International Journal of Chemistry

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9698 / 1916-9701
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 546
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Jia-Min Jin
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n2p1

Abstract:
There are two contents of this article. The first is briefly to review the experiment research on the catalysis mechanism of Carbon Gasification Reaction-CGR(C+CO2=2CO) from 60s -90s. The results show that the catalytic phenomenon is physical phenomenon rather than chemical, and the catalyst does not participate in the chemical reaction. The catalytic activity and selectivity of catalyst are related to the electronegativity or energy level of the catalyst. The second is to clarify the applications of CGR for save mankind. The lime is first proposed to capture CO2 in flue gas of power plant. The lime can be recycled. The coal is used to convert CO2 from cement steel produce into CO, producing both energy and lime and iron. The capture CO2 is used to treat waste such as firewood and plastic, eliminate white pollution. The author considers that using the CGR which has been used for a long time can solve the three problems which people worry about: energy exhaustion, environmental pollution and climate crisis.
Lilik Miftahul Khoiroh, Asmaul Dwi Ayu Sholekah, Eny Yulianti
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n1p21

Abstract:
Hematite coated PEG was synthesized by the sonication-calcination method. A variation of Na2CO3 is investigated to know the effect on structure and morphology. Characterization of samples are using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, and color reader techniques. XRF data showed that iron is the highest element in the precursor. The X-ray diffraction data confirm that Fe(OH)3, α-FeOOH, and Fe3O4 established at the sonication stage are then transformed into the α-Fe2O3 phase after calcination. The X-ray diffraction data also was found that α-Fe2O3 at 0.5 M formed with the highest crystallinity degree. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the particle's shape is spherical, bar-shaped, and aggregate. However, the distribution of particles is not uniform and still displays agglomeration. The Color reader shows the highest degree of lightness obtained is at 1 M variation.
Takanori Fukami, Shuta Tahara
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n1p38

Abstract:
Copper(II) L-tartrate trihydrate, L-CuC4H4O6·3H2O, and copper(II) DL-tartrate dihydrate, DL-CuC4H4O6·2H2O, crystals were grown at room temperature by the gel method using silica gels as the growth medium. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on both crystals. The space group symmetries (monoclinic P21 and P21/c) and structural parameters of the crystals were determined at room temperature and at 114 K. Both structures consisted of slightly distorted CuO6 octahedra, C4H4O6 and H2O molecules, C4H4O6–Cu–C4H4O6 chains linked by Cu–O bonds, and O–H–O hydrogen-bonding frameworks between adjacent molecules. Weight losses due to thermal decomposition of the crystals were found to occur in the temperature range of 300–1250 K. We inferred that the weight losses were caused by the evaporation of bound water molecules and the evolution of H2CO, CO, and O2 gases from C4H4O6 molecules, and that the residual reddish-brown substance left in the vessels after decomposition was copper(I) oxide (Cu2O).
Anthony P. Udoh, Imeobong U. Udoekpo, Edu J. Inam
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n1p30

Abstract:
Mature fruits of Telfairia occidentalis were purchased from a local market in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The seeds were separated from the fleshy mesocarp, washed with water and sundried. The cotyledons were separated from the seed coat and then oven-dried at 105 – 110 °C for 24 hours. The dry seeds were blended into powder and the oil cold-extracted with n-hexane. The oil extracted was used to prepare copper, nickel and zinc soaps. The soaps were characterised using standard methods and then applied as additives in the production of body pomades. Several tests were performed on the control and the metallic soap pomades to establish the effectiveness of the metallic soaps in pomade production. All the prepared metallic soaps were sparingly soluble in kerosene and methanol and exhibited no foaming characteristics. The properties of the pomades imply that the metallic soaps of T. occidentalis have good potential in the cosmetics industry.
Nipitpon Srimai, Wasawat Kiatarkom, Hidetake Miyata
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n1p12

Abstract:
Hypo-magnetic fields (HMFs) are static magnetic fields that are significantly weaker than the geomagnetic field and are found in interplanetary space, on Mars, and the Moon. Understanding the mechanism of the biological effects of HMFs is an important topic in magnetobiology. Human physiology studies have shown that HMFs cause various adverse health effects such as increased blood pressure and blood flow rate. Previous studies on the effects of HMFs on cells revealed a variety of effects, such as a change in growth rate, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase in reactive oxygen species. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (DFm) may seriously impair cellular activity by interfering with the production of ATP. Thus, a deeper investigation of the effects of HMFs on mitochondrial function could provide clues to understanding the adverse effects of HMFs. In the present study, we used mouse macrophage RAW264 cells to investigate the effects of an HMF on mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-) production, and cell proliferation.
Marouane Amine, Fatima Asafar, Latifa Bilali, Mehdi Nadifiyine
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijc.v13n1p1

Abstract:
Phosphate is a very important natural resource in Morocco and one of the secondary resources of rare earth elements. Our study is particularly interested in Youssoufia phosphate, which contains 228.77 ppm of rare earth elements (ΣREEs). The purpose of our work is to study the influence of different parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature) in order to determine the optimal conditions for the leaching of rare earths. An experimental design (Doehlert matrix) has been drawn up to optimize the experimental conditions of the leaching. All tests were made with nitric acid at different concentrations varying between 1.5M and 4.5M with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/12 to 1/6; reaction temperature and duration are respectively 20°C to 80 °C and 60 min. The optimal conditions are obtained when using 69 °C as temperature, 4.1 M as acid concentration and 1/9 as solid/liquid ratio.
Albert John, , Shunichi Kurihara, Nobuyuki Endo, Satoru Kato, Katsumi Uchiyama
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijc.v12n2p45

Abstract:
International Journal of Chemistry wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated. Many authors, regardless of whether International Journal of Chemistry publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 2 Abdul Rouf Dar, University of Florida, USA Ahmad Galadima, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria Ahmet Ozan Gezerman, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, International Institute for Halal Research and Training, Malaysia Ayodele Temidayo Odularu, University of Fort Hare, South Africa Donatus Bekindaka Eni, University of Buea, Cameroon Elnaz Rostampour, Islamic Azad University, Iran Fatima Tuz Johra, Kookmin University, Bangladesh Hesham G. Ibrahim, Al-Mergheb University, Libya Hongbin Liu, University of Washington, USA Kevin C. Cannon, Penn State Abington, USA Khaldun M. Al Azzam, Batterjee Medical College for Sciences & Technology, Saudi Arabia Nanda Gunawardhana, Saga University, Japan Nanthaphong Khamthong, Rangsit University, Thailand Nejib Hussein Mekni, Al Manar University, Tunisia Rabia Rehman, University of the Punjab, Pakistan Rafael Gomes da Silveira, Federal Institute of Education, Brazil Sintayehu Leshe, Debre Markos University, Ethiopia Sitaram Acharya, Texas Christian University, USA Syed A. A. Rizvi, Hampton University, USA Tony Di Feo, Natural Resources Canada, Canada Vinícius Silva Pinto, Instituto Federal Goiano, Brazil Albert John On behalf of, The Editorial Board of International Journal of Chemistry Canadian Center of Science and Education
Albert John
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijc.v12n2p54

Abstract:
International Journal of Chemistry wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated. Many authors, regardless of whether International Journal of Chemistry publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 2 Abdul Rouf Dar, University of Florida, USA Ahmad Galadima, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria Ahmet Ozan Gezerman, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, International Institute for Halal Research and Training, Malaysia Ayodele Temidayo Odularu, University of Fort Hare, South Africa Donatus Bekindaka Eni, University of Buea, Cameroon Elnaz Rostampour, Islamic Azad University, Iran Fatima Tuz Johra, Kookmin University, Bangladesh Hesham G. Ibrahim, Al-Mergheb University, Libya Hongbin Liu, University of Washington, USA Kevin C. Cannon, Penn State Abington, USA Khaldun M. Al Azzam, Batterjee Medical College for Sciences & Technology, Saudi Arabia Nanda Gunawardhana, Saga University, Japan Nanthaphong Khamthong, Rangsit University, Thailand Nejib Hussein Mekni, Al Manar University, Tunisia Rabia Rehman, University of the Punjab, Pakistan Rafael Gomes da Silveira, Federal Institute of Education, Brazil Sintayehu Leshe, Debre Markos University, Ethiopia Sitaram Acharya, Texas Christian University, USA Syed A. A. Rizvi, Hampton University, USA Tony Di Feo, Natural Resources Canada, Canada Vinícius Silva Pinto, Instituto Federal Goiano, Brazil Albert John On behalf of, The Editorial Board of International Journal of Chemistry Canadian Center of Science and Education
Sintayehu Leshe, Habitamu Baye
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijc.v12n2p35

Abstract:
The use of Acanthus pubescens flower extracts as natural eco-friendly substitutes for synthetic acid - base indicators is experimentally confirmed. In this study, it is indicated that ethanolic and acidified ethanol extracts of Acanthus pubescens flower are good replacements to phenolphthalein, bromothymol blue and methyl red in acid-base titrations involving a strong acid versus strong base and a strong acid versus weak base. They can also be used as effective substitutes to phenolphthalein in a weak acid versus strong base titrations. And also the acidified ethanol extracts can be used in place of phenolphthalein and bromothymol blue while the ethanol extracts can replace methyl red in weak acid versus weak base titrations. It is also concluded that the use of Acanthus pubescens flower extract as an indicator in all types of acid base titrations is beneficial because of its economy, eco-friendly nature, ease of preparation, availability, simplicity, non-carcinogenicity, precision and accuracy of results.
Adango Miadonye, Mumuni Amadu
International Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijc.v12n2p19

Abstract:
Geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is regarded as a technically and economically viable strategy for mitigating carbon dioxide induced climate warming. Central to geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is the water rock interaction, which has a direct bearing on pH induced wettability evolution in saline aquifers. Consequently, understanding contact angle trend versus injected gas pressure is useful, considering its relationship to pH evolution in formation brine due to dissolved gas at prevailing temperatures and salinities. Several research works have published experimental data on contact angle versus pressure pertaining to geological conditions of anthropogenic carbon storage. In the present study, we have used thermodynamic theories relating to a surface charge model, contact angle and the classical Nernst equation to derive a logarithmic pH dependent contact angle equation. Considering the relationship between carbon dioxide solubility and pressure for a given temperature and salinity as well as the link between pH and the extent of solubility, we have plotted calculated contact angles versus corresponding pressures. Results of the plots obtained compare well with literature values. Therefore, given the lack of theoretical approach regarding contact angle versus pressure, our research work fills the knowledge gap considering the novelty in the derivation of the pH dependent contact angle equation.
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