Asian Journal of Pediatric Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2582-2950
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 111
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Ahmed M. El-Badawy, Ashraf M. Ibrahim, Abd El Rahman M. El-Mashad, Mostafa M. Awny
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330217

Abstract:
Background: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a neonatal lung disease which has a picture of lung edema due to delayed resorption of lung fluids. It is commonly seen in full-term or late-preterm in­fants with an occurrence rate of 5.7 in 1,000 infants. The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of inhaled budesonide, epinephrine and salbutamol for treatment of TTN. Methods: This prospective controlled study was conducted on a100 full term neonates with presumed diagnosis of TTN. They were randomly assigned into four groups equally. Group I received nebulized budesonide, Group I received nebulized epinephrine, Group III received nebulized salbutamol and Group IV received nebulized normal saline. Results: Salbutamol significantly decreased respiratory rate and TTN clinical score, duration of respiratory support along with hospitalization time and helped with reaching full feeding earlier compared to other groups. Conclusions: Inhaled salbutamol significantly decreased TTN clinical score, shorter duration of respiratory support, hospitalization and earlier initiation of enteral feeding compared to placebo. Inhaled budesonide and epinephrine did not significantly reduce the duration of oxygen treatment, with no other significant effect on TTN.
, A. Radi, M. Kmari, A. Hassani, R. Abilkasseme, A. Agadr
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 6-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330216

Abstract:
Background: Orbital cellulitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency, jeopardizing the vital and functional prognosis. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, therapeutic and evolutional aspects of orbital cellulitis cases treated at the pediatric service at Mohamed V military hospital. Patients and methods: retrospective study including all the children aged between 1 month and 15 years treated for orbital cellulitis at the pediatric service of the Mohamed V Hospital over a period of 3 years (1st January 2016-31st December 2019). Results: 24 cases of orbital cellulitis were gathered. Age varied between 1 month and 15 years with a median of age of 6. years. Feminine predominance (58%) was noted . The disease mainly involved the sinus (32%).Clinically, fever was present in 10 patients (41%),palpebral edema was universal, proptosis was noted in 5 cases(20.8%),chemosis and ptosis were noted in 4 cases(16.6%),bacteriological testing identified micro-organisms in 3 cases. An orbital CT scan was performed in all cases of our study, showing preseptal cellulitis in 14 cases (58.3%), orbital cellulitis in 3 cases(12.5%),and orbital abscess in 7 cases. The medical treatment consisted of ceftriaxone, metronidazole and aminoside or amoxicilline clavulanic acid, corticosteroid therapy prescribed in 5 cases. Surgical treatment was indicated in 3 patients. The outcome of All cases was favorable. Conclusion: The majority of our cases had a positive evolution highlighting the advantage of an early diagnosis, and adapted antibiotic and a multidisciplinary patient care making the need for surgery rarely necessary.
, Hamza Berrada, Yamna Kriouile, Asmaa Mdaghri Alaoui
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330215

Abstract:
Acute staphylococcal epidermolysis, also known as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), in young children is caused by the release of exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and/or ETB) from an initial outbreak which can be ear-nose-throat, conjunctival or cutaneous. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is characterized by painful erythroderma, quickly followed by generalized detachment with respect to mucous surfaces, regressing in 2 to 4 days on antibiotics. The positive diagnosis is mainly based on clinical examination and sometimes on skin biopsy. The course of the disease is benign, favored by anti-staphylococcal treatment combined with local care. However, the risk of fatal course is estimated at around 4% in the event of delay in antibiotic treatment. We report the case of an infant with SSSS, diagnosed and treated early with good evolution.
, Kalaotaji Glory Biambo, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Amadi Chikadibia Fyneface, Nwika Goodnews
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i230213

Abstract:
The human breast milk is considered to be the perfect food for infants, specifically adapted to their needs. Changes in lifestyle and environment may impact on breast milk composition. This study was aimed at comparing the nutrients composition in breast milk in postpartum women in urban and sub-urban areas in Rivers State. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 59 postpartum subjects between 0 and 10days of child delivery in each group. Sampling was done through a simple random sampling method. Human breast milk was collected by means of a manual breast pump for the analysis of carbohydrate, protein and lipid using ClegAnthrone Method, Kjedahl Method and Soxhelt Extraction Method respectively. The results revealed that carbohydrate level was 6.1±0.5% in urban group and 5.0±0.1% in sub-urban group which was statistically significant (t-value=2.2; p-value=0.04). Protein level was 3.5±0.6% in urban group and 3.9±0.3% in sub-urban group which was statistically non-significant (t-value=0.6; p-value=0.57). Lipid level was 6.1±0.5% and 5.0±0.1% in urban and sub-urban groups respectively which was statistically non- significant (t-value=1.2; p-value=0.27). This study has revealed that differences in settlements (urban and sub-urban) have no impact on breast milk composition except in carbohydrate.
, Shimaa Basyony El-Nemr, Osama Abd Rab El-Rasoul Tolba, Waleed Ahmed El-Shahaby
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i230212

Abstract:
Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) refers to dilating the ventricles and dysfunction of their systolic functions (predominantly the left ventricle) with or without congestive heart failure. In children, it is the most common form of heart muscle disease. We aimed to evaluate the right ventricular functions and structure using speckling tracking echocardiography in children with dilated cardiomyopathy and correlate this parameter with other echocardiographic findings. Methods: This observational Case-Control Study was carried out on 75 subjects. They were subdivided into two groups: Group 1: 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy Group 2: 25 healthy children matched for age and sex. Patients were evaluated by M-mode echocardiography, Transthoracic 2DE Examination (TTE), Tissue Doppler Examination (TDE) and Speckling Tracking Technique. Results: Left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) systolic dysfunction was evidenced by a significant decrease of mitral and tricuspid annular systolic velocities and a significant decrease of LV and RV global systolic strain and a significant decrease of LV and RV Ejection fraction (EF). LV and RV diastolic dysfunction were evidenced by a significant decrease of mitral and tricuspid annular diastolic velocities (E’/A’) and a significant increase of LV and RV Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI). LV and RV global strains were significantly reduced in comparison to controls, suggesting that the dilated cardiomyopathy is a diffuse disease. Conclusion: In DCM patients, RV had significant systolic and diastolic dysfunction mainly elicited by the Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) beside LV affection secondary to the interventricular interaction. TDI and 2D-STE add value to interpreting the findings and the dependency of RV systolic and diastolic functions on each other in DCM patients.
Vishnu Kumar Tandon, Trayambak Dutta, R. Ezhil Arasan
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i230211

Abstract:
Background: Probiotics are effective in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders in adults but there is lack of enough clinical evidence in children. Aim: To evaluate effectiveness of Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 along with digestive enzymes in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Methods: Children with FAP, based on the Rome IV criteria (n = 95, aged 5-16 years), received Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 along with digestive enzymes from a commercially available preparation - Tummysoft® for three weeks. Treatment response was assessed by improvement in the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia Questionnaire (QOLRAD) score and Global Overall Symptom (GOS) scale. Results: Patients diagnosed with FAP upon receiving a 3-week treatment with Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 along with digestive enzymes, registered statistically significant improvement in both QOLRAD (Baseline, 30.27 ± 5.95; 10th Day: 108.39 ± 7.06; 21st day: 173.71 ± 6.71, P=0.00) and GOS scale (Baseline, 3.10 ± 0.37; 10th Day: 2.15 ± 0.73; 21st day: 1.00 ± 0.00, P = 0) signifying the efficacy of the probiotic in FAP. Conclusion: Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 along with digestive enzymes from a commercially available preparation - Tummysoft® was found to be effective in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP).
, Sheeba Parveen, Amitabh Dwivedi
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 7-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i230210

Abstract:
Background: A variety of feeding difficulties like aversion of food, food selectivity, complete food refusal are the most common problems reported by the Parents of ASD children. Every parent of ASD children struggles to manage their child’s feeding routine as well as undesirable mealtime behaviours, which can cause parental concern and poor family dynamics. Aim: 1) The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of dedicated oral motor work in children with ASD who presented with feeding difficulty. 2) To determine parental concerns related to feeding behavior shown by their child and assess whether an additional home program in parallel with oral motor work by an Occupational Therapist would provide any benefits. Methods: This is a pre and post study where a total number of 18 ASD children at the age of 2-4 year old were participated and selected through BPFAS, out of which 15 copies were considered to be concerned with the oral motor and feeding difficulties of the child. Therefore, 15 participants who were facing feeding difficulties with their children were recruited. Concerned Participants were further assessed by Occupational therapist with the help of ‘The com deall Oro-motor assessment scale for toddlers’. Results: According to The Com Deall Oral-motor assessment scale, some changes observed in the oral motor skills and When parental concern is considered via home plan including mealtime strategies with oral motor activities, the post intervention result showed decrease in Total problem score as well as in Total frequency score. Conclusion: The study concluded that continuous structured direct oral motor work as well as addressing parental concerns via home programs is helpful for the ASD children and gives better understanding of feeding difficulties to their parents. Also, some changes have been seen in oral motor skills through continuous practice of oral motor activities by the therapist.
Eman Abd Elkhalek Elnady, Ibrahim Mohamed Badraia, Adel Abd El-Haleim Hagag, Sarah Amr Hamam
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i230209

Abstract:
Background: Vitamin D, affecting many tissues and organs of the body. It exerts many of its effects through contact with Vitamin D receptor (VDR) It Is Important especially in immune system; Immune thrombocytopenia is one of the most common causes of symptomatic thrombocytopenia in children. Aim: The main objective of our study was to study vitamin D receptor level in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and effect of vitamin D supplementation upon the response of the thrombocytopenia to conventional therapy of ITP. Subjects and Methods: This is a case control study which included 30 ITP children, who would be attendants to Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital in Egypt. This study would include also 30 apparently healthy children matched in age and sex as a control group. The duration of the study ranges from 6 to 12 months, for all patients and controls the following were done: complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, serum level of Vitamin D receptors, serum calcium level, serum phosphorus level, serum alkaline phosphatase level and serum parathyroid hormone level. Results: the results revealed that mean ± SD of Vitamin D receptors in case group is 132.43 ± 14.58 and there was statistical difference between groups regarding Vitamin D receptor. There was statistical difference between platelets count and Serum total Ca (mg/dl) with negative correlation, while there was no statistical difference between platelets count and Vitamin D receptor. There was statistically significant difference in platelets count in patient with ITP before and after conventional treatment and platelets count in patient with ITP under conventional treatment plus vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion: VD receptors elevation is very common in ITP. Supplementing VD might diminish recurrence. Further research is needed.
Reshma Nakte, , Tata Arunakumari, Nagalla Balakrishna
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130208

Abstract:
Aim: To assess the association of mother’s literacy status with infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices and nutritional status of urban under 5 year children. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was carried out among 356 urban children under 5 years from 30 randomly selected Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) in Hyderabad, during 2017-18. The information regarding infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices was obtained from the mothers of under 5 year children. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight of all the children were measured adopting standard procedures and using standard anthropometric equipment. Results: About half of the mothers reportedly initiated breast feeding to their newborns within one hour of birth. The proportion of mothers fed pre-lacteals and colostrum to newborn was 35% and 96% respectively. A higher proportion of literate mothers (45.1%) exclusively breast fed their infants for the first 6 months as compared to their illiterate counterparts (32.9%). Significantly a higher proportion (63.3%) of literate mothers initiated complementary feeding to their infants soon after completion of 6 months as against 50% in illiterate mothers (p<0.05). The proportion of children with undernutrition i.e. underweight, stunting and wasting was 38.5%, 40.6% and 16.8%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among the children of illiterate mothers as compared to literate mothers. Conclusion: In general, mother’s literacy was significantly associated with the IYCF practices as well as nutritional status of their children. Therefore, respective Governments should initiate appropriate measures to increase female literacy levels in India.
, Ahmed Gaouzi, Asmae Touzani, Yamna Kriouile
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i130207

Abstract:
Hypothyroidism is the condition of thyroid hormone deficiency. It can be primary or acquired. Primary hypothyroidism can be congenital or late onset. The symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism may go unnoticed in newborns if undiagnosed. Untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to poor mental and intellectual development in children. Hypothyroidism’s clinical manifestations are often subtle or not present at birth. Common symptoms include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty, and constipation. On examination, common signs include myxoedematous facies, large fontanels, macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice. In general, the prognosis is excellent when this condition is detected by screening and started on treatment early.
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