Asian Journal of Research in Zoology
EISSN : 2582-466X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 84
Latest articles in this journal
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i230132
Vernonia amygdalina has recently been linked to insecticidal and pesticidal properties that could replace the harmful agrochemical pesticide usage around the aquatic environment and to aquatic inhibitors such as fish. This study aimed to determine the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) on testes of Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) juveniles. The fishes were exposed to 0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.60 g/L graded concentrations of aqueous crude leaves extract of Vernonia amygdalina for two months. The organ (testis) changes in antioxidant biomarkers’ histology, histomorphometry, and somatic indices compared with the control. There was the reduction in SOD, MDA and GSH activity as the concentration of the toxicant increased compared with the control. Mild interstitial oedema, mild tubular germ cell, interstitial cell depletions, severe depletion of seminiferous luminal content and sloughing off of the seminiferous tubular boundary tissue were observed in various concentrations of Vernonia amygdalina compared with the control. There was an increase in testis somatic indices as the plant extract concentration increased compared with the control. Bitter leaf extract was shown to have a toxic effect on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. As such, the pesticide use of the plants near the aquatic environment should be discouraged.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i230131
Malaria is still a major contributor to high rate of the global infectious disease–related mortality and morbidity due to its marked effects and alteration on the haematological parameters of infected individuals. This study was conducted to determine the following: prevalence and intensity of malaria, the associated risk factors of in Awka metropolis from January to June 2021. A total of 1060 subjects were enrolled int the study. Prevalence of malaria parasites was determined using thick and thin films. A total 925 individuals were infected with malaria parasite giving a prevalence of 87.3%. Of the 925 individuals infected, 743(80.3%) had mild infection, 150 (16.2%) moderate infection. The study showed that more males (94.2%) were infected with the malaria parasite than females (80.6%). The highest prevalence of malaria (94.3%) occurred among those less than ten years old while the least prevalence (72.2%) was recorded among those more than sixty years old. The prevalence of malaria in relation to age was statistically significant (p<0.05). In relation to occupation, farmers recorded the highest prevalence of malaria (94.7%) while civil servants had the least prevalence (65.4%). Based on literacy level, the highest prevalence of malaria was recorded among those with primary education (96.8%) while those with tertiary education had the least prevalence (84.3%). On marital status, married ones had the highest prevalence of malaria (91.9%) while the singles had the least prevalence (80.1%). The high prevalence of malaria in Awka calls for intensive education and free supply of insecticide treated nets.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i130130
The population status, feeding behaviour and habitat preference of the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) were investigated in this research. The period of carrying out the research comprised from january to october, of 2021. The line transect method was used to collect data on the population status of the species. The quadrate vegetation sampling method was used to investigate the preferred habitat. Data generated from the research were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while results were compared using chi-square (X2) test, one way Analysis of Variance and t-test. The average number Numida meleagris in the study area was 434 and 293 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The most important daytime activities of the species were feeding, resting, scanning and running. The observed population differ significantly across sectors during the wet and dry seasons (X2 = 8.00, p = 0.03). The relationship between allocated time to each activity and time of the day was greatly significant (X2= 4.04, p = .001). The number of individuals was 3.0±4.0 and 5.0±0.2 individuals/km2 during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The importance value index (IVI) for Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Elaeis guineensis were 24.41, 20.39, and 18.17, representing the dominant plant species in the study area. Human disturbance was responsible for loss of habitat, nesting and foraging sites. Protection of the habitat against exploitation will reduce poaching habitat destruction, and restore its nesting sites, thereby increasing its population.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 31-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i130129
Aims: The prime objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic composition of the zooplankton fauna of Esa-Odo Reservoir in Osun State and determine the spatial (horizontal and vertical) and seasonal variations in the composition, distribution abundance, and community structure of the zooplankton community in the reservoir. Study design: sampling stations were selected horizontally and vertically to cover the entire zones of the reservoir. Planktonic samples were collected at two months intervals for two years. Methodology: Samples were collected from the depth using an improvised Meyer’s water sampler. Net and Total plankton were sampled by filtration and sedimentation methods. Planktonic samples were preserved as 5% formalin and 1% Lugol’s solution. Measurement, enumeration, and scaled pictures of the recorded zooplankton were taken using a photomicrograph. The taxonomic composition of zooplankton biota was determined using identification keys. Data analysis was done using PAST Statistical Package. ANOVA was used to determine the spatio-temporal variations. Results: Fiftyty-three (53) pecies of total zooplankton recorded in this study belong to 4 groups: Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda, and Insecta. Rotifera was the most represented group (61.21%). Horizontally, 24 species with the highest mean abundance characterized the lacustrine; while 12 species and 10 species were unique to the transition and riverine zones, respectively. Vertically, most species had their mean abundance decreased from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir. A total of nine (9), two (2) and one (1) species were peculiar to the surface, bottom and mid-depth, respectively. Zooplankton organisms were most abundant during the dry season. Conclusion: Esa-Odo Reservoir comprised highly diversified zooplankton fauna with great potential to support rich aquatic community and fishery production. The reservoir can be classified as fairly clean based on the abundance of the rotifer group. However, the lake should be subjected to regular proper monitoring because of the presence of some pollution tolerant copepod species identified among the zooplankton fauna.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i130128
The Nilgai antelope is a large bovid free-ranching in 17 Indian states and 31 districts of Bihar, India. It is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and while there are major populations in northern India. The government of many Indian states have declared this mammal (Nilgai) as vermin due to damage of crops and ordered to kill them in favour of farmers. In Bihar 3228 nilgais were killed by a professional shooters during 2017-2019. However, the brutality of this elegant species (Nilgai) is not a long-term explanation to conquer the human-animal battle. All the species on the earth dispense some structure and function to an ecosystem. In the present nearby investigation was executed to commence the availability, efficacy, economic worth, structure, the functional and ecological significance of Nilgai. Additionally this study gives an idea that how to use the nilgai to coverage on long term human resolve to the conflict. Its monetary economic betterment for human in many ways only requirement to reconnoitre their conventions. Silviculture based cropping system, domestication, agricultural husbandry, nilgai ranches, tourism and recreation help manage the eco-friendly earth’s climate. Nilgai antelope may be beneficial in other ways like its by-products, pedigree of food, industry outcome, taming ranches etc. Blue bull or Nilgai meat and alternative non-cow milk may provide a source of protein for ever-creasing human population. The flesh of Nilgai is highly demanded in national as well as foreign countries. It may be exported after taming, domestication. The domestication of Nilgai corresponds to pivoted changes in history not only of human but also of the biosphere. Nilgai is powerful succeeding economic contender it may prove a driving force in upliftment of socio-economic of farmers & local humans communities and eco-friendly, sustainable development of India.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i130127
The study was conducted in 2018 along the Mangdechhu river basin and Bertichhu stream of Zhemgang district, which are the important habitats for White-bellied Heron (Ardea insignis) in Bhutan. We have documented the anthropogenic threats, directly affecting the survival of the species through focal sampling along established transects at the study area. The major anthropogenic threats leading to the habitat degradation encountered were overhead hydropower transmission lines installed across the river/stream, firewood collection from riverbank, sand/stone quarry, temporary cattle herding camp and grazing, camping/picnicking and fishing. This study found that the sites used for foraging and resting by the species should be strictly monitored and protected from the human disturbances.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2022/v5i130126
Aim: To study the morphological characteristics of dorsal guard hair of five carnivoran species native to Tamil Nadu for the creation of an identification key for application in wildlife forensics. Study Design: The experiment was designed to observe the physical characters of each hair strand and measure widely used morphological parameters from native species of the state. The results were compared with previous findings to validate the differences and similarities with our study. Place and Duration of Study: Advanced Institute for Wildlife Conservation (AIWC), Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, between August 2020 and September 2021. Methodology: Hair samples were collected for golden jackal, Indian fox, dhole, sloth bear and Indian grey mongoose. Hair characters such as scale pattern, scale distance and scale margin, medulla structure, cortex thickness, medulla thickness, medullary index and cross-sectional structure were observed. Results: The hair length of golden jackal, Indian fox, dhole, sloth bear and Indian grey mongoose were as follows 44.94 ± 2.24 mm, 29.70 ± 1.51 mm, 29.60 ± 0.97 mm, 83.83 ± 2.93 mm, 54.60 ± 2.03. The cuticular characters showed few variations compared to previous studies. The medullary structure was wide medulla with vacuoles for all three canid species while sloth bear has a narrow simple unbroken medulla and Indian grey mongoose had wide medulla with lattice. The medullary index for golden jackal, Indian fox, dhole, sloth bear and Indian grey mongoose were 0.73 ± 0.05 (S.D.), 0.77 ± 0.071 (S.D.), 0.66 ± 0.06 (S.D.), 0.18 ± 0.08 (S.D.) and 0.63 ± 0.05 (S.D.) respectively. Conclusion: The morphometric characters of hair showed variation in scale pattern, scale margin, scale distance and medullary index when compared to the previous studies. The research was successful in creating a taxonomic key for identifying the five mammalian species from their guard hair.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i430125
In recent decades the level of foreign compounds in aquatic ecosystems such as heavy metals, pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants has increased alarmingly as a result of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluent. This research therefore examined the histopathological and haematological effects of industrial effluent on Orechromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus. The histopathology and haematology parameters of the fishes exposed to graded doses of the effluent were assessed using conventional techniques. The results of the haematological assessment of the fishes shows a steady and significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the PCV of the tilapia from 23% (control) to 10% and 25% (control) to 18% in catfish exposed to 6.25 ml/L of the effluent, the RBC count reduced with increase in the concentration of the effluent from 2.60 x 106/L (control) to 1.15 x 106/L (tilapia) and from 2.80 to 1.72 x 106/L (catfish) in the sample exposed to 6.25 ml/L of the effluent. Also, the values of Hb concentration reduced from 7.73 g/dL to 3.10 g/dL (tilapia) and from 8.33 to 5.17 g/dL (catfish). However, the WBC count increased from 4800.33 x 103/L to 9500.30 x 103/L (tilapia) and from 5300.30 x 103/L to 7800.50 x 103/L (catfish) in those exposed to 6.25 ml/L of the effluent. In the histological assessment of the gills of the fishes, the tilapia fish exposed to 6.25ml/L of the effluent recorded an extensive damage, distortion and thickening of the tilapia fish gill lamellae. Also, there was loss of secondary lamellae and loss of gill raker filaments of the catfish. The liver cells of tilapia had many monocytes (kuppfer cells) while there were mild increase in the number of kuppfer cells of the catfish. The kidney artery of tilapia was filled with leucocytes while there were cellular proliferation (hyperplasia) and less of melanin deposits in the kiney cells of catfish. These are indications that the industrial effluent contain toxicants that are dangerous to the fish health.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 45-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i430124
The Azagny Channel is an estuarine ecosystem connecting Ebrié Lagoon to Bandama River estuary and it is adjacent to Azagny National Park. The aim of this study was to provide the first data on diversity and structure of macroinvertebrates in this estuarine area. Physicochemical parameters were measured monthly in three sampling stations S1, S2 and S3, and the benthic Macroinvertebrates was collected using a Van Veen grab. A total of 28 taxa distributed among 20 families and 11 orders belonging to Annelida, Mollusca, Crustacean and Insecta were collected. The taxonomic richness and diversity were higher in S1 compared to S2 and S3, probably due to its proximity to Bandama estuary. The relative abundance revealed that mollusks represented mainly by Pachymelania aurita (16.04%), P. fusca (15.83%), Anodonta anatina (13.02%) dominated the species assemblage; followed by crustaceans with Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (31.87%) and Potamon sp. (5.01%). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the main factors that influenced macroinvertebrates distribution in Azagny Channel were conductivity, salinity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). There is a strong correlation between these three abiotic factors and their influence on species assemblage would be linked to proximity of study area to Atlantic Ocean. These findings provide valuable information that can be used to establish biotic indices to monitor the water quality of Azagny Channel.
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i430123
Aims: As wild birds interact with poultry the likelihood of exchange of external parasites between wild birds and poultry highlights the need to understand wild bird parasites so as to reduce cross infection at the wild bird-poultry interface. There is paucity of data on external parasites of wild birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of external parasites among wild birds in Kaduna State. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Kaduna State, Nigeria between March, and June 2012. Methodology: Wild birds were captured and examined for external parasites by visual and microscopic examination. The data were analyzed using Quantitative Parasitology software. Results: Of the 233 wild birds representing 56 species and 25 families examined, the ectoparasite prevalence was 10.7% (25/233). The ectoparasites identified were Menacanthus spp (0.9%), Amblyommavariegatum (0.9%), Argas persicus (3.4%), Gonides gigas (2.1%) and Rhipicephalus spp (2.6%). Streptopelia senegalensis and Chalcomitra senegalensis were infested with Amblyomma varigatum while Numida meleagris and Ploceus cucullatus had Rhipicephalus spp. Conclusion: This is the first report to the best of our knowledge of hard tick infestation of free flying birds in Kaduna State. This study establishes baseline data for future study of wild bird host-parasite interaction in Nigeria. There is need for more studies on external parasites of wild birds to understand their impact on the survival of wild bird species in Nigeria.