International Journal of Pathogen Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2582-3876
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 205

Latest articles in this journal

Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Ijeoma Onyinye Okolo, Henrietta Onyinye Uzoeto, Justina Nnenna Ngwu, Ismaila Danjuma Mohammed, Ezinwanne Blessing Chukwu, Agabus Chidiebube Nwuzo, Benneth Mark Okike, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 7-19;

Background and Objectives: Antibiotic-resistance among microbiota found within the oral cavity is a growing concern due to extensive use of antibiotics in dental practice both for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons, but has so far received little attention in recent time. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of non-oral bacteria isolates from patients attending dental clinic at Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Medical Center Enugu (FEDCODTTEN) Methodology: A total of two hundred (200) oral swab samples were collected from patients with dental disease, placed in sterilized Brain Heart Infusion broth and immediately transported to the Microbiology Laboratory Unit of Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Enugu, for bacteriological analysis using standard microbiological methods for isolation and characterization. Antibiogram studies of non-oral bacteria was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for Multidrug Resistant (MDR) non-oral bacteria. Results: Phenotypic characterization of non-oral bacteria revealed an occurrence rate of S. aureus 35(17.5%) followed by E. coli 18(9.0%), Salmonella typhi 16(8.0 %) and K. oxytoca 4(2.0%) as the least predominant bacteria species. Among the oral site, lower right quadrant showed increase isolation rate of 30(15.0%) bacteria followed by lower left quadrant 23(11.5%) while upper right quadrant accounted 15(7.5 %) with the least isolation rate. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of non-oral bacteria in right quadrant and left quadrant samples from dental disease patients (P < 0.05). Non-oral bacteria isolate exhibited 57.1-100% resistant to Ertapenem, colisitn, amoxillicin, azetronam, colistin, ampicillin and clindamycin with Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index (MARI) ranged from 0.4-0.7, indicating high level of multi-drug resistance but were susceptible to ciprofloxacin 77.8%, gentamicin 100% and imipenem 100%. Conclusion: The high antibiotic resistant and increase multi-drug resistance outcome reported among non-oral bacteria in this study calls for strengthened efforts in antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control measures in dental practices with the need to implement regular awareness programs at time interval to control and manage multi-drug resistance bacteria through judicious use of antibiotic to re-establish dominance over multi-drug resistance non-oral bacteria implicated in dental diseases.
, Greg Ndubuisi Arji, Chukwudi Uche Ngwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-6;

Background: Sickle cell anemia patients are a cohort of at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B virus infection due to their life-long dependency on transfusion therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations stipulates testing and vaccination for at-risk individuals. Objective: The objectives of the present study are to assess the level of knowledge of sickle cell disease patients to HBV infection, identify their HBV vaccination status and to assess the barrier that prevents patients from being tested and vaccinated for HBV infection. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The subjects comprised of 120 sickle cell disease patients who were recruited through consecutive sampling using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires and data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for Microsoft Window Version 23. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24 +6 years. About 57.5% of the respondents are aware of Hepatitis B virus infection but only 15% had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.8% of the respondents have not been tested for Hepatitis B infection while 70% has not been vaccinated. The cost of testing for HBV infection and vaccination was identified as a major factor that prevented many of the patients from identifying their HBV status as well as getting vaccinated as about 80% of the respondents have not been tested due to high cost of testing while 84.2% have not been vaccinated due to high cost of the vaccine. Conclusion: There should be universal health education to sickle cell anemia patients on the need for Hepatitis B virus infection test and vaccination as well as a health insurance scheme that will cover the cost of Hepatitis B virus testing and vaccination for patients.
Ajanaobionye Theophilus I., Eze Emmanuel A., , Anyaegbunam Zikora K. G.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-30;

Background: Disinfectants and conventional antibiotics are used daily in Nigeria’s households and hospitals, in various approaches and at exceptional concentrations with inside to combat infectious diseases. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally has made most chemotherapeutic agents less efficient to target pathogens. Aim: This research was done to determine the efficacy of some disinfectants and conventional antibiotics used against ESKAPE pathogens. Methodology: The in vitro efficacy of the disinfectants and antibiotics were compared using the disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Results: Inhibition zone diameters were observed in all of the disinfectants and conventional antibiotics at concentration-dependent for the tested pathogenic isolates. Chloroxylenol was effective at higher concentrations and showed a progressive decrease in zones of inhibition as the concentration decreases. Ethanol was effective at 70% and 35% concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus. Hypochlorite was effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli at a 100% - 25% concentration and effective against Staphylococcus aureus at 100% and 50% concentrations. Therefore, the efficacy of disinfectants and antibiotics arise to be crucial however concentration-dependent. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study may be used as an alternative for medical applications. However, inappropriate disinfectant and conventional antibiotic use resulted in emergence of resistant microorganisms; hence these therapeutic agents should be used properly at a sufficient concentration to prevent diseases caused by these pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the need to compare the efficacy of these disinfectants and conventional antibiotics against ESKAPE pathogens in vivo is very important.
Okoyomoh Kingsley, Elendu Melford Uche, Obioha Kennedy Chinonye, Chris Akunne Wariso
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-22;

The aim of this work was to evaluate the lipid profile of Plasmodium berghei infected rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis. Twenty five (25) adult male wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats per group. Group I was the normal control fed only rat chow and water, Group II was infected with the parasite without treatment. Groups III and IV were infected with Plasmodium berghei and afterwards treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis respectively, while Group V was infected and treated with a standard drug (chloroquine). Treatment lasted for 7 days after which animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected. Evaluation of lipid profile was performed by standard procedures. Plasmodium berghei infection significantly (P<0.05) increased Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglyceride (TG) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly (P<0.05) decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) an observation which was reversed following treatment with the aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, extract of the said plant wields the potential to recover a stable lipid profile in Plasmodium berghei infected rats.
, Pamela Aoun, Wissam Sharrouf
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 14-18;

Introduction: In order to keep their dentures clean and properly stored, patients generally soak them in water at night. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast fungus that colonizes dentures, and in some conditions, it becomes an opportunistic pathogen and causes fungal infections known as candidiasis. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of distilled water on Candida albicans colonizing dentures. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women; age range 40-75 years) with complete maxillary dentures infected by Candida albicans were included in this study. The dentures of these patients were soaked in distilled water for 4 days (8 hours at night). Swab samples from the dentures were collected before and after distilled water use and examined mycologically. Results: The Candida albicans colony counts increased after soaking the dentures in distilled water for 8 hours for 4 days. Conclusion: Patients should be dissuaded from soaking their dentures overnight in distilled water as the result is a significant increase in fungal colonization.
Hafiz G. A., Hamad H. A., Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdalrazig Bilal, , Selma K., Maha Kh, Ali Abdelgani Elgadal
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 8-13;

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan- and to evaluate the sensitivity of RBPT, mRBPT, and milk ring test for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Study Design: Collect serum and milk samples and apply the recommended tests for diagnosis. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Al Gadarif state regional laboratory and Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) in 2015. Methodology: A total of 367 serum samples were collected from 12 localities which include: Al Fao, Fashaga, Baldiat Al Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, West Gadarif, Basonda, Al Gorisha, Al rhad,Mafaza , Butana, East Galapat and Gla nahl. Also, 100 bulk milk samples have been collected from Baldiat Al Gadarif, West Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, and Fashaga and subjected to the milk ring test. All collected sera samples were tested for Brucella antibodies using the following serological tests: Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), modified Rose Bengal Plate test (mRBT 1:2 and 1:3) and, c.ELISA test, the last test was done for 143 serum samples only. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 35.7%, 38.4%, 42.2% and 8.4% using RBPT, mRBPT (1:2), mRBPT (1:3) and c.ELISA tests respectively. According to this study the lowest seroprevalence was observed in Al Fao locality (11.1%), and the highest seroprevalence was in Al Gorisha Locality (71.4%).There was similarity in seroprevalence rate results using RBPT (1:2) and RBPT (1:3) in Al rahd (43.6%), Al Gorisha (85.7%) and Mafaza (50%) localities. Seroprevalence rate showed 10.9% and 9.1% in males and females respectively. There was no association between sex-as risk factor- and cattle brucellosis. Using the milk ring test the overall prevalence of positive milk samples was 39% (39/100). The highest prevalence was in Fashaga (60%), followed by Wasat Gadarif (46.7%). Baldiat Al Gadarif showed the lowest prevalence (22.9%). Conclusion: The serological investigation proved the occurrence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan - using the recommended tests.
Pauline U. Umeanaeto, Chukwujindu Odagwe, Ifenna C. Onwuagana, , Ginika L. Onwuachusi, Justina C. Akulue, Stella C. Afulukwe
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-7;

Women has been reported to be more susceptible to malaria parasites infection during pregnancy. The disease causes severe anemia in pregnancy sometimes resulting to maternal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world including Nigeria. A study to determine malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending General hospital Enugwu-Ukwu, Anambra State, Nigeria, was conducted between July and December, 2019. The specific objectives were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and anemia among the pregnant women as well and the relationship between malaria and anemia. Two milliliters of venous blood were collected from 408 pregnant women during antenatal visits. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with 10% Giemsa stain and examined under the microscope for malaria parasites. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was estimated using cyanmethemoglobin method. Hemoglobin concentration below 11.0g/dl was regarded as anemia in pregnancy. Of 408 blood samples collected, 112(27.5%) were positive for malaria parasites. The age group 15–20 years had the highest prevalence 8(40%) while the age group 36–40 years had the least 24(23.1%). The primigravidae had the highest malaria prevalence 72(36%), while the multigravidae had the least 40(19.2%). The pregnant women in first trimester had the highest malaria prevalence 48(50%), while those in third trimester had the least 24(16.7%). Malaria parasitaemia in relation to trimester was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 248(60.7%) pregnant women had a Hb value less than 11g/dl. The multigravidae had the highest Hb 128(61.5%), while the primigravidae had the least 120(60%). Health education and proper administration of Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPT) during pregnancy is recommended for malaria prevention and control in pregnancy.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-43;

Objective: Present studies were carried out to examine the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) from laboratory and field populations of Lahore city against four major groups of commonly used insecticides; Imidacloprid 5% SC, phenyl-pyrazoles* (fipronil 2.5% EC), pyrethroids (Deltamethrin 2.5% SC) and organophosphates (DDVP 50% EC) world health organization standard procedures were observed. Methods: For laboratory strain, adults and larvae were collected from the Insectary of the National Institute of Malaria Research and Training (NIMRT), Lahore, Pakistan. Insecticides of four major groups. Larval bioassays were conducted according to the World Health Organization procedure with minor modifications. Larval mortality was finalized after 48 hours for Deltamethrine, Imidacloprid, DDVP, and 72 hours for Fipronil. Results: Larval and adult toxicity results were different for wild and laboratory strains exposed to different groups of insecticides. Regression analysis showed non-significant trends in mortality. Imidacloprid proved to be the most toxic to wild larval strains of Ae.aegypti collected from different localities of Lahore while Fipronil was also active for wild larval samples. Conclusion: Deltamethrin showed the least activity against both adults and larval strains. The susceptibility of the field strains was lower than laboratory strains; the ratio varies from insecticide to insecticide.
, Felix Akinsola Akinyosoye
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 18-30;

Aims: TheoCcurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of enteric bacteria isolated from well water sources and their physicochemical profile was ascertained in this study. Molecular analysis of the bacterial isolates from well water samples was conducted via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification. Study Design: Experimental design. Methodology: A total of 12 wells were collected in triplicates from groundwater sources (wells), and mean values were obtained. The first batch of samples were collected during the dry season in January and February, 2020. The second batch of samples were collected during the rainy season in July 2020. The detection of coliforms and other enteric bacteria were conducted via the most probable number (MPN) method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and characterization of bacterial isolates were employed. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The determination of the physicochemical properties of the well water samples were conducted following customary protocol. Results: Well water sample 7 had the highest count at 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 200 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, while well water sample 4, 10, and 11 had 14 bacterial counts/100ml in dry season, well water sample 2 had 140 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, whilst sample 11 had 7 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season. Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentariae were the Gram-negative organisms enumerated and molecularly-identified as Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. Pnuemoniae HS11286, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar typhimurium and Shigella dysentariae HNCMB 20080 from the well water samples with percentage identity of 97.19%, 87.44%, 80.45% and 96.19% respectively. Klebsiella pnuemoniae showed high resistant rate in augmentin at 67% in dry season and 100% in the rainy season. Shigella dysentariae showed 8.3% resistance to augmentin in the dry season and 75% in the rainy season. E. coli showed 67% and 58% resistance in the dry and rainy season respectively. Water hardness had the highest mean of 98.5 and 99.5 mg/L in dry and rainy season respectively while turbidity, and alkalinity had the least mean value at 1.2 (NTU) and 0.62 mg/L, 1.4 (NTU) and 0.7mg/L in both dry and rainy seasons. Conclusion: Findings provided information on the poor quality of the well water, which will be useful in groundwater treatment strategies and policy formulation by appropriate groundwater source protection bodies.
N. V. Elosiuba, K. F. Obiagwu, P. U. Umeanaeto, , G. L. Onwuachusi, I. E. Obiefule, C. O. Aniefuna, C. B. Chukwubude, C. I. Nzeukwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-37;

Trichomonas vaginalis is transmitted sexually in humans affecting both male and female genital tracts. A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection among women attending Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Awka, Anambra State was conducted between November 2021 and January 2022. A total of 200 apparently healthy women between the ages of 19 – 42 years volunteered and participated in the study. The study participants included pregnant and non-pregnant women, married, singles and widows from various occupations. Their urine samples were collected, centrifuged and examined under the microscope within 2 hours of collection. Diagnosis was made by detection of T. vaginalis in the wet preparation of urine deposits. An overall prevalence of 3.0% was observed among the study participants. Prevalence of T. vaginalis was highest (5.9%) among the age group 25-30 years and no infection was observed among the age group 37-42 years. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the age groups (P>0.05). Highest prevalence of 3.2% was observed among pregnant women while the least (2.7%) was observed in non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between pregnant and non-pregnant groups (P>0.05). The highest prevalence (7.5%) was observed among the students while no infection was observed among the civil servants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the occupational groups (P>0.05). Married women recorded the highest prevalence (3.3%) and no infection was observed among the widows. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection in different marital status (P>0.05). Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnant women. Routine screening for this infection during pregnancy is recommended in order to reduce potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Back to Top Top