DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 1 September 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 112-115; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.2.3
Hydrogen fuel constitutes an attainable alternative strategy, which can be implemented in the long term. This strategy can avoid the risk of commodity supply dependency (rare earths and copper) and can delay the still open decisions on e-mobility. Hydrogen internal combustion engines represent a doable and less expensive solution for using hydrogen than purchasing a new car equipped with a hydrogen fuel cell. Conventional piston engines can be switched to gas operation with relatively little change. This approach is environmentally more viable, as in a short time most vehicles can be switched to emission-free operation. Also, it can avoid the risk of commodity supply dependency (rare earths and copper) and can delay the still open decisions on e-mobility.
Published: 4 August 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 104-111; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.2.2
Botanicals are substances extracted from plants for use in various applications, such as the production of insecticides. Botanical insecticides (BIs) have recently attracted awareness in pest management owing to their potential to substitute synthetic pesticides. BIs are eco-friendly and more sustainable due to their ability to breakdown after use without generating toxic residues and diverse approach actions on targeted pests. Nevertheless, BIs are still not readily accepted, because the supporting proofs are very traditional, raising doubts about their quality. Additionally, the phytochemical variations of plants yield uneven and sometimes unfamiliar pesticide activity. This paper discusses challenges to overcome and presents the most noteworthy knowledge on BIs, their standardization, quality control, and bio- enhancement to be useful in agriculture and to improve human health.
Published: 21 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.2.1
Since human beings spend 80-90% of the day inside houses, educational and recreation centers, office blocks, or automobiles, the quality of air within these buildings or structures is crucial for human health and safety. Hence, indoor air quality (IAQ) highlights the general characteristics of indoor air that affect the state of health, thermal comfort, and well-being of humans. Despite numerous regulatory standards, framework policies, and monitoring plans proposed for IAQ, the occurrence of indoor pollutants including radon (Rn), ozone (O3), and oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen have become common. Many studies contend that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a major indoor air pollutant and one of the most poisonous on Earth. It is a reddish-brown gas generated from the oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and molecular oxygen or O3 or the high-temperature combustion of solid fuels. This paper presents an overview of the potential sources, formation routes, and health effects of NO2. According to reviewed literature, the occurrence, concentrations, and ratios of NO2 in the indoor environment are affected by residential factors, weather/climate, and proximity to NO2 sources indoors, such as burners, ovens, and stoves. Furthermore, long-term exposure to NO2 causes diabetes, heart, cardiovascular, hypertension diseases, severe cough, hemoptysis, pediatric lung edema and, more recently, fatalities arising from COVID-19. Therefore, the overdependence on polluting fuels that generate NO2 must be minimized or eliminated to improve IAQ and protect human health, safety, and the environment. Future design plans for constructing kitchens, homes, offices, automobiles, factories, and power plants must incorporate smart sensors or ventilation systems for detecting, monitoring, or removal of exhaust gases, including NO2.
Published: 15 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 83-90; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.10
In this paper literature examples of innoversity are reviewed and personal experience gained in innoversity is shared. Recent developments include e-learning and involving challenged people in activities over the quarantine. Relying on his empirical knowledge, the author provides useful methodological hints to leaders of interdisciplinary projects, where diversity is always present, and creative teamwork is mandatory. Diversity may be manyfold, including different expertise at different education levels, ethnic, cultural, and gender differences, which all need to be leveraged for successfully completing the undertaking within the timeline. Applying the cooperative methodology described in this paper, various projects may become successful, by providing a real-life example of how to get individuals to operate as a team, rather than being focused on outperforming each other. This paper represents an in extenso version of a preliminary publication in Academia Letters (https://www.academia.edu/45165100/Innoversity_Applied_to_a_Student_Team).
Published: 15 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 78-82; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.9
In present genetically modified organisms (GMOs) constitutes a highly controversial procedure, and it is very difficult to restrain its propagation. There are quite a few questions that need to be addressed to take a stand on the subject. Should we play a role in this rapid development or stay in the background? Can this instant solution offer any advantage? Should we get on the GMO “train”? We conducted a survey in Hungary, in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County to show how farmers perceive increased crop yields and cultivation safety of GMO crops. Are GMO crops rejected or considered for cultivation, such as for fuel production? Are farmers aware that direct and indirect effects of GMOs can endanger biodiversity? Is there any reason why one should use genetically modified products instead of naturally grown plants? The motivation may be to produce energy sources, to obtain biomass and biofuels, and possibly to create and preserve more jobs at the national and regional levels. It is still difficult to evaluate how GMO is compatible with environmental protection and sustainable economic development.
Published: 15 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.editorial
Fundamental research, except for the medical field, is set behind by the continuing pandemic. Three main directions are shaping up in the scientists’ effort to defeat the COVID-19 virus: (i) immunization by vaccine, (ii) healing infected patients with specific medicines, or (iii) prevention of extreme symptoms via strengthening the person’s immune system, while avoiding the cytokine storm. Public opinion focused on which vaccine may be better, how long it would protect its recipient and, most importantly, when does it become available to the residents of a certain country? Does coronavirus treatment with EXO-CD24 show real promise? Under development at Tel Aviv’s Ichilov Medical Center, EXO-CD24 has been demonstrated to moderate immune response, and to help preventing cytokine storm…
Published: 11 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 73-77; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.8
In this account we report a study that surveyed and quantified the opinion on the acceptability of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers working in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County located in North Easter Hungary. Authors answered the question whether there is a difference in perception and reasoning of the county’s agricultural workers regarding GM crops. We evaluated the impact of age, gender, education, and agricultural education of responders on rating GM plants to be more dangerous than traditional crops. Is there a relevant difference when responders are administered multiple choice questions, rather than single choice questions? Can we change farmers’ position on the GM technology by using multiple choice questions?
Published: 9 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 61-72; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.7
Certain food components play a vital part in the benefit of our health and wellness. These foods, also known as “Functional Foods,” help in reducing or minimizing the risk of certain diseases and other conditions apart from providing fundamental nutrition. These foods include fortified foods, beverages, some nutritional supplements, fruits, vegetables, and whole grams etc. Many traditional foods with functional characteristics have been discovered, examined, and developed into beneficial components of new foods. By knowing which food is capable of providing specific health benefits, individuals can choose food and drink to improve their health
Published: 8 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.6
In this paper, we examine how Hungarian customs officers perceive the role of Hungarian customs authority and its effectiveness in international illegal wildlife trafficking. We aim to identify the characteristics of international illegal wildlife trade, which also affects Hungary, and to evaluate the experience of customs officers. Most of these custom officers encounter such crimes of international nature. By assessing and publishing their experience one can take more effective action in the future. This approach allows to identify the methods of offense, the reasons of offense, and the difficulties faced by the custom authorities. To explore this, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 27 questions addressed to many members of the target group. The survey contained closed questions and, to a lesser extent, open-ended questions, allowing to learn both their objective experience and subjective opinions. Prior to the survey, we mapped out which units of the National Tax and Customs Administration would encounter most often international illegal wildlife trafficking, and then compiled the relevant issues that may allow effective action against this kind of incident. By devising the questionnaire, our aim was to assess how frequent illegal wildlife trafficking in Hungary is, what routes and hiding methods are typical, which species are affected, and what measures are needed to increase efficiency of combating trafficking. The questionnaire was completed by 202 experts. Results show that in course of their work most respondents (64%) have met International Wildlife Trafficking monthly. According to their experience, attempts are being made to smuggle various endangered animal and plant species into the country, mainly at the Liszt Ferenc International Airport in Budapest. According to respondents, in most cases, international networks may be behind the smuggling activity. Respondents believe that the effectiveness of combating wildlife trafficking can be improved by more frequent and thorough inspections, higher priority given to such cases, increased penalties, and special training of customs officers. Based on received answers, the paper highlights the phenomena and problems that generally occur globally in the inter-regional trade of illegal wildlife. These can be addressed by effective action of law enforcement officers and customs authorities. The fight against illegal trade in protected animal and plant species is considered high priority, as it causes loss of biodiversity and damage of the ecological balance, and it jeopardizes our sustainable future.
Published: 3 June 2021
DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy pp 43-53; https://doi.org/10.37281/drcsf/2.1.5
Income distribution reveals individuals who are the most successful making a significant income and the ones who are earning less. This distribution also shows the ratio of high and low incomes, and how both relate to the total income of all citizens. We examine the change of income and earnings over time in Hungary after the regime change of the 1990s. The country has struggled with difficulties of the capitalist system, which caused a significant social divide over the past 30 years. In addition to the continuous thinning of the middle class, the proportion of the lagging part of the society has swelled considerably. On the long run, this phenomenon not only a hindered the economic growth, but also represented an obstacle to meeting the basic needs of a large segment of population. Subsistence farming can provide an income supplement to the lagging strata and can support mitigation of the increasing effects of climate change by creating an ecologically sustainable and flexibly designed mosaic production structure. Our study should serve as a warning and support for both developed countries with advanced economic-social system and developing countries, as well.