Asian Journal of Research in Zoology

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EISSN : 2582-466X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 71
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, L. J. Agah, E. D. Elemi, M. Agenyi, M. U. Agim, V. T. Ebu
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i430119

Abstract:
Four-way olfactometer was used to evaluate Laboratory repellency activities of Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas and Dennitia tripetala oil extracts on Tribolium castaneum at 10µl of each oil. Each arm of the olfactometer served as treatment arm with the 3 arms accommodating the 3 test substances, respectively and the 4th arm as control. Various concentrations (1, 2 and 3% V/V) of the essential oils were evaluated for fumigant and contact toxicity against T. castaneum at 8, 16 and 24 hours durations. The results obtained showed that T. castaneum spent significantly (p<0.05) more time (min) in the control arm than the 3 arms accommodating the essential oils. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) more number of entries were made by the insect into the control arm compared with the test arms. The application of the essential oils significantly (p<0.05) caused higher mortality at 8, 16 and 24hrs than the control for both fumigant and contact tests. The mortality of the T. castaneum increased with increase in the concentration of the essential oils. The 3% concentrations of the oil extracts significantly caused the highest mortality, 67.23±8.72, 69.22± 18.74 and 79.55±9.29% by A. indica, D. tripetala and J. curcas, respectively after 24 hours application in fumigant test. The result also indicated that the contact application of A. indica, D. tripetala and J. curcas at 3% concentrations resulted in 63.07±6.55, 70.10±2.51 and 67.4±4.06% mortality of T. castaneum, respectively. The results suggest that the oil extracts from A. indica, J. curcas and D. tripetala can be used for effective management of T. castaneum infesting stored products.
N. P. Udeh, A. C. Ikegwuonu, O. A. Okeke, C. Obudulu, K. P. Okafor, C. C. Egwuagu
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330118

Abstract:
Soil samples and cassava tubers collected from farmlands within Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka vicinity were analyzed for their heavy metal levels using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) in order to assess their levels of contamination on the environment as a result of excessive fertilizers and automobile emission. Physiochemical properties of the soil samples were determined using standard methods. The soil pH had a mean value of 6.27 ± 0.07, 6.10 ± 0.06 and 6.57 ± 0.03 respectively indicating that the soils were slightly acidic to neutrality. Total organic carbon and nitrate mean values were 105.20 ± 6.20, 95.75 ± 9.57 and 94.6 ± 2.27 and 138.07 ± 12.09, 149.35 ± 14.25 and 149.20 ± 1.17 respectively showing presence of some organic matters. The mean levels of heavy metals in the soil samples were 0.01 ± 0.01, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.03 for lead (Pb), 0.24 ± 0.16, 0.001 ± 0.001 and 0.001 ± 0.000 for cadmium (Cd) and 0.00 ± 0.00, 0.010 ± 0.006 and 0.001 ± 0.001 for chromium (Cr). These metals levels were in the abundance trend of Pb>Cd> Cr. The mean metal concentrations obtained in the cassava tubers respectively were 0.001 ± 0.001, 0.001 ± 0.001 and 0.005 ± 0.005 for lead (Pb), 0.000 ± 0.000, 0.0003 ± 0.0003 and 0.000 ± 0.000 for cadmium (Cd) and 0.002 ± 0.002, 0.000 ± 0.000 and 0.002 ± 0.002 for chromium (Cr). These metals levels were in the abundance trend of Pb> Cr > Cd. For both the soil and cassava samples, there were no significant variations in the heavy metal concentrations and also in physicochemical parameter except for pH; this showed that there is low heavy metal enrichment in the soils studied. Based on the study, the following heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cr) falls within the Codex maximum permissible limits 0.1mg/l or ppm expect soil cadmium in science village which is above the Codex limit. The overall results showed that the farmlands (on soils and cassava tuber) appear to be free from poisoning or some metal enrichment and safe for agricultural purposes and also safe for human health and consumption.
, Akanksha Mukherjee
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 34-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330117

Abstract:
We report the first record of jungle babbler Argya striata feeding on house gecko Hemidactylus sp. in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. On the morning of 09th October 2018, a small group of jungle babblers consisting of six adults and two fledglings were observed in and around plants pots and compost bins on the roof of author’s residence. A juvenile house gecko Hemidactylus sp. appeared to have incidentally flushed out of a crevice by the foraging birds. It was immediately attacked by two adults and was killed quickly by heavy pecking on gecko’s body. The gecko’s tail was quickly fed upon by one of the two attacking birds after tail autotomy. Once the gecko stopped moving, the two attacking birds tried consuming the gecko whole but soon dropped it as it appeared to be too big to swallow the whole body. They started pecking out small pieces from the head and stomach area. At one point, the two birds held the gecko from two places, one from the head and the other held a front limb and started to tug. Other members of the group were uninterested in the entire event and did not participate. The two attacking birds continued pecking out small pieces until they weren’t hungry anymore. They left the remaining body and joined the resting members of the group.
, Patience Kivudi, Willy Lusasi Swana, Santos Kavumbu Mutanda, Clément Munganga Kilingwa, Angélique Osobo Yakolina, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Jean-Claude Micha
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 18-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330116

Abstract:
A survey was conducted from August 15, 2019 to February 20, 2020 among 67 traditional healers in order to know the species of fish that are used in the composition of traditional medicines used to treat some diseases in the Kambundi-Nganga Group, Ganaketi Sector, Feshi Territory in Kwango (DR Congo). The results obtained show that seventeen (17) species of fish belonging to 14 genera, 12 families and 8 orders are used by traditional healers to treat 24 pathologies. The fish of the order Siluriformes offer eight (8) species of fish which are used in the preparation of medicines for treating diseases. The fish species frequently used are respectively: Parauchenoglanis punctatus (31.3%), Clarias ebriensis and Gymnallabes typus representing respectively 16.4% and Malapterurus electricus (12%). It is followed by the order of Characiformes and Perciformes with respectively two species of fish. Fish of the orders Osteoglossiformes, Channiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Symbranchiformes and Cypriniformes are represented by one species. The most treated pathologies are: bronchitis, asthma, dysmenorrhea and rheumatism. The most used parts of the fish are bones (32%), head bones (24%), fins (19%), scales (6%) or sometimes the whole fish (15%). It is therefore desirable that in-depth chemical and pharmacological studies be conducted in order to scientifically validate the use of fish in ichthyotherapy and to identify the active principles with therapeutic value for each species.
N. P. Udeh, J. J. Okeke, O. P. Okeke, C. Obudulu, K. P. Okafor
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330115

Abstract:
The study was carried out to ascertain ways to increase protein for the teeming population of Nigerians. The specific objectives were to determine the growth performance of rabbits fed on rabbit feed and combination of agricultural by-product with forages and compare their feed utilization. It investigated the growth performances of rabbits; (Orynctolagus cuniculus) fed diverse ration (types A and B) in captivity for 12 weeks. A total of eighteen (18) weaner rabbits with an average initial weight of 350g – 370g and between 5 and 6 weeks old, were allotted into two treatments. Each treatment had three rabbits and three replicate in a completely randomized design. Rabbits in treatment one (A) were fed rabbit feed while the treatment two (B) were fed forage and diverse foodstuffs. Proximate analysis of these food ration types A and B showed that the ration type B was high in crude protein (23.88%), carbohydrate (53.29%) and fat (8.60%) and ration type A had the lowest crude protein (20.76%), carbohydrate, (52.49%) and fat (3.15%). Studies on the indices of ration utilization and growth performances showed that feed intake was highest in rabbit fed ration type A (94.28g) and lowest in ration B (90.98g). The diverse ration types although portrayed good weight gain, the highest was in rabbit fed ration type B (760.00g) and lowest in ration A (681.00g) and ration type B was significantly (p<0.05) different from ration A. The percentage weight gain and specific growth rate were highest in ration type B (210.50%), (4.097) and lowest in ration A (189.10%), (3.841). The best food conversion ratio was recorded for the rabbit fed ration type B (10.07g) and least in ration A (11.64g) and ration type A was significantly (p<0.05) different from ration B. Digestibility was highest in rabbit fed Ration A (93.33g) and lowest in ration B (92.67g) and were significantly different (p0.05) from each other. Looking at the proximate composition of the diverse rations and indices of ration utilization, ration type B portrayed optimal nutrient content for rabbit growth.
, G. B. Sanjay, C. S. Shivakumar
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i330114

Abstract:
Water sources of almost all regions in India are carrying the unbearable burden of dangerous pollutants. The release of waste products and anthropogenic wastes run-off has contributed to aquatic pollution. The environment has become a storehouse for chemical pollutant which infiltrate into the aquatic environment, including estuarine, thus immobilizing the aquatic biota, among the heavy metals. Chromium is a heavy metal which has both beneficial and harmful effect on organisms. It is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Many industries are disposing of chemical pollutants to the water. These disposals contain many chemicals, including Chromium. The purpose of this review was to check the accumulation and concentration of heavy metals in different organs of freshwater fishes that come in contact with the water contaminated with heavy metals. The subjected fish were exposed to Chromium (Cr) at the sub-lethal level at a concentration of 40mg/L in 96 hours. During the observation period, the fishes shown some behavioral changes like erratic swimming, slow motility, suffocation, and the scales become thin and decolorized. In the gill region, the gill filaments become swollen, and gill rackers become thick, and curling of lamellae was noticed, and it is caused due to the Chromium build-upon gills. At the region of the caudal fin, permanent bending of the tail was observed. The Chromium also affects other vital organs like the spleen and gut region. LC50 was found in 96 hours. The result indicates that Chromium is highly toxic and has deleterious effects on aquatic life. Humans are also affected by the intake of fishes for primary people of those areas where the leading food is fish.
, K. O. Yusuf, B. U. Ononye, N. P. Udeh, G. C. Ndudim
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230113

Abstract:
This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial contamination of some locally prepared snacks sold by street vendors in Lagos mainland, Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of (20) twenty snack samples- Meat-pie, Sausage roll, Egg roll, Puff puff and Doughnut were aseptically purchased in a sterilized polythene bags from four different locations in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area. The snacks were analyzed by standard microbiological methods using Bergey’s manual to determine the colony-forming units per gram, to isolate and determine the number of microbiological population contaminants. Unilag showed the bacteria count on snacks as follows: Meat-pie 1.50 × 106 cfu/ g), Sausage 2.20× 106 cfu/ g, Doughnut 3.20× 105 cfu/ g, Puffpuff 1.58x 106 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.80x105 cfµ/ g. At Yaba - Meat pie had bacteria count of 1.82x102cfµ / g, Sausage 7.00x101cfµ / g, Doughnut 1.09x 102 cfµ /g, Puff puff 3.64x104 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 5.00x101 cfµ/g. Snacks from Oyingbo had no growth on Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff but had bacteria cou nts on Sausage (1.00x102) and on Egg roll (1.95× 105 cfµ/ g).At Abule-Oja- Meat pie had bacteria count of 9.75x104 cfµ/ g, Puff puff 1.65x105 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 1.95x105 cfu/ g.The location with lowest bacteria count was Oyingbo which had no growth on a Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff, but had on Sausage 1.00x102 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.60x102 cfµ/ g. There were no coliforms in all the locations. Bacteria percentage range was 10.52% to 36.84%while Fungi percentage range was 0.71% - 37.59%. Four bacteria and seven fungi were identified: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus delbruckii with Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. Bacillus cereus had the highest prevalence of 36.84%, Bacillus substillis 31.58%, Staphylococcus aureus 21.05% and Lactobacillus delbruckii 10.52%. Bacillus species were present at all sampled sites. It is concluded that the quality of these snacks can be improved by following quality control protocol and good manufacturing practices (GMP) in food.
G. U. Amana, , I. C. Okoye, C. A. Imakwu, O. P. Okeke, J. C. Ogbodo, J. Idakwo
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230111

Abstract:
Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and anurans play vital role in the working of wetland ecosystems as they form its dynamic food web. This study was designed to determine the abundance and seasonality of Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Anuran species in selected wetlands of Kogi State, Nigeria. The study was performed in Abu’ja wetland in Dekina Local Government area and Egwubi seasonal wetland in Ejule, Ofu Local Government area of Kogi state. From each sampled wetlands planktons were collected with plankton net at the sites. Overall, 854 specimens of anurans, 584 from Abu’ja and 270 from Egwubi sites were collected within a period of eighteen months. The abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and anuran species were computed. Abundance was computed as a proportion of numbers of organisms in a group to the summation of the total number in all the groups being considered. Simpson’s index (Dominance), Gini-Simpson's, Shannon-Wiener index, Berger-Parker index, Margalef’s index, Menhinick’s index, Fisher alpha, Equitability index, Brillouin index and Chao index were all calculated following standard methods. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0, PAST version 3.14 and Microsoft Office. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Anuran species found in both wetlands included Amietophrymus regularis, A. maculatus and Hoplobatracchus occipitalis. Phytoplankton species encountered in both study stations include Oscilatoria spp, Anabaenia spp, Anacystis spp, Spirogyra spp, Oedogonium spp, Savicular spp and Euglena spp. Zooplanktons encountered include Epiphanes spp, Philodina spp, Synchata spp, Poliathra spp, Holopedium spp, Daphnia spp, Alona spp and Bosmina spp. The abundance and seasonality of phytoplankton, zooplankton and anurans in the selected wetlands studied in Kogi state, Nigeria showed that the organisms abundance are highly influenced by the seasons in Kogi State, with its peak abundance in rainy season and very low abundance in dry season.
, Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230110

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between EGC degranulation in fish injected with formalin-killed Escherichia coli and the effect of dexamethasone, diphenhydramine supplied separately and before formalin-killed E. coli. We performed a quantitative analysis of the number of cell granules and demonstrated that: compared to the EGCs of animals, the injection of dead E. coli with formalin generated degranulation of the EGC, while the administration of dexamethasone alone did not show significant differences with control group animals. The administration of diphenhydramine alone did not show significant differences neither with the animals of the dexamethasone treated group nor with those of the control group. When dexamethasone was administered one hour before the E. coli injection, degranulation was apparently inhibited and the number of granules did not show significant differences either with the animals in the control group or with those treated with dexamethasone. Finally, when this group was compared with the group of animals that were only injected with E. coli, the differences were statistically significant. However, when diphenhydramine was administered one hour before E. coli injection, a critical inhibition of EGC degranulation was evidenced, with a marked increase in the number of granules. All this seems to show that dexamethasone can partially inhibit the release of substances that participate in the inflammatory process. Diphenhydramine, a recognized antihistamine, inhibited degranulation of EGCs. These results suggest that EGC can release histamine like mammalian mast cells.
, Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajriz/2021/v4i230109

Abstract:
A capsulated nodular neoplasm measuring 9 cm in diameter, located between the swim bladder and the kidney sample of Cyprinuscarpio, was in laboratory. The neoplasm had a solid consistency in one sector and very adherent to the capsule. Histopathological examination of the neoplasm revealed a monotonous proliferation of spindle cells, and pleomorphic, sometimes in a vortex pattern and interspersed with collagen fibers. Cells had numerous well-oriented myofibrils giving them a deep red. The cytoplasm is eosinophilic and the nuclei are hyperchromatic located in the center with blunt or "cigar-shaped" ends. In the immunohistochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for desmin, smooth muscle actin and K-47, the latter antibody showing significant cell proliferation. Due to histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, diagnosis was made with leiomyosarcoma.
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