ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2689-6117 / 2689-6125
Published by: ASME International (10.1115)
Total articles ≅ 77
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ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052668

Abstract:
With the development of miniaturization technology, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) electrothermal microgrippers have been widely used owing to their compact size, ease of manufacturing, and low production cost. Since most of these systems are governed by partial differential equations (PDEs), modeling of microgrippers poses a significant challenge for designers. To reduce the overall computational complexity, it is a common practice to model the microgripper system using the finite element method (FEM). During the design process, the geometric and analytical properties of the microgripper influence the system dynamics to a great extent, and this work focuses on studying the effects of such parameter changes. In low-voltage applications, the performance of the microgripper is influenced by the geometrical variations, and the air gap. Hence, for the modeling of the microgripper, actuator arm lengths, and the gap between the arms are chosen as the two main geometric design parameters, while the input current density is considered as the analytical design parameter. In this work, the optimized design parameter values for maximum possible displacement are obtained with the use of sine cosine algorithm (SCA). Furthermore, an averaging operation is proposed for efficiently designing the MEMS electrothermal microgripper, and the efficacy of the proposed design methodology is demonstrated through simulation studies.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052712

Abstract:
The balance of inverted pendulum on inclined surfaces is the precursor to their control in unstructured environments. Researchers have devised control algorithms with feedback from contact (encoders - placed at the pendulum joint) and non-contact (gyroscopes, tilt) sensors. We present feedback control of Inverted Pendulum Cart (IPC) on variable inclines using non-contact sensors and a modified error function. The system is in the state of equilibrium when it is not accelerating and not falling over (rotational equilibrium). This is achieved when the pendulum is aligned along the gravity vector. The control feedback is obtained from non-contact sensors comprising of a pair of accelerometers placed on the inverted pendulum and one on the cart. The proposed modified error function is composed of the dynamic (non-gravity) acceleration of the pendulum and the velocity of the cart. We prove that the system is in equilibrium when the modified error is zero. We present algorithm to calculate the dynamic acceleration and angle of the pendulum, and incline angle using accelerometer readings. Here, the cart velocity and acceleration are assumed to be proportional to the motor angular velocity and acceleration. Thereafter, we perform simulation using noisy sensors to illustrate the balance of IPC on surfaces with unknown inclination angles using PID feedback controller with saturated motor torque, including valley profile that resembles a downhill, flat and uphill combination. The successful control of the system using the proposed modified error function and accelerometer feedback argues for future design of controllers for unstructured and unknown environments using all-accelerometer feedback.
, Aleksandra Mitrovic,
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052663

Abstract:
Dual-stage actuators, which combine two actuators with different characteristics, have gained interest due to their large-range, high-resolution positioning capabilities. Control of such systems is challenging because it requires balancing the relative contributions of the individual actuators in terms of speed, range and precision. The most common approach is to allocate effort to the actuators based on frequency but this can lead to misallocation in the case of low-frequency short-range trajectories. In this paper, the problem of trajectory allocation in dual-stage actuator systems is addressed using a recently developed range-based filter. The theoretical basis of the range-based filter is rigorously derived for the first time and insights regarding its use, specifically its reinterpretation as a speed-based filter, and its range-frequency response characteristics are presented. The new analysis not only explains the behavior of the filter clearly, but it provides a more robust strategy for incorporating range constraints in filter design for different desired trajectories.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052662

Abstract:
In this work, a new drive concept for brushless direct current (BLDC) motors is introduced. Energy regeneration is optimally managed with the aim of improving the energy efficiency of robot motion controls. The proposed scheme has three independent regenerative drives interconnected in a wye configuration. An augmented model of the robot, joint mechanisms, and BLDC motors is formed, and then a voltage-based control scheme is developed. The control law is obtained by specifying an outer-loop torque controller followed by minimization of power consumption via online constrained quadratic optimization. An experiment is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed concept against an off-the-shelf driver. It is shown that, in terms of energy regeneration and consumption, the developed driver has better performance. Furthermore, the proposed concept showed a reduction of 15% energy consumption for the conditions of the study.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052462

Abstract:
Transfer case clutch is crucial in determining traction torque distribution between front and rear tires for four-wheel-drive (4WD) vehicles. Estimating time-varying clutch surface friction coefficient is critical for traction torque control since it is proportional to the clutch output torque. As a result, this paper proposes a real-time adaptive lookup table strategy to provide the time-varying clutch surface friction coefficient. Specifically, the clutch-parameter-dependent (such as clutch output torque and clutch touchpoint distance) friction coefficient is first estimated with available low-cost vehicle sensors (such as wheel speed and vehicle acceleration); and then a clutch-parameter-independent approach is developed for clutch friction coefficient through a one-dimensional lookup table. The table nodes are adaptively updated based on a fast recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of adaptive lookup table is demonstrated by comparing the estimated clutch torque from adaptive lookup table with that estimated from vehicle dynamics, which achieves 14.8 Nm absolute mean squared error (AMSE) and 2.66% relative mean squared error (RMSE).
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052271

Abstract:
The synthesis of a cardiac defibrillating pulse is cast as a standard optimal feedback control problem that minimizes a weighted measure of consumed energy and elapsed time to reach a nominal defibrillated state. The solution is developed for a general first-order system that includes the widely used parallel resistor/capacitor circuit and energy source as a special case. The novel optimal pulse comprises an exponentially ascending and a rectangular component; it is agile and energy conscious; and it therefore outperforms the waveforms developed thus far that minimize energy or time expenditures alone. Explicit time-domain expressions are derived which may be used for comparing against other commonly studied defibrillating functions. The analytic formulas and computer simulations may be useful to implement performance improvements in defibrillating devices.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051566

Abstract:
A series of coaxial magnetic pendulums is studied as a simple physical surrogate for more general nonlinearly-coupled almost-identical resonators that arise in quantum communications and the dynamics of social networks. The equations of motion for a series of coaxial magnetic pendulums are derived and the solution is compared to experimental results. The equilibrium points and their stability are also determined.
Aleksandr Shkoruta, Sandipan Mishra,
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051588

Abstract:
This letter presents the design and experimental validation of a real-time image-based feedback control system for metal laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). A coaxial melt pool video stream is used to control laser power in real-time at 2 kHz. Modeling of the melt pool image response to changes in the input laser power is presented. Based on this identified model, a real-time feedback controller is implemented experimentally, on a single track and part scales. On a single-track scale, the controller successfully tracks a time-varying melt pool reference. On a part-level scale, the controller successfully regulates the melt pool image signature to the desired reference value, reducing layer-to-layer signal variation, and eliminating within-layer signal drift.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051565

Abstract:
In this paper, we cast the problem of fault isolation in industrial robots as that of causal analysis within coupled dynamical processes and evaluate the efficacy of the information theoretic approach of transfer entropy. To create a realistic and exhaustive dataset, we simulate wear induced failure by increasing friction coefficient on select axes within an in-house robotic simulation tool that incorporates an elastic gearbox model. The source axis of failure is identified as one which has the highest net transfer entropy across all pairs of axes. In an exhaustive simulation study, we vary the friction successively in each axis across three common industrial tasks: pick and place, spot welding, and arc welding. Our results show that transfer entropy based approach is able to detect the axis of failure more than 80 percent of the time when the friction coefficient is 5% above the nominal value and always when friction coefficient is 10% above the nominal value. The transfer entropy approach is more than twice as accurate as cross-correlation, a classical time-series analysis used to identify directional dependence among processes.
ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051491

Abstract:
This paper addresses Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation of Linear Time-Invariant State-Space (LTI-SS) models. The joint posterior distribution of the model matrices and the unknown state sequence is approximated by using Rao-Blackwellized Monte-Carlo sampling algorithms. Specifically, the conditional distribution of the state sequence given the model parameters is derived analytically, while only the marginal posterior distribution of the model matrices is approximated using a Metropolis-Hastings Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo sampler. From the joint distribution, MAP estimates of the unknown model matrices as well as the state sequence are computed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a numerical example and on a real laboratory benchmark dataset of a hair dryer process.
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