Multidisciplinary Science Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 2675-1240 / 2675-1240
Total articles ≅ 47
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Stanly Fon Tebug, Wilfred Angie Abia, Thomas Tumassang Tebug, Gabriel Teno, Mohamed Mouliom Moctar Mouiche
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022012

Abstract:
The presence of veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods (ADF) remains a public health concern in low-income countries such as Cameroon. This paper provides an overview of the current status of antimicrobial (AM) residues in ADF, veterinary legislation on the use of AM and perception of risk factors with emphasis on the need for sustainable management in Cameroon from a one health perspective. Results show that a wide range of antimicrobials is used in the country with little or no attention to good veterinary practices. Residues of commonly used AM agents including those banned for use in food animal production in high-income countries were reported. The current legislation on the use of veterinary drugs is weak and does not make provision for key concepts such as Maximum Residue Limit. Veterinarians argue that the lack of disease diagnostic facilities and excessive use of AM has led to the presence of residues in ADFs. The government and relevant agencies need to enforce regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. Further, awareness creation through educational campaigns for users and consumers as well as the implementation of measures to restrict prescription and dispensation of AM agents to recognised veterinarians are necessary. More studies on AM residues in ADFs are needed to support veterinary drug surveillance policies. This paper strongly suggests collaboration between food safety experts, animal and human health professionals as well as policymakers to help implement good surveillance of antimicrobial use and to safeguard potent AM suitable for disease control for forthcoming generations.
Messias Luís Cipriano Uarreno
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022010

Abstract:
The Mozambican Government adopted Distance Education in order to offer study opportunities to populations living far from large urban centres and who could not reach traditional face-to-face teaching. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the contribution of online education, adopted by Higher Institute of Education and Science during a period in which the lack of access to higher education promoted an upsurge of national inequality and the development of distance education was focused on a blended perspective. The research was designed with Mixed method, using the case study method, based on three sources (observation, interviews and documents). We used SPSS 21 (IBM) Amonk, New York, USA and Excel (Microsoft) Washington DC, USA for statistical analysis. In terms of results, it can be seen that the online modality, allows many Mozambicans to have access to higher education in Mozambique through the Virtual Learning Environment
Kefale Getahun
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31893/multiscience.2022013

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the breed additive, heterosis and recombination genetic effects on indigenous Borena and its crosses with Holstien Friesian dairy cows at Holetta dairy research farm. Overall, 19,454 pure Borena and crossbred dairy cattle performance records were used for the study. Crossbreeding parameter analysis on milk production and reproductive traits were applied for estimation. The regression analysis of SAS (2004) software was used to estimate the crossbreeding parameters (breed additive, heterosis and recombination losses). Results of this analysis revealed that additive effects were larger than heterosis effect for all milk production and reproductive traits. The breed additive genetic effects of Holstein Friesian breed relative to local Borena breed were 2674 kg, 7.1 kg and 142 days for lactation milk yield (LMY), daily milk yield (DMY) and lactation length (LL) traits, respectively. Similarly, the direct heterosis effects of crossbred dairy cows for LMY and DMY were 423kg and 1.25kg, respectively. Crossbreeding did not always positive effects on milk production traits. In the present study, 1902.3 ± 200kg of LMY, 4.2 ± 0.5kg of DMY and 91 ± 20.8 days of LL were lost due unfavorable epistatic allele’s interaction (recombination loss). The breed additive genetic effects of Holstein Friesian as deviated from Borena breed for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), days open (DO) and number of service per conception (NSC) were 373.9 ± 114.8 days, 337.1 ± 112.6 days, 105.7 ± 54.2 days, 98.5 ± 54.2 days and 0.05 ± 0.4 days, respectively. The heterosis retention of crossbred dairy cows for AFS, AFC, DO, and NSC in the present study were -117.6 ± 61.3 days, -207.9 ± 59.8 days, -4.9 ± 27.6 days and -0.2 ± 0.2 days, respectively. However, Friesian with Borena crosses were about 129.2 ± 97 days and 70.5 ± 95.2 days delayed AFS and AFC due to the recombination losses. This study recommended that improvement of management level (feed, health, etc.), and selection on Borena and their crosses should be implemented to favor the genetic base of crossbreeding parameters (additive and non-additive genetic effects.
Dimas Maranhão de Lima, Juliana Ribeiro de Albuquerque, Maria Adélia Borstelmann de Oliveira
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022009

Abstract:
In the 1980s, squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) apprehended during an operation to combat animal trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, were released into the Atlantic Forest of the Reserva Biológica de Saltinho (REBio Saltinho). As this is an exotic species, which is rapidly disseminated throughout the area, it is necessary to understand the perceptions and attitudes of the reserve residents, workers, and visitors in order to identify potential interactions, conflicts and social factors that may influence the relationship between people and monkeys. Thus, between April and October 2019, three human groups answered semi-structured questionnaires about their perceptions of the squirrel monkey and their attitudes towards primates. Altogether, 70 people were interviewed, of which 94.3% claimed to know of the squirrel monkey. While residents of the surrounding areas of REBio Saltinho described the squirrel monkey using mainly morphological and behavioral characteristics (65%), workers and visitors related their descriptions to the fact that these animals are invasive in 46% and 40% of responses, respectively. Most respondents (80%) were not bothered by the presence of these monkeys, and 86% denied interacting with the animal, while the remaining 14% admitted to trying to interact with the monkeys in some way, usually through offering food. This research will contribute to the improvement and promotion of the actions of environmental management by REBio Saltinho.
José André Melo Barreto Guimarães, Jéssika Cristina de Lima, Gabriel Soares de Souza, Natália Ferreira Barreto Guimarães, Pedro Ferreira Barreto Guimarães, Marcos Cesar Feitosa de Paula Machado, Pauliana Valéria Machado Galvão
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022008

Abstract:
O processo de envelhecimento da população brasileira tem culminado em uma necessidade de reconhecer a existência de uma epidemia ortopédica. Este fenômeno consiste em um aumento no número de fraturas em idosos, em especial as transtrocantéricas. O estudo objetivou avaliar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes idosos submetidos à osteossíntese de fraturas transtrocantéricas em hospital de média complexidade, visto que esta condição eleva os custos governamentais com internações, cirurgias e reabilitações, representando um grande problema social e econômico, fazendo-se necessário melhor investigação desse fenômeno. Trata-se de um estudo transversal e descritivo com dados de prontuários de idosos acometidos por estas fraturas entre 2016 e 2018. A análise foi realizada no programa R versão 3.4.3. Participaram do estudo 236 pacientes, com média de idade de 82 ± 8,31 anos, com predomínio mulheres, viúvos e hipertensos. A média de duração do internamento foi de 3 ± 8.31 dias, com custo médio de R$ 1.812,00. As fraturas mais encontradas foram 31A2.3 (classificação AO) e III variante (classificação Tronzo). A transfusão sanguínea pré-operatória foi necessária em 43,64% dos casos. Conclui-se que o perfil dos pacientes idosos atendidos neste estudo devido à fratura transtrocantérica apresenta o padrão já reconhecido de vitimização maior de mulheres, sem companheiro e com comorbidades que comprometem o equilíbrio, tais como a hipertensão.
Maria Aventina Macia Matusse, Venancio Merique Nhavoto
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022007

Abstract:
Smoking is one of the fish conservation techniques used by some artisanal fishing communities. Horse mackerel is a fish widely traded and consumed in Mozambique. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on the microbiological quality of horse mackerel sold in district Desse in Vilankulos. Twelve samples were collected and analyzed for following microbiological parameters (total viable microorganisms, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcosaureus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The total viable microorganisms were quantified by the NMKL method and the total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified by the MPN method. Statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS program, and data were submitted to the normality test using the Shapiro-Wilk test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed the existence of significant differences in the amount of aerobic microorganisms between frozen horse mackerel (3.59 ± 0.87 CFU/g) and smoked horse mackerel (2.39 ± 0.88 CFU/g), total coliforms (0.22 ± 0.53 CFU/g), and (0.06 ± 0.19 CFU/g), respectively, and thermotolerant coliforms (0.12 ± 0.25 CFU/g) and (0.06 ± 0.19 CFU/g), respectively. Smoked horse mackerel had less contamination compared to the frozen fish. There was no significant growth of other microorganisms analyzed.
Tahir Iqbal, Adnan Yousaf, Naila BiBi, Lookesh Kumar, Saif- Ul- Rehman, Sambreena Tunio, Muhammad Mubashir Farooq, Abdullah Channo, Abdul Wakeel, Zainab Lanjar, et al.
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022005

Abstract:
Ultrasonographic and morpho-biometry of the ovaries and follicles of cyclic and non-cyclic Kundhi buffaloes was studied. The buffalos were measured for their left and right ovaries using ultrasonographic and morpho-biometry of the ovaries. The age of non-cyclic buffaloes was 10 ± 2.0 years, and cyclic buffaloes was 8.33 ± 1.87 years; body weight of non-cyclic Kundhi Buffaloes was 377.14 ± 52.19 kg and cyclic buffaloes was 380.77 ± 89.69 kg; the body condition score of non-cyclic buffaloes was 3.78 ± 0.395 and cyclic buffaloes was 4.25 ± 0.43. Statistically, the differences for age and body condition score were significant (P0.05) for body weight. The ultrasonographical biometry in the length of the left and right ovaries in Kundhi buffalo was 28.68 ± 4.80 and 31.44 ± 6.29 mm, 12.62 ± 2.20 and 12.61±2.51 mm in width, 5.81 ± 1.11 and 5.94 ± 1.66 mm in thickness, 64.28 ± 10.40 and 71.73 ± 11.33 mm in circumference, and 2.61 ± 0.76 and 3.08 ± 0.75 cm2 in volume, respectively. The differences in the length of the left and right ovaries, circumference, and volume were significant (P0.05) for width and thickness. The morpho-biometry results indicated that the length of the left and right ovaries was 28.88 ± 5.30 and 30.31 ± 6.61 mm, 14.00 ± 1.83 and 14.00 ± 2.10 mm in width, 6.94 ± 1.12 and 7.06 ± 1.65 mm in thickness, 65.00 ± 7.75 and 68.44 ± 9.44 mm in circumference, and 5.88 ± 2.00 and 5.44 ± 1.63 gm in weight, respectively. The differences in the length, circumference, and weight of left and right ovaries were significant (P0.05) for width and thickness of ovaries. The number of primary follicles on left and right ovaries was 1.00 ± 0.97 and 1.31 ± 1.08, secondary was 3.31 ± 2.85 and 3.63 ± 3.01, tertiary was 6.38 ± 1.59 and 6.81 ± 2.34, circumference of follicle on the left and right ovaries was 17.58 ± 5.52 and 16.69 ± 4.20 mm, and volume of the follicle 0.24 ± 0.14 and 0.21 ± 0.10 cm2. The differences in primary follicles, circumference of the follicle on the right and left ovaries were significant (P0.05) for secondary, tertiary, and volume of follicles on left and right ovaries.  The length ovaries in cyclic and non-cyclic Kundhi buffalo was 30.22 ± 6.85 and 29.89 ± 4.43 mm, ovaries 12.65 ± 1.68 and 12.57 ± 2.57 mm in width, 6.58 ± 1.61 and 5.58 ± 1.11 mm in thickness, 70.63 ± 13.06 and 65.38 ± 8.97 mm in circumference, 2.96 ± 0.79 and 2.72 ± 0.76 cm2 in volume, 6.00 ± 2.06 and 5.31 ± 1.49 gm in weight, respectively. The number of primary follicles on ovaries of cyclic and non-cyclic Kundhi buffaloes was 2.31 ± 1.08 and 0, number of secondary was 5.25 ± 1.77 and 0, number of tertiary was 7.31 ± 1.69 and 3.06 ± 1.30, 17.88 ± 4.93 and 12.30 ± 3.46 mm in circumference, and 0.25 ± 0.13 and 0.10 ± 0.08 cm2 in volume, respectively. The differences in thickness, circumference (O), weight, number of primary, secondary, tertiary, circumference (F). and volume (F) of follicles of cyclic and non-cyclic Kundhi buffaloes were significant (P0.05) for length and width of follicles of cyclic and non-cyclic buffaloes.
Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura, Douglas Rodrigues Marinho, Bruna Marquezini de Matos
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022006

Abstract:
O arco zigomático configura um dos pilares horizontais maxilofaciais e fraturas nessa região são relativamente frequentes dentre as lesões decorrentes de traumas faciais. Podem causar uma série de sequelas, principalmente a limitação mecanica na abertura bucal, e por isso, há indicação de redução cirurgica quando o deslocamento dos fragmentos ósseos interfere na função oral ou estética. As reduções podem ser cruentas seguidas de osteossíntese com placas e parafusos, ou mesmo, através de procedimentos incruentos, menos invasivos e sem necessidade de osteossíntese. Entretanto, o princípio da autonomia deve prevalecer desde que todas as informações sejam devidamente repassadas ao paciente. Objetivou-se relatar um caso de redução por acesso intraoral sem osteossíntese em paciente com fratura de arco zigomático. O procedimentimento foi realizado sob anestesia geral, após o paciente ser informado das possíveis sequelas e complicações caso rejeitasse o tratamento proposto. Atraves do acesso intraoral de Keen foi realizada a redução das fraturas sem intercorrencias e o paciente orientado aos devidos cuidados. Após 30 dias de pós cirurgico paciente apresentou-se recuperado, exercendo as atividades sociais e laborais sem sequelas funcionais ou estéticas. Conclui-se que a técnica de redução sem osteossíntese em fratura de arco zigomático por acesso intraoral, quando indicada, é eficiente e de baixa morbidade.
Ana Paula Conrado Dulz, André Luiz Veiga Conrado, Luciana Saraiva
Multidisciplinary Science Journal, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022004

Abstract:
Este estudo propôs-se em avaliar o cumprimento de metas de produtividade mensais na especialidade de periodontia nos Centros de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEOs) existentes no município de São Paulo, SP, entre 2008 e 2016. O levantamento utilizou dados da produção de procedimentos odontológicos registrados pelo Sistema de Informação Ambulatorial do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIA/SUS). Foram avaliadas as metas de produtividade mensais para a periodontia para os CEOs tipo I (60 procedimentos/mês), tipo II (90 procedimentos/mês) e tipo III (150 procedimentos/mês). Os procedimentos avaliados foram: raspagem coronorradicular, enxerto gengival, gengivectomia, gengivoplastia e tratamento cirúrgico periodontal. Foram avaliados os dados de produtividade de nove CEOs, sendo um do tipo I, seis do tipo II e dois do tipo III. O CEO I ultrapassou a meta em todos os anos avaliados, com os CEOs II e II não atingindo a meta pontualmente. Os procedimentos clínicos foram os mais realizados nos CEOs. Porém, o baixo número de procedimentos cirúrgicos e enxertos gengivais contribuíram para que CEOs tipos II e III não alcançassem as metas de produtividade no período entre 2008 e 2016. A meta estabelecida para os CEOs avaliados foi cumprida pelo CEO I, majoritariamente pelos CEOs II e parcialmente pelos CEOs III. A avaliação dos CEOs otimiza a relação entre a oferta e a taxa de utilização dos serviços a fim de se melhorar a qualidade e a distribuição da atenção secundária.
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