or no human intervention. This work considered the use of AI through machine learning and deep learning in the development of cryptocurrencies. The AI machine will set all the parameters and structure of the cryptocurrency. This will include how data is added, removed, and verified on the stream. Blockchain is an open ledger of a cryptocurrency's transactions. It stores files in the system, arranged in blocks, and connected on a list called chains. The article considers how AI-driven cryptocurrency will run using the blockchain network and its impact on it. Artificial intelligence and cryptocurrency are technological very essential technological development currently. The effect of the combination of both technologies would be enormous in the future as both technologies will develop each other remarkably.
Nusrat Jahan
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 9-24; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i1.102

Abstract:
Rapid changing of climate, the effects of greenhouse and global warming, is an alarming situation of the global map with its adverse effects, sending several countries under the waves. Unfortunately, Bangladesh stands at the peak of climate attacks. The land, water, and weather are being enormously affected by this outbreak of climatic changes. The dangers will intensify, if the precautionary measure is not taken immediately. However, to offset the grave concerns of unintended climatic changes in Bangladesh, there is no any significant initiative is taken. The changes will put its adverse impact on the socio- economic conditions of the country, putting the next generation on the line. Some ominous signs are already there for the concerned to respond with the required amount of fervor. JEL Classification Code: F64
Mohammad Jafaur Ahamed
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i1.506

Abstract:
The study attempts to make a comparison of financial strength between Square Pharmaceuticals Limited (SQPL) and Beximco Pharmaceuticals Limited (BXPL) by using the technique of DuPont analysis. Pharmaceuticals are selected here based on a purposive sampling method with the criteria of convenience in annual reports availability. The research is based on secondary data available in annual reports of FY 2018-19 of the selected companies. The study reveals that in comparison with BXPL, SQPL has been utilizing its owners’ funds more profitably, doing operational activities more efficiently, and earning enough returns for its owners. Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. applies aggressive debt-equity policy, which does not magnify its earnings due to the lack of its sufficient rate of returns in comparison with interest burden, lack of core operational efficiency, and underutilization of resources. At the same time, leverage helps the SQPL to fuel the growth of the business. There is a good thing that the two companies have almost the same amount of tax burden ratio, although EBIT is highly differing between the companies. The study suggests that to achieve a high RoE, Beximco Pharmaceuticals Company must reduce its interest expenses, utilize its full capacities, and increase its assets turnover. Besides, both the pharmaceuticals are suggested to focus on the inflation-adjusted financial items in its annual reports. The study has operated only on DuPont analysis. Thus further research is recommended to conduct focusing on others such as common-size analysis, comparative analysis, trend analysis, and ratio analysis, etc. to investigate the financial health of pharmaceutical companies.
Amimul Ehasan
Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 9, pp 25-38; https://doi.org/10.18034/gdeb.v9i1.276

Abstract:
The awareness of environmental degradation has been a long time coming to Bangladesh. In recent years, environmental issues in Bangladesh have received much attention, reflecting rising public concern and awareness of environmental problems. Pressure groups have been campaigning vigorously for the environment and media reporting on environmental issues has increased dramatically. It has also moved up on the agenda in political decision making and numerous laws and regulations were enacted for the protection of environment. Moreover, through the earth summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and its follow-up summits in Berlin in 1995 and in New York in 1997, environmentalists have set targets for international co-operation and action. The paper identifies the particular segments of green consumers and explores the problems and opportunities that the green marketing businesses have in Bangladesh. It also examines the present trends of green marketing in Bangladesh and describes the reason why companies should adopt it. Further, it deals with the future of green marketing and concludes by studying consumer perception regarding green products in Bangladesh and also the business firm’s perception analysis.
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