Plants and Environment
EISSN : 2582-3744
Current Publisher: AkiNik Publications (10.22271)
Total articles ≅ 21
Latest articles in this journal
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 119-125; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.dec.119
An inventory of pest insect of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was carried out in 2018 in five localities of Foumbot production area to find out the effects of using synthetic insecticides on the worrying insects. The quantity applied and frequency of application was equally assessed and compared to those prescribed by the producers. Caiman B, Cypercal, Parastar, Cybemex and Plusfort are used. The insects were captured weekly during March and February during fruits formation and when they are getting ripe. The results showed that the doses and the frequencies of applications are different from a producer to the other. A total of 6485 insect pests belonging to the order Diptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera were captured. The greatest number of insect pests was captured in the locality of Mangoum 1 (19.75%). Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was the most abundant species (62.94%). The damages bring a setback in quantity and quality of the harvest, fruits are not good any more for consumption. The usage of these pesticides without respecting the norms has not reduced the population of the insect pests of tomato at Foumbot, showing that the insects became resistant. We suggest a strict respect of the doses and frequencies and the use of bio-pesticides and essential oils, respectful of the environment.
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 138-148; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.dec.138
Tropical Afromontane forest has the potential for honey production. The main objective of the study was to identify major bee floras and its diversity in different vegetation communities of Gesha-Sayilem forest. Bee flora data were collected systematically from 90 plots with subplots for shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition, pollen traps having 16% pollen trapping efficiency were fitted at the entrance of beehives for pollen load collection. Shannon-Wiener diversity index; species richness and Shannon’s evenness were employed to determine diversity of bee flora. The result showed that 93 bee plant species belongings to 43 families were identified of which Asteraceae the most abundant family was followed by Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Acanthaceae and Rubiaceae. The analysis of bee forage diversity using Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) found in 5 different plant communities showed that plant communities one, two, and three have the highest bee flora diversity 3.2, 3.2, and 3.5, respectively. The dominant bee plants in community one were (Ilex mitis and Syzygium guineens), community two (Pouteria adolfi-friederici and Schefflera abyssinica), Community three (Millettia ferruginea and Sapium ellipticum), community four (Hagenia abyssinica and Dombeya torrida), community five (Schefflera-volkensi and Maesa lanceolata). Sorensen similarity coefficient showed that communities 1, 2, 3, and 5 are more similar to each other while community four is less similar. On the other hand, the beta diversity for communities 1, 2, 3, and 5 were 0.25, 0.27, 0.39, and 0.28 respectively while community four has a higher beta diversity index (0.71) indicating low similarity with the rest of the plant communities. In conclusion community 1, 2 and 3 has a high diversity of bee flora and therefore, integration of these communities with beekeeping is recommended.
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 126-137; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.dec.126
The impact of climate change on human and plant nutrition and health is felt worldwide. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, temperature extremes, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency and density of weather events, and rising sea levels confer severe direct and indirect impacts on human health. The rapid flooding, intensive drought, unpredictable heat-waves including rapid wildfire outbreak has been on the increase exacerbating various chronic diseases and intensifying global cardiovascular heat-stress. Indirect health impacts of climate change may be long-term and might progressively lead to behavioural changes. The field survey was carried out in Calabar and Obubra, where anthropometric measurement of children under five (5) years were carried out. Soil-pant visual assessment for soil-plant nutrition and health was carried out in both Obubra and Calabar. Correlation statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze field data. Result of the field survey indicated that climate change can statistically (P˃0.05) damage plant-human health and nutrition. Result analysis output indicated that there exist a relationship between human-soil health/nutrition and climate change. A climatic percentage analysis relationship indicated that human nutrition/health has a (% Relationship = 77.59), plant-soil health interaction (% Relationship = 63.34) which indicated that the climatic system has a strong influence on human-plant-soil survival and sustainability. Findings of the study revealed variation in climatic element of rainfall, temperature and relative humidity of Obubra and Calabar. The study encourages mineral fertilizer application including application of organic amendment, as a targeted strategy for soil improvement to reduce malnutrition. Further aggressive implementation of scientific and traditional strategy and approaches that will enable CO2 and other greenhouse gas emission reduction have been advice for human-soil-crop health and nutrition sustainability.
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 149-156; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.dec.149
Land-use and land-cover changes are the main cause of soil degradation and associated human and environmental problems. The study was conducted in Mai Mahiu ecosystem, Kenya whose aim was to assess long-term (1985 to 2015) impacts of land-use and land-cover changes on soil health with disturbance-induced vegetation distribution. Landsat archive was utilized to detect land-use change for 30 years at an interval of 15 years and analysed based on supervised image classification. Four land-use practices (undisturbed forest, disturbed forest, cropland and grassland) were selected and soil sampled to 15 cm depth for soil analyses. In this period, cropland increased by 135% at the expense of natural forest while built-up areas increased by three times. Soil bulk density increased significantly (p
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 101-107; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.sep.101
This study evaluated the fibre morphology of Musa balbisiana leaf, stalk and stem portions for pulp and paper production. Samples of Musa balbisiana portions were prepared and macerated in equal volume of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in ratio 1:1. Twenty cellulose fibres from each portion were randomly selected using Reichert visopan microscope to determine the physical fibre morphology while the derived fibre indices were calculated. Data collected were subjected to one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Follow up tests carried out using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results showed that means of fibre length, fibre diameter, cell wall thickness and lumen width ranged between 1.35 and 2.46 mm, 16.46 and 33.34 µm, 7.58 and 24.99 µm, and 3.54 and 3.56 µm, respectively. The mean values of fibre length of Musa balbisiana leaf and stalk were not significant but were significantly different from the mean values of the stem at p
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 94-100; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.sep.94
Kimboza forest reserve is recognized as an IUCN category IV-habitat and species management area, but the information on population structure, harvesting rate and regeneration status of four commercial woody species, namely; Khaya anthotheca, Milicia excelsa, Pterocarpus angolensis and Dalbergia melanoxylon in the forest are lacking. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap. A total of five transects were established in the forest whereby within each transect, five nested quadrats of 20 m × 20 m were placed at 200 m distance for sampling stems with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm and stumps of the target species. Stems with DBH
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 113-118; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.sep.113
The objective of this study was to investigate the growth parameters and plant biomass of tomato (Solanum lycopesicum) evaluated under different levels of boric acid, major source of boron. The treatments were; Normal nutrient solution (control, boric acid conc. = 0.000308 g l-1); nutrient solution in which the concentration of boric acid increased by the factor of 5 (boric acid x5, boric acid conc. = 0.00154 g l-1); and nutrient solution in which the concentration of boric acid was increased by the factor of 10 (boric acidx10, boric acid conc. = 0.00308 g l-1). Morphological attributes determined were shoot height, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot, leaf and root fresh and dry weight, and growth indices. Shoot height, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot, leaf and root fresh and dry weight, and growth indices in the seedlings treated with boric acid increased by factor of 10 (boric acid x10)were greater than other treatments. It can be concluded that nutrient solution of boric acid increased by a factor of ten improve the growth parameters and plant biomass of tomato.
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 108-112; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.sep.108
Decision Support Systems (DSS) are essential tools for forest management practitioners to help take account of the many environmental, economic, administrative, legal and social aspects in forest management. This paper is concerned with the technique to develop DSS for forest management system to evaluate models and methods considering all the important factors to categorize the problem. The problem is based on temporal and spatial parameters, number of objectives, decision makers and goods and services. Some of these problem dimensions are inter-related, and we also found a significant relationship between various methods and problem dimensions, all of which have been analysed using contingency tables. The results showed that 63% of forest DSS use simulation modeling methods and these are particularly related to the spatial context and spatial scale and the number of people involved in taking a decision. The analysis showed how closely Multiple Criteria Decision Making is linked to problem types involving the consideration of the number of objectives, also with the goods and services. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between optimization and statistical methods and problem dimensions, although they have been applied to approximately 60% and 16% of problems solved by DSS for forest management, respectively. Metaheuristics and spatial statistical methods are promising new approaches to deal with certain problem formulations and data sources. Nine out of ten DSS used an associated information system, but the availability and quality of data continue to be an important constraining issue, and one that could cause considerable difficulty in implementing DSS in practice. Very often DSS is used largely based to study market economy. The results suggest a strong need to improve the capabilities of DSS in this regard, developing and applying MCDM models and incorporating them in the design of DSS for forest management in coming years.
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 59-62; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.jun.59
Plants and Environment, Volume 2, pp 69-73; doi:10.22271/2582-3744.2020.jun.69