Asian Soil Research Journal

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EISSN : 2582-3973
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 91
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Asian Soil Research Journal pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430113

Abstract:
Aims: With lead being one of the most common soil contaminants and phytoextraction has been reported as a prospective method for remediation of lead-contaminated soil, this review aims to examine the feasibility of lead phytoextraction as well as its constraints and concerns. Study Design: This is a literature review. Methodology: Peer-reviewed papers were sourced from scholarly databases. The papers included in the review were mainly those about phytoextraction of lead, particularly with the shoot, soil and root concentrations of lead mentioned as well as the bioconcentration and translocation factors stated. Besides, papers discussing the limits, for instance, the duration of lead phytoextraction, and concerns of the approach were also included. Results: This review found only 11 plants have been reported to accumulate lead in shoots at nominal threshold of near or above 1,000 mg Pb/kg dry weight and in certain cases, soil amendment was required to achieve this. Only two of the plants had bioconcentration factor > 1 and another two had translocation factor > 1. None of the plants fulfilled all three criteria of a successful hyperaccumulator, indicating the constraints and a lack of feasibility of lead phytoextraction. Besides, lead phytoextraction has been predicted to require significant amount of time, hence increasing the risk of exposure to lead. Conclusion: This review highlights that lead phytoextraction may not be feasible for the remediation of lead-contaminated soil. It recommends phytostabilization as a more viable alternative to immobilize lead in rhizosphere and reduce lead exposure.
Joel Yesaya Pallangyo,
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 37-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i330112

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the contribution of selected herbivores’ dung in the grazed ecosystem of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. To achieve this Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen were determined in four distinct textural soils in three sites, namely Serena with clay and clay loam, Barafu with sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and Seronera with sand clay loam. Thereafter the decomposition of dung pats in terms of weight change and percentage of nutrients in dung pats of four herbivore species (buffalo, zebra, wildebeest and elephant) incorporated into the soil beneath the dung pats were determined. Fresh dung, soil cores beneath the dung pats and control soils 1 m adjacent to the pats were taken for laboratory analysis. Dung pats and soil samples were analysed for initial percentage OC, N, pH and soil particle size distribution. Weight changes of the dung pats after each three weeks period were monitored. Similarly, monthly rainfalls during the study period were recorded from the rain gauges near the sites. The results indicate that the surface soil (0-15 cm depth) pH ranged from 6.0 - 7.5, 7.4 -7.9 and 6.1 - 7.4 for Serena, Barafu and Seronera respectively. While the soil texture was highly significantly different in percentage OC added after 18 weeks, the treatments and texture were both not significant for percentage N increased in the soil after 18 weeks. There was a difference of 1% between the ruminants and non-ruminants in percentage N increase although they were fluctuating over time due to weather changes. The C/N ratios of the controls and the treatments were on average 11 and 15 respectively, being highly significantly different and indicating that, treatments had a potential contribution to the soil OC and N in the ecosystem.
, Esohe Ehis-Iyoha, Emmanuel Ochuko Ufinomue, Donald Okpo Odidi, Sandra Amenze Ighedosa
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i330110

Abstract:
To provide information on best model to predict Phosphorus (P) Sorption unto Soils derived from Basement Complex Rock, Alluvium, Coastal Plain Sand and Imo Shale Parent Materials in 3 states of Nigeria. Completely randomized design was used to collect surface soil samples in 3 replications from 4 locations in Nigeria. Samples were collected from Idanre, Koko, NIFOR and Uhonmora in Ondo, Delta and Edo states Nigeria, laboratory analysis was carried out in the Central analytical laboratory of Nigerian Institute for Oil-Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City, Nigeria between march 2016 and September 2017. Soil samples were equilibrated in 25 ml of 0.01 M CaCl2 containing various concentration of P as KH2PO4 to give 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L P for 24 hours (h) at room temperature 25 ± 2oC. 3 drops of CHCl3 was added to inhibit P mineralization. The suspension was shaken for 24 h on a reciprocating mechanical shaker, centrifuged at 7000 rpm After equilibration, decanted and P determined using spectrophotometer. The sorption data were fitted to linear Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherm. Considering the Freundlich model, P adsorption capacity (a) and P sorption energy (n) was highest in soils B (1400 mg kg-1) and (2.806 L kg-1) respectively. The Freundlich model fitted better to the data obtained with average root mean square error (RMSE) and R2 value of 0.69 and 0.951 respectively, as against average RMSE and R2 value of 1.60 and 0.883 respectively obtained from Langmuir model. The sorption data fitted well to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms of which Freundlich Adsorption model was found to be better based on lowest RMSE (0.69) and highest regression (R2 = 0.951) value. Freundlich model should be adopted to determine P sorption characteristics of the soils studied. These predictors, however, need further works to validate reliability.
, Mohammed Bashir, Maryam Ibraheem, Aisha Mahmud Marafa
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i330109

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the effect of [N-(phosphonomethl)-glycine] (glyphosate) herbicide on soil bacterial and fungal population. Study Design:The effect glyphosate herbicide on soil microorganisms population on 2 different farm land was determined by Isolation of bacteria and fungi from untreated and Glyphosate herbicide treated soils using Nutrient agar and Potatoes dextrose agar (PDA) for the bacteria and fungi respectively. The number of bacteria and fungi present in both treated and untreated soil was then enumerated and the isolates determined. Place and Duration of Study: The study is a cross sectional research and was conducted on two Farm lands located at Yola capital city of Adamawa state Nigeria wheresoil samples were collected and Microbiology laboratory of Modibbo Adama University Yola were the sample was processed and analyzed. The study was conducted from February to May of 2021. Methodology: Bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil samples before and after treatment of the soils with N-(phosphonomethl)-glycine(Glyphosate) herbicide at different concentration, the bacteria and fungi populations isolated both before and after the treatment were compared. Results: The study showed that Glyphosate herbicide caused reduction in the bacterial and fungal count from 3 days of treatment up to 15 days. The bacterial count reduced from 6.1x108cfu/g in the untreated soil to 1.6x108cfu/g on the treatment. Also the fungal count reduced from 1.0x108cfu/g in the untreated soil to 5.0x107cfu/g after 15days of soil treatment. Both the bacterial and fungal count continues to show a gradual decrease up to 15 days in the treated soil. However, several bacteria and fungi were isolated with Bacillus spp. and Micrococcus spp. having the bacteria with highest occurrence with 42(19.91%) and Aspergillusspp. as the fungi with the highest occurrence with 12(42.85%). Statistical analysis of the data obtained indicated that At 95% confidence level, there is a significant difference in the population of bacteria and fungi before and after the soil treatment P-value(T˃t)=.001 Conclusion: The study revealed that Glyphosate herbicide has a negative effect on soil bacteria and fungi population.
M. G. Abubakar, M. O. Udochukwu, O. S. Enokela
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 10-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i330108

Abstract:
The effect of land uses on soil erodibility and soil loss of the Keana geological sediments of parts of Nasarawa State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. Geographic positioning system (GPS) was used to identify three land uses (agricultural, forested, and residential). Soil samples were collected from top soils at 0-30 cm depth using core sampler from 1 ha of each land use in 8 settlement communities (16 locations). Standard laboratory methods for soil analysis were followed for determination of Dispersion ratio, Erosion ration, Clay ratio and Modified clay ratio. Linear regression and correlation were used to determine the logical relationship between the erodibility index and corresponding soil loss. The soils from the study area were classified as sandy loam and sandy clay loam with high density, high permeability and porosity making them less vulnerable to shear stress. Dispersion ration (DR) modified clay ratio (MCR), Clay ratio (CR) and Erosion ratio (ER) where high, which suggests that soils from the study area are vulnerable to erosion at various degree of susceptibility. Mean value of erodibility factor (K) and predicted soil loss of 0.0492, 0.0460 and 0.0357; 7.77, 7.20 and 5.48 tonnes/hectare/year for agricultural, forested, and residential lands respectively. The findings suggest that land uses influence the soil erodibility in the formation is in this order residential land > agricultural land > forested land use. The erosion class is ‘very low’ for forested (soils in this class have very slight to no erosion potential), ‘low’ (soil losses will occur) for agricultural and residential land uses respectively. These findings suggest that soil erodibility has been significantly influence by land use change in Keana geological sediment.
Badar-Uz- Zaman, Zaryab Gul, Muhammad Suhaib, Muhammad Ishaq, Haris Khurshid
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i330107

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the effect of K2SO42- application on growth of soybean cultivars besides chemical parameters under salt stress. Study Design: Laid out the experiment in Complete Randomized Design in triplicates. Analyzed the data statistically by using the statistical software Statistix 8.1. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Soil Salinity and Bio-saline Research green house and in the laboratory of Land Resources Research Institute at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (under PARC), Pakistan for three months. Methodology: To study germination parameters under salt stress, NaCl was used @ 0, 100, 120 and 140 mmol L-1. At seedling stage, interactive effect among salt stress (0 and 4.5 dSm-1), potassium sulphate (KS) application @ 10 mmol L-1 and soybean (Cvs. NIBGE-301 and NIGBE-158) was recorded for growth and ion relations. Results: Germination, biomass, bio vigor, mass vigor and sap vigor of the seedlings and ion relations were affected highly significantly (p≤ 0.01). Under interactive effect of KS and salt stress at vegetative stage, Na+/K+ in the plants declined with KS application. Sulphur and phosphorus concentration in the plants changed under the same conditions. Conclusion: Induced salt stress revealed germination, seed bio vigor, seeding mass vigor, and seedling sap vigor seedling and other vegetative parameters of soybean cultivars. Potassium sulphate application revealed genotypes differential response to ion relations and growth under salt stress. NIBGE-301 was more tolerant to salt stress and more responsive to potassium sulphate application than NIGBE-158.
M. Valinejad,
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 44-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230106

Abstract:
The chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and leaf colour chart (LCC) are simple, portable diagnostic tools that can measure the crop N status in situ in rice fields to determine the timing of N top dressingAn experiment was carried out in Rice Research Institute in Mazandaran, in 2019. A test material has been evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Tarom variety were grown under eight treatments at plant density of 25*25 cm. Eight treatments included a zero-N control, o splits, chlorophyll meter 35, 37, 40, LCC 4 and 5. Result showed that Both LCC and SPAD can be used to improve N management for rice. The optimal SPAD threshold for determining the timing of N-application was 35. LCC treatments indicated that N-management based on LCC shade 4 helped avoid over application of N. Critical value of LCC 4 was more beneficial in enhancing the growth and agronomic, physiologic and internal efficiency. It is suggested that when N-management technology such as real time N-management (SPAD and LCC) were used, would avoid to over application of N fertilizer by rice farmers. The objective of this study is to determine critical threshold SPAD and LCC value of Tarom variety of rice(Oyiza Sativa L).
Azadeh Gharibi,
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230104

Abstract:
Aims: To investigate the level of heavy metal contamination in the lettuce cultivated in Place: Savadkooh County in Mazandaran, Iran. Methodology: five samples were taken from the lettuce produced in this area and also from the soils in which they were cultivated, and the concentrations of Nickel, Lead, and Cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the measured data. Data analysis was performed by SPSS ver.16 at the 0.05 significance level. Results: The highest lead concentration, 0.07ppm, was observed in the sample No. 5 (Lettuce 5), the highest cadmium concentration, 0.008ppm, was measured in the sample No. 2 (Lettuce 2), and the highest nickel concentration, 0.07ppm, was observed in the samples No. 1 and 4 (Lettuce 1 and Lettuce 4). Conclusion: The results of this study show that while all the lettuces cultivated in the Savadkooh region contain some amounts of nickel, cadmium, and lead, these amounts are much lower than the limits specified in Iran’s national standard, and therefore these products are perfectly safe to consume. Also, the concentration of each heavy metal in the lettuces was found to be directly correlated with the corresponding concentration in the soil in which they were grown, indicating that the heavy metal content of the products increases with the increasing heavy metal content of the soil.
Badar-Uz -Zaman, Huda Khan, Maryam Tariq
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230103

Abstract:
Aims: To observe the status of salinity build up besides inorganic nutrient status at different sites in Kargah and Napuras streams of Gilgit valley. Study Design: one-way ANOVA means using LSD test. Place and Duration of Study: Kargah and Napuras streams and nearby village in Gilgit valley and the duration of the study was 3 months. Methodology: Soil and water sampling to analyze pertinent salinity parameters besides inorganic nutrient status. Results: Soil and water properties for important salinity parameters were normal at mid point after entering the village areas of Kargah and Napuras streams. Human activities especially to raise crops by applying fertilizers needs to monitor with a specific time scale in order to avoid salinity build up.
, Nkwatoh Anthanasius Fuashi, Asongwe Godswill Azinwie, Kamah Pascal Bumtu
Asian Soil Research Journal pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230102

Abstract:
Invasion of Nypa palm into mangroves is a problem in the Cameroon Estuary. Soil variability is one of the dominant features that support Nypa palm establishment. The objective was to characterize the soil under the different mangrove stands; Purely Nypa palm stands (A), mixed stands i.e Nypa palm and other mangrove species (B) and other mangrove species i.e Nypa palm free (C), determine the principal soil characteristic critical for Nypa spread. 9 plots of 20 x 20 m were laid in each of the sites. 27 soil samples were collected in the North, West, South East and Center at a depth of 30 cm in these three sites using a soil auger. The results in the three sites indicated that; soils were acidic (3.87- 4.39), pH values did not significantly differ (alpha >0.05), organic matter was low in A (12.32%) and B (16.35%).Soil Organic Carbon ranged from (4.52 to 7.06%). High percentage of organic carbon content was recorded in C (7.06%). Low percentage of organic carbon was found in A (4.52%). Total nitrogen varied from 1.04 g/kg, 1.70g/kg, 1.80 g/kg in sites C, A and B. In all the mangrove stands, the values of Exchangeable Ca content were below 4.0 cmolkg-1. Soil texture in the three sites were; sandy, clay and silt. Power test showed no significant different in soil types between the three sites (p>0.05). According to the component matrix the factor is positively loaded by soil EC, moisture content, organic matter, organic carbon, N, C/N, CEC, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Clay, Silt, and negatively loaded by the percent sand. This study therefore, suggests that since soil plays key role in Nypa palm establishment, there should be constant monitoring of soil quality to forestall drastic changes that will jeopardize the survival of the mangroves. Nypa palm seedlings should also be physically removed from mangrove forest to prevent colonization. In addition, more mangrove seeds should be planted in deforested mangrove areas to close the window of opportunity for the palms.
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