European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences

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EISSN : 2684-446X
Published by: Europa Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 86
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Tumiar K. Manik, Paul B. Timotiwu, Onny Chrisna P. Pradana
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.159

Abstract:
Agricultural are significant sources of N2O emission. Lampung, Indonesia is an area dominated by agriculture including crops that emit N2O on their cultivation practices especially the fertilizers: paddy and vegetables. Last census in 2015 recorded that paddy fields were 1.321.120 ha and vegetables 99,284 ha with fertilizers recommendations were 200 kg/ha urea (without organic materials) and 150 kg/ha urea (if added with 2 tons/ha manure). This study aimed to estimate and predict N2O emissions based on the paddy field area using IPCC 2006 model. The IPCC model was applied to the paddy field data 1993 to 2012 from the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture to estimate the N2O emission and then using Box Jenkins model to predict the emission for following years. The results showed that the prediction of N2O emission on the following years would be in the range of 0.282- 0.451Gg/year using only synthetic fertilizer and if added with organic fertilizers would be 5,846-9,359 Gg/year. These results were lower compared to some countries; however, this result was not implied that fertilizer recommendations in Lampung were safe since the results came from default numbers of the model. More researches should be conducted that local emission factors would be available that fertilizer recommendation could be evaluated.
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 35-36; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.153

Abstract:
Recently, in real-time the Disturbance storm time (Dst) indices observing by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) was performable using so-called Goes-Magnetometer. Dst index is a geomagnetic index, which is the L1 data with the lead time, to detect geomagnetic storms with the lead time. Geomagnetic storms affected human activity and caused economic losses. Therefore, Dst index is a very important index. The past recorded contributions of corresponding Satellites were introduced. Now, in real-time Dst indices observing by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16) (Goes-Magnetometer) was performed. However, the Dst index was not the issue in this study.
Giribabu Dandabathula, Srinivasa Rao Sitiraju, Chandra Shekhar Jha
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 75-86; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.170

Abstract:
On 7th February 2021 just before noon, news reports came in regarding a flash flood in Rishi Ganga/Dhauli Ganga River in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state, India. This brief report puts forth the probable causes for this flash flood that has originated in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve using geospatial datasets and techniques. Datasets obtained from MODIS, Sentinel-2B, SRTM, ICESat-2 and ERA5 have been effectively utilized to infer the details about this event. Slow drizzle to severe snowfall has been witnessed during 3rd to 6th February 2021 in various parts of the Himalayan region; even the Rishi Ganga witnessed a heavy snowfall during this time. Data acquired on 10th February shows a scar developed due to a landslide on the shoulder of Ronti Mountain that was situated on the western rim of the Nanda Devi sanctuary. There was a gradual rise in temperature on 7th February 2021 at the surroundings of Ronti Mountain that consequently led to a landslide. The landslide perpetuated a movement under the influence of gravity from ~5900 m to ~3900 m with a mass envelope of ~0.290 km² and a velocity of 198 m/s that may have taken ~20 seconds to hit the Ronti bank. Due to the virtue of heat energy generated during this process resulted in contributing huge moraine filled flood water, that has accelerated towards the downstream of Rishi Ganga River and there after Dhauli Ganga River. Elevation profiles from the ICESat-2 and satellite imageries confirm the pre-existing conditions of landslide that is inclusive of weathering and erosion that led to the unstable condition at transportation back-slope of the Ronti Mountain. The triggering factors that influenced this landslide event and related causes were investigated in this study and reported herewith.
Iyenoma ThankGod Osazee
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.165

Abstract:
Landfill is as old as mankind, and it is the most common and popular waste disposal globally; it is very likely to be the mostly used method for some time to come despite efforts to recycle and re-use waste materials. However, in many respects landfilling has been highly criticised by stakeholders and regarded as the opposite of sustainability because of the health hazard and environmental burden it constitutes. The efficiency of landfilling rests on technical, economic, and legal framework which seems to be inadequate in many countries. The essence of sustainable landfill is to ensure that the environmental parameters e.g., methane, leachate, etc. are reduced to acceptable risk level (inert waste) in order to prevent damage to humans and the environment. Many European countries in compliance with 2008/98/EC along with 94/62/EC Directive have been able to reduce heavy reliance on the landfill; however, this has raised the use of other waste management methods e.g., Sweden share of landfill disposal is 1% (Table I) this increases dependent on other methods of waste disposal e.g., incineration, 49%, waste treated biologically, 14% in 2011. Nevertheless, landfilling will still be required to dispose of waste which cannot be recycled or treated in other ways.
Arban Berisha
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 11-14; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.149

Abstract:
River Sitnica is one of the large rivers of Kosovo, which makes problems through its river basin, such as frequent floods and pollution. Especially if we add impact of climate change, then problems get worse. Among all, there is a lack of continuous hydrometrical observation. Those existing data are not complete, and not so confident. So, before any estimation of water regime, flow trends and identification of climate change, there is first to analyze flow data, to complete them with the known statistical methods. In this case, this problem has been solved by method of correlation with neighbourhood well-observed data. Just after data validation, there has been analyzed and shown its water regime, estimated flow trend, and is given correlation of temperatures, precipitations and flows for main gauging station. Correlation of these basic parameters has been extended for 21 years, where can be seen strong increasement of precipitation, certain increasement of temperatures and flows, as well as strong extremization of these parameters. At the end is given impact of convection rainfall, due to intensiv urbanization. These results should alarm competent authorities, on preventive action, to soft consequences, in next two decades.
Jatish Chandra Biswas, Mozammel Haque, Maniruzzaman, Naveen Kalra
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 26-34; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.133

Abstract:
Marine and coastal pollution is a global issue for human health and biodiversity. We have investigated pollution sources, flow patterns, hotspots, challenges, and adaptation policies in Bangladesh. Industries, ship breaking yards, sewage, tourism, and transboundary depositions are the main sources of pollutions. The Ganges, Padma, Jamuna, Brahmaputra and Meghna carry wastes to the Bay of Bengal. Pollution hotspots are Dhaka, Gazipur, Narshingdi, Narayanganj, Chittagong, Khulna, Mongla port and Sylhet city. Textile and dyeing industries discharge 12.7–13.5 million m3 waste waters annually and pollute 20% of fresh water. Ship breaking yards dump about 22.5 tons polychlorinated biphenyls in a year. More than 50% of the marine oil pollution comes from urban activities. Plastic wastes at 3000 t day-1 and tourism are also contributing to the coastal pollution. Effluent releasing standards are not maintained, and thus higher concentrations of heavy metals are found with marine fishes. Use of heavy metal tolerant crops (rice: BRRI dhan47, potato: Cardinal, mustard: Brassica napus, flower: Marigold, vegetables: Cucumber, fibre: Kenaf, and so on), trap cropping, deep placement of fertilizers, integrated rice-fish-duck culture, etc can be adopted in polluted areas. There are laws for environmental issues, but coordination and financial capabilities does not warrant its effectiveness. Necessary steps are to be taken to improve infrastructure to ensure sanitation and benign discharge of industrial effluents. Systematic study on sources, fate and extent of current effluents dumping in water ways need to be assessed for wellbeing of aquatic life and human health.
C. O. Abusu, U. M. Ma'Aji, M. I. Ancho, M. M. Iliya
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.145

Abstract:
This study was done to evaluate the groundwater potentials of Shendam and environs using lineaments analysis. The trends of field joints were measured during mapping and using satellite remote sensing to generate lineament. The area is underlain by crystalline basement rocks of biotite granite, medium grain granite, and syenite. Assessment was carried out to depict the possibility of groundwater occurrence in the area. LANDSAT ETM+ imagery was used, together with the geological map to investigate areas favorable for groundwater development. This was achieved by plotting the lineament trends, superimposing the lineament on the geological map, superimposing the lineament on the drainage map, furthermore by plotting density map to know the groundwater potentials of the area. Lineament was used in drawing the respective rose diagrams for each rock type. Structurally, the area is characterized by a predominant NE to SW trend which also affects or controls drainage and groundwater occurrence with major groundwater recharge areas trending NE- SW of the study area. Analyses have shown that the study area has numerous fractures whose major trends are mainly in NE-SW directions. Lineament density maps shows the cross-cutting lineaments to be relatively high in the areas around the northeastern to southwestern parts of the study area but low in the other areas. Zones of high lineament intersection density are feasible zones for groundwater prospecting.
David Guimolaire Nkouathio, Éric Donaldo Ntchambia Djeunou, Rachid Mohamed, Synthia Tengomo Nguimatsia, Marie Louise Chenyi Vohnyui
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 44-53; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.160

Abstract:
This work studies the characteristics of pyroclastic (materials) and evaluates the environmental impacts due to the opening of a pyroclastic quarry in the Tombel graben area saturated lime test, specific surface determination, mechanical resistivity index within long and short terms have been used to characterize pozzolan materials in the study area and it’s important to the cement industry while environmental impact was determined through soil permeability test and nuisance noise. From the results obtained, samples had very large specific surfaces (>3500 Cm2/g) and highly reactive with lime. The samples studied are in conformity with standard mechanical resistivity index SAI. For cement manufacture. The environmental impacts define an "absolute average" impacts relating to the opening of the quarry. Hence a particular attention is needed in this area of study and mitigation measures have been proposed.
Umar Idriss, Muhammad Zannah Lawan, Abdullateef Goni Muhammad
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 63-66; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.166

Abstract:
The research investigated the carbon monoxide concentrations in heavy traffic areas of Maiduguri metropolitan between three weeks has been performed. Maiduguri City is located at latitudes 11 42N and 12 00 N and longitudes 12.54 and 13 14 E and has a land area of 543 km2 in the Northern-Eastern region of Nigeria. The high concentration of Carbon monoxide (CO) pollutants in high traffics area of Post office of Maiduguri city. The high traffic area (HTA) was selected for the research and the concentration of Carbon monoxide was monitored and measured, monitoring and measurement were planned daily between 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. for three weeks. The average result obtained was the highest point of 36 ppm and lowest point of 12 ppm in the three weeks, the highest point is above both WHO and FEPA points of 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively.
M. A. Oyinloye, U. M. Ogban, O. S. Aboyeji
European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Volume 2, pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.152

Abstract:
Urban growth appears to have direct effects on the available agricultural land in and around urban area which in turn affects food production and other agricultural activities in the city. Indiscriminate urban growth and increasing losses of agricultural lands have become an issue in developing countries. The aim of this study is to use Remote Sensing and GIS to monitor the impact of urban expansion on agricultural food production in Calabar, Nigeria. Landsat images of 1986, 2003 and 2018 of Calabar municipal and Calabar South were obtained. The study employed supervised digital image classification method using ILWIS 3.2 and ArcGIS 10.2a software. GIS software was used to classify the landuse into built-up area, natural vegetation, bare soil, agricultural land and water bodies. Also, a set of structured questionnaire were administered using the stratified random sampling technique to elicit information on the socio economic and driven factors responsible for conversion of agricultural landuse, effect of urban expansion on agricultural food production and measures adopted to preserve agricultural land uses. The results revealed increase in urban expansion on food production over the periods (1986–2018). Recommendations were provided that will reduce the rate of urban expansion on agricultural food production in the study area.
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