European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2684-446X
Current Publisher: European Open Science Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 72
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Adem Bilgin, Günay Erpul
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 29-40; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.141

Abstract:
Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) on the planet, daily processing billions of tons of wastewater and producing masses of sludge accordingly, act like artificial biogeochemical cycles themselves by producing material flow and creating microbial life cycles that normally do not exist in nature, a case with unknown cumulative long-term effects on the planet and human organisms. This study identifies WWTPs as a general Earth system problem with sub-problems to be challenged by new engineering techniques with an integrated natural science perspective. In order to challenge these problems, first the overall ecological role of WWTPs is clarified. Second a literature review (a) on the contents of the end products of wastewater engineering (b) on the effects of utilization of sewage sludge as fertilizer (c) on the utilization of sewage sludge as cement and construction material is provided. Current legal and practical situation in Turkey and EU is very briefly compared. Then, the design of the circular economic eco-bog system, which is a conceptual model of a new technology both to challenge these problems as much as possible and to act as an integrated industrial production system, is introduced. The new system is based on an innovative algaculture and ecomimicry of the evolution of wetland ecosystems from lake to terrestrial ecosystems. Algaculture and artificial bog components of the system use desulphurised fuel gases from both biogas component of the system and also concrete production component of the system. Desulphurization is to avoid H2S production in eco-bog unlike the natural bog ecosystems, and produce sulphurous fertilizers, and produce bog ecosystem services. Since, the fuel gas utilization from the biogas produced by archaebacteria is already net carbon zero, all system makes negative emission, namely sequestration. The CO2 to be released is fixed as biocarbon in algae in agriculture component, and then as organic and inorganic carbon after the sedimentation during accelerated evolution of eco-bog by creating hypoxia, acidification, and eutrophication conditions in artificial lake ecosystem. This sedimentation is mixed with sewage sludge ash for production of cement to have a higher quality concrete. Microbial biofertilizer and organic fertilizers are also produced from the algaculture component of the system, and industrial lichen from bog ecosystem. The system is inspired from lake death mechanisms of the nature, rather than lake health mechanisms in order to capture carbon and nitrogen in lithosphere and biosphere rather than releasing them to atmosphere as fuel gases, imitating natural bogs which are important carbon reservoirs. Finally, a new theorization of the issue is postulated as a way forward to reach SDGs, circular economy and bioeconomy targets of EU Green Deal as well as targets of RIO Conventions and Paris Agreement, not based on water quality arguments but based on mass and energy arguments, as well as arguments for ecologic health and preventive medical treatment for public health, and arguments for integrated industrial production in a holistic manner.
H. Badamasi, U. F. Hassan, H. M. Adamu, N. M. Baba
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 23-28; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.140

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metals pollution status of the groundwater of Riruwai mining area, Kano State, Nigeria. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected from five sampling locations which include: underground mining site (RGWI), tap water, (RGW2), surface mining ponds (RGW3), borehole (RGW4) and the well water samples (RGW5) during the dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) and some physical parameters (pH, EC, and TDS) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and Deluxe Water and Soil Analysis Kit respectively. The results of the analysis revealed that pH, EC and TDS were within the desirable limits recommended by WHO and NSDWQ in all sampling locations except in RGW1 and RGW3 for both seasons. The concentrations of heavy metals ranged as follow: As (ND to 0.15), Cd (ND to 0.1), Cr (ND to 0.25), Hg (ND to 0.09), Mn (0.12 to 0.66), Pb (0.003 to 0.06) and Zn (2.29 to 11.75), and As (0.005 to 020), Cd (0.001 to 0.15), Cr (0.001 to 0.17), Hg (ND to 0.14), Mn (0.16 to 0.92), Pb (0.007 to 0.09) and Zn (2.85 to 14.05) during the dry and rainy seasons respectively. The heavy metals concentrations changed along with the sampling sites in decreasing order of RGW1 > RGW2 > RGW3 > RGW4 > RGW5 in both seasons. The concentrations of all heavy metals were above the desirable limits recommended by WHO and NSDWQ during both seasons except well water samples (RGW5) and some few locations where the heavy metals were not detected. Therefore, it is recommended that water resources of the Riruwai mining area should be monitored closely, and more efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals concentrations level, particularly As, Cd, Cr and Zn.
B. Theilen-Willige
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 7-14; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.137

Abstract:
The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ashanti, Ghana is one of the most thoroughly investigated impact structures in Africa. Nevertheless, by the evaluations of Sentinel 1 and 2, and Landsat data as well as by ALOS PALSAR, ASTER and SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data further geomorphological and structural knowledge can be derived. Morphometric maps were used to visualize the concentric and radial drainage and valley pattern surrounding the impact crater. The larger valleys are arranged in a nearly concentric and radial pattern like the river Pra and its tributaries, the Ofin, Anum and Brim river, tracing the outer, southern border of the impact affected area. From the ASTER and SRTM DEM data the morphological drainage basin was calculated. The drainage basin-outline is nearly circular, discharging into the Pra river in the southern part. Structural evaluations of satellite radar and optical data reveal that linear and circum-linear features can be detected more than 80 km around the Bosumtwi impact crater. Small-scale/artisanal mining activities in this area are visible on satellite images and, thus, indirectly tracing ore deposits. As detailed mineral maps are not publicly available, the position and distributions of mining areas was used as indicator for the occurrence of mineral deposits, especially placer deposits. Their occurrence and the distribution of the mining areas follows the larger rivers. Weathering processes along the deformation pattern and erosion and sedimentation probably had an influence on placer deposit development.
Gbadebo Omoniyi Adeniyi, Olusegun Ismail Lawal, Samuel Okemute Egwenu, Jacob Ademola Sonibare, Funso Alaba Akeredolu
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 15-22; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.136

Abstract:
This study investigated the air pollutants in the ambient air of a typical intercity highway in Nigeria. This was to assess the effect of vehicular emission on air quality along the highway. The results showed that NOX concentrations ranged from 9.9±3.2 to 33.8±3.3 µg/m3 during the wet season and 19.0±1.2 to 35.4±2.3 µg/m3 during the dry season. Sulfur dioxide measured along this highway ranged from 49.7±38.1 to 219±18.1 µg/m3 during the wet season while dry season concentration ranged from 89.1±20.9 to 225.4±57.9 µg/m3. The TSP during the wet season ranged from 54.4±25.6 to 126.8±25.6 µg/m3. These values were below the limits of 250 mg/m3 set by FMEnv., and 150-230 mg/m3 by WHO. However, the TSP measured during the dry season ranged from 85.9±44.6 to 277.8±213.5 µg/m3. The average correlations between NOX, SO2, and TSP measured during wet and dry seasons and the traffic density were 0.7, 0.6 and 0.7, respectively. Air pollution along the Nigerian highway is highly linked to vehicular activities.
Rahul Hampaul, Bhaskar Sen Gupta
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.3.135

Abstract:
Global population growth and climate change are adding pressure on conventional water sources to meet the rising demand. Reliance on unconventional water sources utilizing desalination technologies is increasing to ensure water security. A major economic and environmental challenge in the sustainable adoption of desalination is the hypersaline concentrate that is generated as a byproduct. Brine quantification estimation process and disposal strategies along with the associated costs are provided. Brine re-use for biomass production offers a promising solution to help mitigate the environmental and economic challenges related to brine disposal. Soil salinization is a key issue with the land application of brine impacting its sustainability and applicability in the long run. The paper proposes a methodology for multi-stage biomass production using desalination brine. Added advantage of the proposed methodology is the potential to manage soil salinization, adopt sustainable agricultural practices such as crop rotation and enhancing biodiversity through inclusion of marshlands and wetlands as part of the brine disposal strategy. The paper also proposes an experimental setup for lab scale experimentation and identifies research priorities and provides recommendations for further evaluation.
Oyeleke Oluwaseun Oyerinde
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 19-23; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.2.122

Abstract:
Energy plays an important role in the economic growth, development and security of any nation. Despite having abundant supply of both renewable and nonrenewable energy resources, Nigeria still experiences acute shortage of energy supply to its populace. Currently, the country depends largely on its fossil fuels derived from the Niger Delta region with attendant negative environmental impacts in the area. It is advocated that a switch to renewable sources will eradicate or at least ameliorate some of the environmental challenges. This study attempts to gauge the feasibility and potential of renewable energy (RE) to become a substitute or at the minimum a significant complement to fossil fuels in Nigeria with focus on Niger Delta. As such, attempt is made to assess the current degree of penetration of RE by measuring the level of awareness and utilization as well as identifying factors affecting utilization in the region using Warri metropolis as a case study. 232 survey questionnaires was deployed in the four local government areas - Okpe, Udu, Uvwie and Ughelli-North - that makes up the metropolis across households, commercial ventures and industries with 180 retrieved. Results show that awareness is highest among households at 66% and lowest for commercial ventures and industry at 30%. Utilization was generally low at 23% across households while none of the commercial ventures and industries sampled utilizes RE with most citing cost of installation and maintenance viz a viz their power requirement as a major factor. ANOVA shows there is no significant difference in behavior across locations while chi square test affirms that RE utilization is a function of awareness. Outcome points to need for greater awareness campaign and cost reduction of RE technologies.
Jorge Rodríguez Campos, Mario Fernandez Arce
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 30-34; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.2.127

Abstract:
The hazards from the canton La Unión were identified, analyzed, and described. A value ranging from 0 to 1 was assigned to each threat in the Minimum Geostatistical Units (MGU), to estimate the dangers density in the study area. This article shows the spatial distribution of such index. The manifestation of several natural and anthropic events forces to investigate and understand such processes, in order to improve Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in the Canton and provide inputs to the Local Government to carry out such work. The investigation required a bibliographic review to know the impact of past incidents, field surveys to determine the spatial extent of the threats, and the calculation of a hazard’s density index. According to the results, earthquakes are the main danger in La Union and the Center, South and West of the canton are the areas with the highest hazards density.
Iyenoma ThankGod Osazee, Bhaskar Sen Gupta
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 8-14; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.2.117

Abstract:
Landfill is a popular method of waste disposal in many countries due to its relatively low of costs of operation. The offensive aspect of the method is improper removal or disposal of the waste, which has resulted in avoidable sicknesses, diseases and preventable deaths. Carbon dioxide and methane are the two main gases emitted from landfill sites; municipal solid waste issue accounts for almost 5% of total greenhouse gas emissions and methane from landfills accounts for 12% of the total quantity of global methane emissions. Landfills can be put to sustainable use by employing it to produce energy from waste whenever is feasible and it has the capacity to generate revenue. Furthermore, many advanced waste treatment technologies have been developed which received commendable attention in developed countries and are evolving in developing countries. Landfill gas-to-energy is viable economically and for control of methane emissions and effective management of time, costs and quality with minimum risks to humans and the environment.
Elijah Chibuzo Ugwu, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Adeloye Adebayo, Nadia Martínez-Villegas
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-7; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.2.63

Abstract:
Environmental contamination caused by high contents of toxic metals in the soil is a global concern. Soil washing using chelating agents and saponin can enhance metal removal from contaminated soils through the formation of soluble metal complexes, mobilization, and extraction with the washing solutions. Column experiments were conducted in this study to assess the feasibility of using a chelate (EDTA), a saponin (soapnut) and microbial (rhamnolipid) cleaning agents to enhance the removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from sandy loam contaminated soils. The cumulative removal of Cd after 10 pore volumes were 74.05 for EDTA, 63.08 for rhamnolipids, and 69.07 for soapnut. The cumulative removals of Cu after washing with 10 pore volumes were 64.72% for soapnut, 61.58% for rhamnolipids and 61.95% for EDTA. Also, the cumulative removals of Pb were 62% for soapnut, 59.65% for rhamnolipids and 59.95% for EDTA after washing with 10 pore volumes. The cumulative removals of Zn after washing with 10 pore volumes were 68.54% for soapnut, 62.65% for rhamnolipids and 66.08% for EDTA. The performance of these experiments demonstrates that the application of these cleaning agents in in-situ soil remediation can be effective alternative to ex-situ remediation.
Besime Sh. Kajtazi, Tania Floqi
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 35-38; doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.2.132

Abstract:
Wastewater treatment is a growing problem in Kosovo. Pollution from urban wastewaters poses the greatest pressure on Kosovo rivers and their better management represents an important area of improving their ecological status. Kosovo is lacking behind in terms of achieving certain goals and implementing European Environmental Directives, especially the Water Framework Directive and Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive. The lack of wastewater treatment prior to their discharges into receiving waters presents a gap in the water sector which needs to be addressed in order to meet European standards. Kosovo, as a country with a European perspective, must approach this issue as soon as possible. According to the reports of water utilities companies, the level of sewerage services in the country is 65% while the level of wastewater treatment is 0.7% [3]. The National Water Strategy [1] aims at protecting water resources through treating wastewater before returning to the nature. According to this strategy, a number of wastewater treatment plants and accompanying infrastructure for main cities should be build. River Sitnica is main river stretching in Kosovo valley, where main urban areas are located including capital Prishtina. With aim of protection the quality of river Sitnica, a study for collection of sewage and wastewater treatment plant for capital Prishtina was prepared and its findings will be presented in this article.
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