Bulletin of Scientific Research

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EISSN : 2582-4678
Published by: Asian Research Association (10.54392)
Total articles ≅ 43
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Izundu A.I, Mbaukwu O.A, Chiawa C.O, Iroka C.F, Azode S.O
Published: 30 November 2022
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.54392/bsr2221

Abstract:
The safety of the food we consume is a global concern and in Nigeria particularly. In previous decades, fruit processing industries have developed rapidly in Nigeria. To achieve high quality in terms of visual appearance, texture, flavor and nutritional value, fruits must be harvested when they’ve has attained proper maturity. After harvesting, quick ripening of fruits is responsible for reduced shelf life. This issue can be solved either by using preservatives or manipulation of ripening in fruits. Due to its low cost and availability, Formaldehyde has been popularly used as preservatives in Nigeria despite having detrimental health impacts. All these raises very severe health concerns including cancer, male sterility and many more. Considering the present situation in Nigeria, artificially delaying fruit ripening seems to be an encouraging alternative to address the problem and this is also being practiced in many countries. For fruits to successfully ripe, it requires the release of ethylene during the process and ripening of fruit can be delayed by inhibiting the activity of ethylene. The present study tries to evaluate the different safe and cost-effective ways of retarding ripening in avocado pear and banana fruits. Calcium chloride was used to soak the fruits; some were treated with cold treatment while others were placed at room temperature. Ripening was successfully delayed in the cold treated banana and avocado fruits; the external abnormality was quite much and this is a problem. Maybe, in further studies, temperature of cold treatment should be adjusted and regulated in order to reduce fruit external abnormality and thereby, maintain a good fruit skin texture. For the CaCl2 treatment, flesh colour and flavor development was significantly delayed and the external abnormality was lower. This simply relates that the CaCl2 treatment will be useful in delaying ripening even for commercial purposes, while room temperature treatment showed similar developments with the control sample.
Salaudeen Abdulwasiu Olawale, National Mathematical Centre Chemistry Unit Of Applied Mathematics Programme, Aduloju Emmanuel Ibukun, Yakubu Hajara
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 11-16; https://doi.org/10.54392/bsr2212

Abstract:
Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption technique was employed in the measurement of the Specific Surface Area (SSA) of Termite Feathers (TF). The adsorption study was carried out at 25°C and 270 rpm after which the residual concentration of MB was determined spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 660 nm. The adsorption data was found to conform to the Langmuir model within the concentration range studied and Langmuir constants were determined for TF. The specific surface area was then calculated from the Langmuir isotherm constant ‘b’. Effect of pre-treatment temperature on SSA was also considered at 30, 40, 50 and 60OC. The specific surface area was found to be 58.85 m2/g for the raw TF with values of 60.34, 78.52, 99.64 and 118.26 m2/g for the samples pre-treated at 30, 40, 50 and 60OC respectively. Finally, the specific surface area value obtained by MB adsorption technique was then compared with those obtained by Orth phenanthroline (OP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) adsorption
Panigrahi M.K
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.54392/bsr2211

Abstract:
The aim of the work is to use industrial waste as resource materials for formulating useful product for society. Materials are prepared using Fly ash as main ingredient through sintered process via solid state route. Different materials are prepared using various sintering temperature. The crystal structural and phases are explored by XRD analysis. Mulite phase are investigated, which is indicated the insulating properties of the materials. Surface topography of the prepared materials is analyzed by FESEM characterization. EDS analysis is also done during the FESEM characterization and is assessed the various chemical compositions. Identification of different chemical groups in the processed Fly Ash is carried out by FTIR analysis. Highest electrical resistivity is estimated and is found to be 35.1 MΩ, which indicates the very good insulating property.
Shapovalov S.A
Published: 30 November 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2121

Abstract:
The ability of rhodamine cations to form cation-anionic associates with tetraphenylborate-anion in an aqueous solution has been studied. The thermodynamic values of the equilibrium association constants Kasт were determined spectrophotometrically. The values of a number of properties of dye molecules (surface area, effective volume, hydrophobicity index log P, standard enthalpy of hydration ΔНohydr) were calculated using the QSAR model. The possibility of dependence of the value of Kasт on these factors has been reviewed. It was shown that changes in lg Kasт in the series of rhodamine associates are consistent with changes in the parameters log P and ΔНohydr.
Moharana T, Suryakanta Bahira, Sahoo R.R, TejasH Weta
Bulletin of Scientific Research pp 59-65; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2117

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to study the antimicrobial effect of in-vitro grown leaf extracts of Withania somnifera (L.) against some selected known microorganisms and the use of its constituents present there for the preparation of therapeutic compounds. This is evaluated by using zone of inhibition studies and minimum inhibitory concentration. The microorganisms used include Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholera and Candida parapsilosis. Inhibition zones of plant extracts were compared with standard antibiotics like Neomycin, and Kanamycin. Inhibition zones are revealed by methanol extract which is comparatively more than the ethanol extract. For methanol extract, Salmonella typhimurium shows the highest inhibition zone (25.13±0.52) whereas Vibrio cholera shows the least inhibition zone (21.33±0.53). The same extract shows maximum antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium followed by Candida parapsilosis and Shigella flexneri. These possibilities can build-up a novel idea in the preparation of pharmaceutical products.
Panigrahi M.K
Bulletin of Scientific Research pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2116

Abstract:
In the present study, the effect of china clays on the sintering, strength and dielectric behavior of electrical ceramic fly ash/china clay (FA/CC) composite insulator is investigated. The different composition of samples containing different china clay (CC) contents of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 % are prepared using the uniaxial pressure technique applying 10 MPa pressure. At 1200 °C, for the composition having 40 wt% china clays, the maximum resistivity is calculated and is 39.5 × 107 Ωm. The composite is highly competence with china clays-based insulators. Further, the prepared composite is also analysed using different characterization technique such as x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy, dielctric, and thermo gravimetric analysis. Frequency dielectric value of the composite is estimated at room temperature in the frequency range of 1-500 kHz at room temperature. According to the resistivity and dielectric properties, the composite has enormous potential for the electrical insulator application.
Usha M, Reginald Appavoo M, Mohanraj V, Immanuel G
Published: 27 March 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2115

Abstract:
A preliminary investigation is provided to encouraging results for comprehensive studies on different aspects of the plant root - Ixora johnsonii Hook.f. Root of this plant was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The present study are highlights the pharmacognostical evaluation of root which includes macroscopic and microscopic features. Further, preliminary phytochemical analyses, organoleptic character, fluorescence behavior of different extracts and histochemical localization of phytochemicals. As there is no pharmacognostical work on record of this ethno botanically much valued drug, the present work was taken up with a view to lay down standards, which could be useful to detect the authenticity of this pretty plant.
Romero R.V.
Published: 10 February 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2114

Abstract:
This study made setups that can be used in solar powered drying of washed clothing. This was used to analyze and test the performance, and determined if there is significant difference on the drying rate of set ups related to traditional and experimental method. A solar drying chamber was designed to use local materials in which the frame is made of bamboo with walls made of plastic to trap the heat of the sunlight entering the chamber. There were four set ups that were established in the gathering of data: S-1 is with electric fan, S-2 is with electric fan and electric flat iron, S-3 which did not use the drying chamber, is a traditional method where the garments C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4 & C-5 of different sizes, shapes, width and weight were dried under the heat of the sun. S-4 is almost similar to S-3 but the difference is that the garments were dried with no sunlight. The drying chamber alone is effective to reduce the moisture content of the garments using sunlight. Using the electric fan and electric flat iron increased the circulation of the enclosed hot air and boasted the drying capacity. Although it was computed that P > ? in comparison of the data in all set ups, it is insufficient to conclude that there is no significant difference on data of the experimental and traditional set ups since the data for the traditional set ups are not complete until the garments are totally dried.
DanielS A.O, Taye Temikotan
Published: 7 February 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 21-31; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2113

Abstract:
Cleistopholis patens is a tropical plant that is used in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal infections. In this study, the antibacterial action against some human pathogens and the fatty acid profile of the plant were investigated. The plant was found to be active against Salmonella typhi Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus while Shigella dysenteriae was resistant. The comparative antibiotic test revealed that only Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamycin. The purified extract showed lesser activity than the crude extract. Phytochemical components include; glycosides, steroids, Phenol, tanins and saponins. Anticonstituents include tanin (2.32mg/g), phenol (2.50 mg/g), phytate (15.65 mg/g), oxalate (6.57 mg/g), saponin (9.71 mg/g) and flavonoids (6.49 mg/g). The GCMS profile of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant revealed 23 fatty acid including 9-Hexadecanoic acid, (25.11%), 6 octadecanoic acid (21.98%), n Hexadecanoic (4.62%), Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%). Heptacosanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%), Decanoic acid, methyl ester (1.74%), Oleic acid (4.38%), 16-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (3.55%) amongst others.
Mohanraj V, Ilango S.S., Ponnuswamy S
Published: 5 January 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 13-20; https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2112

Abstract:
The single crystal of cis-2,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-4-one (4C3DMPO) has been grown using a slow evaporation technique. 4C3DMPO is a non-centrosymmetric crystal which crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group Pna21. Benzene is used as a solvent for the crystal growth based on solubility studies. The mechanical studies, using microhardness methods, have also been carried out. The compound is characterised using UV, FT-IR and NMR spectral studies. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the crystal is established by TG/DTA. The nonlinear optical studies (SHG) of the crystal have been determined using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique and the activity observed is 2.5 times greater than that of KDP.
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