International Journal of Pathogen Research

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EISSN : 2582-3876
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 146
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, N. T. Dabo
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 44-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230201

Abstract:
Introduction: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children, and Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality with little information on the specific cause, proportion affected by Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus, and the prevalent genotypes for Rotavirus. Aim: To identify children with diarrhoea, in Abuja in the Federal Capital Territory; to estimate the proportion of children with Cryptosporidium and rotavirus diarrhoea. Study Design: One-year cross-sectional study of children under five years with acute diarrhea. Duration: The study was conducted in Abuja from June 2018 to May 2019. Methodology: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus ELISA were done with commercially available kits. Results: Stool samples were collected from 1450 participants, of whom 1185 (81.7%) were ambulatory, 109 (7.5%) were hospitalized, and 156 (10.7%) were controls without diarrhoea. Cryptosporidium-ELISA was positive among 274 (21.1%) children with diarrhoea and 23 (1.7%) of children without diarrhoea, with August and September as peak months for infection. Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) controls, with November, December, and January as peak months. Children of 12 to 17 months were most affected for both and Rotavirus (39.8%) and Cryptosporidium (37.2%). Conclusion: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus are essential pathogens in children, especially among Rotavirus unvaccinated children in Abuja. Local and national infrastructure is inadequate for essential surveillance of diarrhoeal disease, and this will have to be improved, together with access to virological and parasitic stool testing, to monitor the planned vaccine program, especially for Rotavirus.
, J. O. Balogun, E. O. Akele, S. A. Adedayo, O. A. Bello
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230200

Abstract:
The purpose of this research work is to compare the activity of medicinal plant(Aframomum melegueta) and conventional antibiotic against Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in a major primary health center in Akoko, south ,Ondo state Nigeria. The target Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates which is inherent in pregnant women with no observable features. The rate of growth/ death of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates were x-rayed. Bacteria were isolated from Urine of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Public health care Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria and were identified using conventional method. The antibiotic susceptibility test and antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta were determined using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. The eleven(11) bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae (three,3), Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis(Two,2),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae (Two,2), Escherichia coli (three,3), Bacillus cereus, Serratia mercesiens, Enterobacter aerogens. E. coli and klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common isolates. The second most common isotales was Enterobacter cloacae.. Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis were resistant to Ampicillin, Ceporex, Nalixadic acid and Septrin. E. coli, the most common isolate was sensitive to Gentamycin and most of the antibiotics used. The antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta shows zones of inhibition with diameter ranging from 1-25mm. Secondary metabolite screening indicates the presence of flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to determine the Growth dynamic /Death rate of the isolates, the addition of antibiotics to the organism at the 48th hour speed up the death rate of the isolates, the addition of ethanol seed extract at the 48th hour also speed up the death rate of the isolates from the urine samples. The results of this study validate the use of Aframomum melegueta seed in the traditional treatment of Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.
, Chidinma S. John, Israel C. Omekara, Daniel A. Nwaubani
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230199

Abstract:
The right to obtain safe food is one of the most vital and fundamental human rights that must not be compromised or neglected; this is important because foodborne diseases can lead to prolonged disability and even death. Our study examined 28 samples of ready-to-eat foods, of which 27 samples (96.4%), contained bacterial contaminants. The bacterial pathogens isolated include Escherichia coli (50%), Salmonella spp (75%) and Staphylococcus aureus (85.7%). All the samples of jollof rice (100%), bean porride (100%) and eba (100%) were contaminated while 85.7% of egusi soup samples contained bacterial contaminants. The presence of these bacterial pathogens in the ready-to-eat foods poses huge risk to public health. It calls for immediate and sustainable action to prevent the possibility of foodborne disease out-break and intoxication capable of harming public health and socio-economic development.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230198

Abstract:
Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals and are increasingly recognized as significant human pathogens and capable of causing major therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus species in two local cheese sample collected from Akungba and Ikare. The isolation of Enterococcus was carried out using standard culture-based techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Enterococcus species was determined using disk diffusion method. A total number of 93 presumptive Enterococcus species were recovered from forty two different samples over a period of three months. The bacterial count observed on the Bile Aesculin agar ranged from 1.5x104 cfu/ml to 4.6x104 cfu/ml with Akungba sample having the highest bacterial load of 4.6x104 cfu/ml. The Morphology and biochemical characteristics of suspected Enterococcus spp. isolated from the cheese sample revealed Enterococci feacalis as the isolated bacteria. The isolated Enterococcus species were tested against a panel of six antibiotics which include Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem. It was observed that the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, imipinem and ciprofloxacin while they are resistant to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The prevalence of Enterococci was confirmed with Enterococcus feacium and Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species isolated in both cheese sample. The ability of Enterococcus species to survive a range of adverse environments allows multiple routes of cross-contamination of Enterococci in causing human disease, including those from food. Overall, greater understanding of the ability of Enterococcus species to survive stresses, of virulence traits and especially of increasing antibiotic resistance, is needed in order to fully appreciate the complexity of Enterococcus species in causing disease.
, B. Samuel-Penu, S. O. Minimah
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 37-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130196

Abstract:
The susceptibility of fungal isolates associated with indoor air of medical institutions to commonly used antifungal agents were investigated using the open plate technique on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates. The well in agar diffusion technique was used in determining the antifungal susceptibility. The antifungal agents used were fluconazole and ketoconazole and these drugs were prepared into four concentrations. Result showed reduced antifungal activity as the concentration decreased. Results of fluconazole against the fungal isolates showed that Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, and Mucor sp were all sensitive at 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml while Rhizopus sp was only sensitive at the 5mg/ml concentration. Antifungal activity of ketoconazole showed that Aspergillus flavus, Candida sp, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were all sensitive at the 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.63 mg/ml concentrations while A. niger was susceptible to ketoconazole at 5 and 2.5 mg/ml concentrations. The MIC of Ketoconazole against Candida sp, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp was 0.63 mg/ml. while the MIC of Aspergillus niger was at 2.5 mg/ml. There was highly significant difference (P≤0.05) in the response of the fungal isolates to fluconazole and ketoconazole in all concentrations of the drugs. Result also showed that both drugs were more effective against Candida sp and because of the effectiveness of ketoconazole on other isolates, it is recommended for use in treating mycoses caused by these fungi from this site.
Viany Nankeng Manhafo, , Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu, Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Aline Camerl Nzeffouo Selabi, Monique Odette Kamtchueng, Michael Junior Piameu Chadou
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130195

Abstract:
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible of a wide range of both community and Hospital acquired infections. Several genomic variability underlie the diversity of S. aureus strains responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Objective: To assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired S. aureus isolated from pus samples in patients received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Study Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out over a period of five months (from January to May 2021) involving a total of 52 participants received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Methods: Pus samples collected from participants were seeded on Chapman Agar at 37°C for 24 hours. The colonies identification was based on catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25 Software. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 22 of the 54 pus samples analysed, giving a positivity rate of 42.3%. The majority of strains (63.6%) were isolated from subjects less than 21 years old. From the strains isolated, 40.9% were MRSA and 86.4% presented multi-resistance patterns to the antibiotics tested. All strains of MRSA were found to be cross-resistant with one or more other antibiotics. Conclusion: The multi-resistance of community acquired S. aureus to antibiotics is a reality. Adequate care should be taken while handling suppurating wounds and abscesses. Especially in younger ager individuals, as this may help in timely setting up proper care and treatment protocols necessary to overcome drug resistance of such extremely flexible pathogens.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130194

Abstract:
Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Transmission occurs via the bite of female mosquito, Anopheles spp. Epidemiologically, global number of malaria patient are located in Southeast Asia and Africa. Until nowadays, millions of people still living in endemic area, with children and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable group in the population. Although there have been many advances in treatment and management, but the potential for harm remains; one of the example is lung involvement in patients with severe malaria. This paper aim to discuss briefly about lung derangement in the severe malaria and the inflammatory response related to the lung dysfunction. The severity of pulmonary impairment due to complications of malaria is determined not only by the initiation of antimalarial treatment but also by the hosts associated immune response.
, R. Meenakshi Sundaram, S. S. Somanathan, T. Purushoth Prabhu, K. P. Rama, S. Jeya Shanmuga Priya
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130193

Abstract:
The word Chyavanprash (CP) comprises of ‘Chyawan’ and ‘Prasha’. Chyavan represents ‘degenerative change’ and Prasha symbolises a drug. Enhancement of immunity and longevity of life were the main reasons for which CP was consumed since ancient times. CP has about 50 herbs, spices and minerals along with a range of pharmacological activities on almost all organ systems of the human body. COVID-19 actually means coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 targets and affects multiple organs like lungs, heart, kidney etc, thus increasing the mortality and morbidity rates. The medication cost and side effects have made the allopathic system of medicine the least sought after. The rapid spread rate of the infection has urged mankind to look at alternative remedies to fight the novel coronavirus. AYUSH is a government organisation under the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy which aims to promote indigenous alternative medicine systems in India. AYUSH recommends various measures to fight the novel coronavirus infection. Chyavanprash is one such important formulation proposed by the AYUSH for COVID-19. The purpose of our review is to highlight the constituents and pharmacological activities of CP in the prophylaxis, manage and treatment of COVID-19 by collecting and compiling the published research on COVID-19. The review also focuses on understanding the mechanism behind the multimodal activity of CP. References relevant to our topic were screened based on relevance to our topic.
, Ebenezer Olayemi Dada
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130192

Abstract:
Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sida acuta crude extracts on some enteric bacteria. Study Design: Experimental design. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at The Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Ethanol and cold water were used as extracting solvents. The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of the crude plant extracts were carried out using standard techniques. The clinical and typed bacteria isolates used are Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference to compare the sensitivity of the bacterial strains. Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical screening of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of S. acuta revealed the presence of alkaloids; tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phlobatanin, and terpenoid. Quantitative result showed that alkaloids and terpenoids were significantly (p ≥ 0.05.) higher in ethanol (9.41±0.06) and 7.66±0.06) compared to aqueous extract (6.61±0.05 and 5.55±0.05). The ethanol extract showed highest inhibitory effect (32.00±1.00) on clinical S. dysentariae and typed S. typhimurium at 200mg/ml. Highest inhibition observed for the aqueous extract at 200mg/ml was (24.67±1.03) and (24.33±1.03) for clinical S. typhimurium and E. coli respectively. The antibiotics sensitivity test showed that only ofloxacin was effective against the enteric bacterial isolates. Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed the potency of Sida acuta, as herbal candidate for the treatment of human enteric bacteria especially on S. dysentariae, S. typhimurium and E. coli at 200mg/ml which validates the antibacterial potency of Sida acuta and its potential as an herbal candidate for treating human enteric bacterial infections.
Basil Kum Meh, , Rose Sangong Efeutmecheh, Idriss Fotso, Moubarak Ben Halid Tinsobad, Ferdinand Tingomd
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 48-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430191

Abstract:
Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic left no nation indifferent in adopting measures to fight against the spread of the disease. This survey aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Cameroonians towards preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19 in Cameroon. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional online survey conducted nationwide via self-administration of a google form questionnaire in March 2020. Questionnaires were shared via Facebook and WhatsApp. Being a Cameroonian based in Cameroon was the main inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Amongst the 444 respondents who completed the survey, 232(52.3%) were males and females 212 (47.7%) with the majority, 221 (49.8%) between the ages of 26 to 35. Most, (99.6%) respondents had heard of COVID-19 mainly via social media 244 (55.0%) and TV/Radio, 139(31.3%). Difficulty in breathing was the most known symptom 402(90.54%). Cameroonians are quite knowledgeable about COVID-19 (444/446 i.e. 99.6% of respondents). Less than a half, 174 (39.19%) were aware of; 13 preventive measures and over 384 (86.49%) of 7 additional measures. More than half of the participants 261(58.8%) were optimistic that the pandemic will stop if people respect the hygienic and governmental preventive measures. A majority, 91% affirmed practicing handwashingbut only 76(19.3%) did it properly. Participants demonstrated less compliance to social distancing, 230(51.8%). A significant relationship was noted between knowledge on COVID-19 and handwashing with soap (p=0.005; r=0.320) as well as the use of face masks (r=0.701, p=0.001). Conclusion: The governmental measures and hygienic preventive measures are known to Cameroonians but the compliance to these measures is moderate.
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