Intermarum history policy culture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2518-7694 / 2518-7708
Published by: Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University (10.35433)
Total articles ≅ 30
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Vitalii Matviichuk
Intermarum history policy culture pp 24-40; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11202

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to study the politics of memory of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 1920s–1930s in Western Ukraine associated with the restoration of the Polish statehood. The methodology of scientific research is based on general scientific and special historical methods, including the basic principles of historical perception. The principles of historicism and scientific character of research enabled the author to recreate the politics of memory of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in Western Ukraine in all its complexity and diversity, as well as in interrelation and interdependence with the events of that time. The principle of objectivity facilitated the consideration of the outlined problems taking into account objective historical patterns and a critical analysis of the reference database. The principle of consistency provided the means to form a complete account of the corresponding commemorative practices. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the problem of reflecting the historical subject of the restoration of Poland in the political power of memory in Western Ukraine is studied on the basis of a big archive database. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the "memory" of the state restoration was actively implemented throughout its territory, including Western Ukraine. Due to the corresponding politics of memory, the Polish authorities tried to integrate Western Ukraine into a single social and cultural space, the creation of which was quite a difficult task for the postwar Poland. Historical subjects and various kinds of commemorations became unified on the entire territory of the state. Some of the local subjects, for example, "Lviv Eaglets" or the battles of legionnaires near Kostiukhnivka became national, and strengthened the position of the Polish state narrative in Western Ukrainian region. The author argues that the activity of memorialization in Western Ukrainian cities led to the filling of the memory space with Polish symbols. The paper considers the issue of formalism and monotony of Polish commemorative practices in Western Ukraine.
Natalia Kuzovova
Intermarum history policy culture pp 101-120; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11207

Abstract:
The goal of the paper is to study the activity of the party archives of the Communist Party of Ukraine (the CPU) in 1960-1980, aimed at creating sets of documents about the Second World War - the documents of personal origin and thematic collections; to determine the main principles that guided the archival institutions while conducting the selection of fund-forming agents and documents which in their opinion were supposed to adequately reflect the Second World War events; to characterize the directions of search, archeographic and publishing work of Soviet archivists; to analyse the information content, completeness, and reliability of the created sets of documents, the consequences of the party archives' activity for the historical memory of the Second World War events. Research methodology. In the course of the research, general scientific and specific historical methods of source and archival heuristics, scientific criticism of sources, diplomatic, textual, and hermeneutical analysis were used. Scientific novelty. The paper introduces the previously unpublished documents on the history of party archives into scientific discourse and reveals the technologies for falsifying the Second World War history at the level of archival institutions during the specified period.Conclusions. In the course of the research, it was found out that the document collections were made in violation of the principles of archival science, which led to the shaping of the Soviet myth of the Great Patriotic War. However, as a result of their activities, the archivists accumulated a lot of interesting historical material, which was not made public due to ideological principles and it creates a certain field for contemporary studies on the history of the Second World War.
Intermarum history policy culture pp 140-160; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11209

Abstract:
The aim of the work is to study the mechanisms of constructing communicative memory of the residents of modern villages of Hrushivka (Apostolove District, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast) and Kapulivka (Nikopol District, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast). The settlements under research are directly connected with the location of the Bazavluk (1593-1638) and Chortomlyk (1652-1709) Siches on their territory and realization of one of the large-scale Soviet economical experiments – the program of general electrification, leading to creation of artificial seas and construction of hydroelectric stations. Research methodology.Proceeding from modern methodological approaches in the sphere of memory studies, instruments of oral history, generalizations of fragmentary regional studies, the interrelation of national meta-narrative with the local history was analyzed. The article employs methods of filmography, which potentiated the definition of both the official directions and assessment of the Soviet transformations, directly connected with the territory and certain localities the article deals with, and the local population’s attitude towards these processes, engaging available scripts, documentary and feature films of the 20-ies - 50-ies of the XX century. The methods mentioned above and their implementation stress the novelty of the research. Conclusions Seas need territories, which in this case were taken from people. Destroyed villages and flooded cultures, churches, other unique religious buildings, natural phenomena became the objects of memorialization and communicative memory of the residents of mentioned locations. The article discovers the ways of “imprinting” of the general political situation in the country on the regional contexts of remembering, which have been adapted / fit into a new nation-scale myth since early 90-ies of the XX century, providing the Cossack pages of history with a prominent role. The formation of a new historical narrative in the early 90-ies and the corresponding model of memory, its communicative version received additional incentives for preservation and adaptation to the demands of the time. Thus, the memory of the past, with corresponding memory codes, and the “glory” of the villages of Hrushivka and Kapulivka are used from the standpoint of the present.
Olena Podobied
Intermarum history policy culture pp 210-218; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.112012

Abstract:
Review: Larissa Zaleska Onyshkevych. Bombs, Borders, and Two Right Shoes. World War II Through the Eyes of a Refugee Child. Lviv: Litopys publ., 2018. 258 p. It is proved that the book of memoirs by Larysa Zaleska Onyshkevych is a valuable source on the history of Displaced Persons and refugees from Ukraine in post war West Germany. We can learn from its pages how refugee children lived, what they felt, what they dreamed about, what they were afraid of during the DP era, what factors influenced the formation of their worldview and civic position.
Olga Stepanchuk
Intermarum history policy culture pp 89-100; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11206

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to study the political, social and cultural activities of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych during World War II. In the process of the research general and special historical methods and basic principles of historical knowledge were used. The principles of historicism and scientificity allowed to analyze the activities of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych seen in the perspective of social and political events of the time. The principle of objectivity helped to critically analyze the literature and source base of the study. The principle of systematicity allowed to form a holistic picture of the activities of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych during World War II. Being based on the available source base, the article presents an unprecedented generalized image of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych’s activity during World War II, comprising the scientific novelty of the research. The author made conclusions that the political activity of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych during World War II was quite active and diverse. He became a member of the OUN (M) marching groups and actively participated in the political life of occupied Kyiv, closely cooperating with leading figures of the nationalist movement, especially with Olena Teliha and Oleh Olzhych.Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych’s social and cultural activity during World War II is represented by his work in the editorial office of the newspaper “Ukrainske Slovo” (“Ukrainian Word”) (Kyiv). Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych’s cooperation with Taras Bulba-Borovets was of great importance, while its purpose was to unite all independent forces against a common enemy. In fact, their cooperation supported a permanent political connection between the OUN (M) and the forces of Taras Bulba-Borovets. According to Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych, the main goal of any struggle was to gain Ukraine’s independence. In general, the research provides an estimation of the political, social and cultural activities of Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych in the Ukrainian lands during World War II.
Ihor Yakubovskyy
Intermarum history policy culture pp 61-75; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11204

Abstract:
The article aims to examine the specific reflection of the problem of Holodomor of 1932-1933 by the local media through the prism of the Malyn newspaper of “By the Bolshevik Rates”. The research methodology includes a combination of a number of historical methods: comparative, source studies, contextual analyses, structural and functional analyses. The scientific novelty. The article is a pioneer research of the above-mentioned newspaper as a source of data of the Holodomor period as well as of the informational potential of the local media as a source of facts for the Holodomor studies. It is a first attempt to analyze the specific features of the formation of the local media’s content with regard to Holodomor. Conclusions. The Malyn newspaper “By Bolshevik Rates” indicates the broad opportunities of the local media related to the following major research problems of Holodomor: the authorities’ strategies (especially of the regional level); the role of the media in the ideological, political and economic campaign on the territory of Holodomor; the processing of the forced grain extraction and confiscation of the nutrition in the villages; inhabitants’ notions about the situation and their perspective; active (including the criminal practices) and passive resistance of the different groups of the population for the activity of local officials as main providers of the power plan; prosopography of Holodomor’s implementers and victims. The information potential of media makes it possible to expand scholarly knowledge on the character and course of Holodomor and on the social, psychological, and economic processes that determined its key trends. As a result, it presents the possibilities to examine how the model of Holodomor functioned. In addition, it will stimulate the improvement of the research practices in the field.
Yaroslav Veselsky
Intermarum history policy culture pp 8-23; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11201

Abstract:
The purpose of the work is to analyze scientific works and research of Ukrainian and foreign historiography of the Roman Catholic Church, which carried out its activities on the Right-Bank Ukraine as part of the Russian Empire, the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Hetmanate of Skoropadsky, the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic in the period from 1914 to 1921. Research methodology. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach to the study of socio-political, socio-economic phenomena in their development and relationship, based on the principles of science, objectivity and historicism. In the course of writing the work were used general and special historical methods: comparative-historical and critical; chronological; statistical and analytical methods. Scientific novelty. It consists, first of all, in a comprehensive analysis of the historiography of the activity of the Catholic Church, which has not yet received comprehensive and holistic coverage in historical science and has not been the subject of a separate regional study. Conclusions. Despite the ever-increasing activity of scientific research on this topic, insufficient analysis of the chosen topic, the number of "white spots" in historiography still remains significant, especially the fate of the Polish community of Right Bank Ukraine, which indicates significant potential for new historical research and research in the future.
Nataliia Voitovych
Intermarum history policy culture pp 189-209; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.112011

Abstract:
The aim of the research is to study the historical preconditions and legal regulation of surveillance in combating crime in the XIX century. At the same time, the author's goal is to compare peculiarities of the instruments of system fight against crime (the method of operational search actions, hereinafter - OSA) and covert investigative activities in countries with different forms of government and diverse political systems.The methodology of the research is: adherence to the principles of objectivity, scientificity and historicism contributed to consistent disclosure of preconditions, content and principles of surveillance as a measure and a method of OSA and covert investigative activities in combating and preventing crime actions. Mutual enrichment with historical and legal methods provided systemity of the research. Historical study of surveillance in combination with the study of regulatory legal acts created new opportunities for interdisciplinary research. The application of general scientific methods, namely systematization, generalization, problem-chronological, comparative-historical, historical-legal methods allowed to trace the influence of the legal component on the history of introduction and development of surveillance in the "long" XIX century and peculiarities of its usage in the conditions of the newly formed states and political systems in the interwar period.The scientific novelty lies in a detailed historical and legal analysis of the content of regulatory legal acts concerning legal grounds for surveillance, a comprehensive study of its content, gaps and peculiarities of usage in non-democratic political regimes.Conclusions. The article provides historical analysis of evolution and usage of surveillance, which has experienced several stages connected with improving the performance of security functions, in preventing crimes. The attention is focused on the most characteristic features of implementing surveillance as a universal measure of obtaining information and distributing tasks between the states' law enforcement agencies and a means of combating representatives of political forces and structures constituting a real and hypothetical threat to the state / regime. The similarity of performing functions by law enforcement agencies (and the role of surveillance) in the conditions of different state formations, despite fundamental differences in the forms of government and the nature of political systems, is proved.
Світлана Кондратюк
Intermarum history policy culture pp 161-188; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.112010

Abstract:
Caused by the integration of the domestic education system into the European space, so it is important to study and analyze the experience of formation and change of previous, pre-Soviet educational systems in Ukraine.The purpose of the study is to analyze the process of the formation of commercial education in the Right Bank of Ukraine in the post-reform period and to determine the factors that influenced its development.The research methodology is based on the application of the principles of scientificity, objectivity, historicism, and systematicity. The use of historical-systemic, functional, and historical-comparative methods allowed to study the process of establishment and functioning of the first commercial schools.The genesis of the historiography of the problem had the following stages: 1) the work of pre-revolutionary authors (second half of the XIX century - 1917), which depended on censorship restrictions and in which moderately complementary guidelines prevailed; 2) research of representatives of Soviet historiography (1917 - 1991) years), which operated in conditions of ideological constraints dominated by the relevant critical paradigm; 3) works of modern authors (since 1991 - till now), in which attempts are made to develop a balanced position taking into account both positive and negative trends in the development of secondary education in the Russian Empire in the relevant period. However, the field of research of scientists left the facts that contributed to the development of commercial education as a holistic system of training entrepreneurs for the country in the second half of the nineteenth - early twentieth century.Results. The reforms of the Russian Emperor Alexander II in the second half of the XIX century led to the rapid industrialization of the country, as well as gave a powerful impetus to the development of industry, trade, banking, and exchange. All this raised the need for new qualified personnel and gave impetus to the solution of a long-overdue educational issue.In the 1860s and 1990s, the development of commercial education on the Right Bank was carried out on the initiative and at the expense of the region's industrial and merchant circles. In an effort to remove Poles and Jews from power in the province and to limit their influence on the population, the imperial authorities were reluctant to support initiatives to establish commercial schools. Even with permission to open a school, various bans were imposed on the content and organization of education.At the turn of the century, the situation changed somewhat. Polish influence in the right-bank provinces weakened, which allowed the introduction of zemstvos and a revision of educational policy. The government is now more willing to establish commercial institutions, although quotas for Polish and Jewish children remain. Zemstvos provided significant financial support to schools and their low-income students.Conclusions. Under the influence of qualitative state-building changes and active activity of the new elite, which sought further financial prosperity through professional education and establishment of educational institutions at its own expense, a network of commercial educational institutions was formed in the Right Bank Ukraine in the post-reform period. The effectiveness of this process was greatly influenced by the state, exercising its own legislative, supervisory, and regulatory functions in order to limit the political ambitions and influences of the Polish and Jewish minorities.
Serhii Stelnykovych, Oleksandr Zhukovskyi, Olga Bilobrovets
Intermarum history policy culture pp 76-88; https://doi.org/10.35433/history.11205

Abstract:
This paper considers the measures undertaken by the Nazi occupation administration to dismantle Communist monuments in Ukraine during World War II. The research methodology integrates general scientific and special historical methods and the basic principles of historical research, namely: historicism, scientificity, objectivity, and systematicity. The principles of historicism and scientificity have contributed to complex representation of the processes of dismantling the Bolshevik monuments in interconnection and interrelation with the events of that period. The principle of objectivity has facilitated the analysis of the outlined issues taking into account the objective historical regularities, based on a critical analysis of the specialized literature and sources. The principle of systematicity has been used togain a holistic picture of Communist monuments dismantling in Ukraine during World War II. This paper is the first research considering the measures to dismantle Communist monuments in Ukraine under the Nazi occupation on the basis of a comprehensive range of historical sources. The authors come to the conclusion that dismantling of Communist monuments in Ukraine was initiated at the beginning of the Nazi occupation. Bolshevik monuments were often demolished, whereas monuments without any ideological charge were preserved. The policy was supported by the local population, who associated ideological monuments with the Bolshevik anti-Ukrainian policy of the interwar period. To sustain anti-Soviet sentiments, the occupation administration promoted the local initiatives to erect monuments with anti-Bolshevik content (mostly monuments in memory of the Ukrainians executed by the NKVD). The evidence from this study indicates that Bolshevik ideological monuments were completely demolished on the territory of Ukraine during World War II.
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