NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2661-3328
Published by: Nan Yang Academy of Sciences Pte Ltd (10.36956)
Total articles ≅ 45
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Jean Augustin Rubabura Kituta
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i2.517

Abstract:
Ninety-six farmers interviewed in Kabare, east of the DR Congo during 2021 and WHO Hazard Class and health effects (2005) used. Farmers majority were males (79.17%), ranging 30 to 60 years, used different pesticides in vegetable farms and the main solanaceous crops cultivated is tomato. The use of insecticide and fungicide were high, with many different formulations of the difference class types recorded in use, (20%) endocrine disruptors, (40%) cholinesterase inhibitors, (35%) carcinogen and potential carcinogens suspected to be. A lot of out of those pesticides are unregistered for general use. Farmers applied pesticide once a week and did not have specific instructions either from the label or from extension staff regarding these tank mixtures. The skin effects, headaches and dizziness are dominant. They do not have a good system of pesticide packaging management. We propose options to reduce pesticide application based upon integrated pest Management (IPM) and agro ecology. Moreover, IPM increases farmer economy, thus decreasing poverty. We suggest that the Congolese government must create a quarantine, control and surveillance service for phytosanitary products, fruits and vegetables within the DRC country and at these borders.
Yekin Ahmed Ali
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i2.494

Abstract:
Food price inflation affects household welfare and the macroeconomy pervasively. The study estimated Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand system of six food groups to simulate the money costs of food prices inflation on households’ welfare and; predict relative potency of income and price policies to counter the effects in a particular context of South West Ethiopia. It drew on Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey data of 519 households collected by the Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. Rural households respond more to income and prices than do urban dwellers. The welfare losses from food price inflation fall heavily, more on urban households than their rural counterparts. On average, it requires resource allocations as large as percentage increases in prices to keep households’ welfare at pre-price change levels. It is suggested that a sector-specific mix of income and price policies could offset the negative consequences on consumers’ welfare.
Ude Kingsley D., Ogonna Olive Osuafor, Ofoha Donaldson C.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.472

Abstract:
The study analyzed awareness, attitude and behavioural intentions of medium and large scale poultry producers to poultry waste management practices in Lagos State with reference to problems of poor on-farm harness of excessive poultry waste, retrogression/unmet global environmental and economic waste management standards, exorbitant waste management charges imposed by LAWMA. Purposive and simple random sampling (using the lottery draw approach) was used in the selection of sixty (60) medium scale poultry farmers and forty (40) large scale poultry farmers, making a grand total of one hundred (100) medium and large scale poultry farmers interviewed in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the selected medium and large scale poultry farmers with the aid of a list provided by the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN), Lagos chapter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to analyse the data. In the principal component analysis for medium scale poultry farmers, the key component named was that LAWMA should offer special service for isolated dead bird collection (V75); and for large scale poultry farmers, the key component was that the disposal of poultry waste in an environmentally friendly way is LAWMA’s duty (V76). The study recommended that the government makes provisions to offer awareness campaigns in order to improve environmental knowledge and encourage environmental enthusiasm amongst society.
Jagvir Dixit, Naiem Jan Rawat
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.471

Abstract:
In the present study, self-propelled cabbage/cauliflower harvester was designed, developed and evaluated. The machine consisted of different components like engine, frame, shearing (cutting) unit and power transmission unit. The power transmission unit consisted of main clutch, shearing blade operating clutch, belt drive unit, chain and sprocket drive, universal joint and cutter blade assembly. The main working principle of harvester is based on shearing of crop stem against high-speed rotating blade. The power from the engine is transmitted by belt-pulley drive unit to transmission shaft on which chain and sprocket is mounted on one side and then power is transmitted to shearing blade coupling with the help of a stationary pulley and fixed socket. Average mean head diameter of the selected cabbage and cauliflower was 89.5 ± 15.24 mm and 107.5 ± 15.24 mm, respectively. Average mean stem (plant) diameter of the selected cabbage and cauliflower was 18 ± 4.85 mm and 21.5 ± 3.08 mm, respectively. The shearing force increased with increase in diameter of stem. The optimum performance of the machine was achieved when it was operated at 1.5 km/h forward speed and the shearing blade moving at speed of 147 rpm. The mean field capacity for developed prototype was observed as 0.063 ha/h and 0.053 in case of cabbage and cauliflower, respectively with field efficiency of 91.97 and 90.48 %. The average head damage was negligible (0.15 %) for both the crops. The average untrimmed percentage with developed harvester was 3.2 and 3.0% in case of cabbage and cauliflower crop, respectively. The developed machine helps to increase the field capacity in cabbage/cauliflower harvesting due to 7-times more capacity and 50% cheaper compared to traditional method of cabbage/cauliflower harvesting. At the operating condition of forward speed (1.5 km/h) and shearing blade speed (147 rpm), the machine could harvest 0.5 ha of cabbage and 0.42 ha of cauliflower farm per day of 8-h. This same task would have required between 15 labour per day if entirely done manually.
Ntabakirabose Gaspard, Harold Ogwal, Jean Baptiste Habinshuti, Musoni Protais, Jeanne Pauline Munganyinka, David Mwehia Mburu, Maniriho Festus
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.464

Abstract:
Environmental protection is one of the most important measures to achieve the long run and sustainability of living organisms in the world. The study was conducted in Burera and Gicumbi districts with the main aim of assessing the impact of environment protection in Rwanda. A case study of Rugezi Marchland. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 20 and STATA statistical software vision 13. Off-farm income, occupation, educational level, age, and farm size, showed a positive relationship with Rugezi marchland protection. Variables such as value of product distance to Rugezi marchland, gender, and family size had a negative influence on Rugezi marchland protection. The study also indicated that factors such as water management, increase of grass species, increase of wild animals and birds, modern house construction, zero grazing keeping revealing a positive relationship with Rugezi marchland protection. Two most serious problems encountered are the lack of occupation and low level of education.
Vugutsa J. E., Mosi R. O., Wambui C. C.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.424

Abstract:
The study sought to assess the level of knowledge on the utilization of termites, harvesting methods and characterise local edible termite species. Focus group discussion with key informants was used to collect data that was analysed using SPSS Version 21.0 to generate descriptive statistics. Results indicated different levels of termites’ utilisation where 45% of farmers use alates as food, 35% as feed for chicks and quails, while 20% use the queen to fatten young bulls. Majority of farmers (40%) prefer the use of termites as feed because it is readily available, followed with 20% that use it because of nutritive value,10% relate its use with better taste of poultry products, 5 % associate termite use in enhancing early maturity weight while 5% said it improves growth and strength of bulls. On harvesting, three methods are commonly used with most farmers (45%) using underground trapping method, (35%) use above ground trapping method but 20% use mound excavation. Varied plant materials are used as attractants and the effect is more when combined with dry cow dung. Farmers further characterised species based on time of emergence of alates and habitat’s physical features. Most respondents (45%) associated: big mounds with Macrotermes bellicosus (Mafendete); small mount to Macrotermes subhyalinus (Kitunda); presence of open big tunnels with Coptotermes millitaris (Riamke) while seasonal gallaries and small tunnels was a confirmatory feature of either Pseudocanthotermes militaris (Chiisiisi) and Pseudocanthotermes spiniger (Maburi). The study demonstrates the richness in indigenous knowledge on techniques of termite production and utilization.
Aman Gudeto, Tesfaye Alemu Aredo, Tadele Mirkena, Sandip Banerjee
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.429

Abstract:
Structural measurements are indicators of animal performance, productivity and carcass characteristics. This study was conducted with the objectives of assessing structural measurements, developing body weight prediction and structural indices for cows of Arsi breed. The cows were purchased from highland and lowland agro-ecologies of Arsi and East Shoa zones of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia and kept in Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center (ATARC) for the breed development purpose. Totally 222 cows were included in the structural traits measurement. Thirty four young heifers were also considered in the study. Twenty two structural traits were considered during observational survey. The structural index was calculated from the phenotypically correlated linear measurements. Structural traits were analyzed by T-test of SPSS version twenty four. The observed average values of height at wither, chest depth, heart girth, body length, pelvic width, cannon bone circumferences of the cows were 107, 55.62, 141.06, 117.82, 31.41 and 13.58cm, respectively. Heart girth (0.82), flank girth (0.73), hook circumferences (0.67), chest depth (0.65) and height at rump (0.64) were highly correlated (P< 0.01) to body weight of the cows. Regression analysis indicated that hearth girth had the highest coefficient of determination for body weight of the cows and heifers. Accordingly, the simple linear equations were developed to predict the body weight of cows and heifers. Body weight of Arsi cow (y) = -221.005 + 3.1(heart girth) and Body weight of Arsi heifer (y) = -188.452 + 2.75 (heart girth). Based on this, the measuring chart tape can be developed to estimate the body weight of Arsi cows and heifers at field condition where there is no access to weighing scales.
Alao F., Alatise M. O., Olanrewaju O.O., Oloruntade A. J.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.455

Abstract:
Shortage of freshwater is becoming a growing problem in both dry and semi-dry regions of the world, hence the need to make use of other source of water for agricultural production. The study was conducted to examine the performance of common reed in a constructed wetland for greywater treatment in Akure, Nigeria. Raw greywater was collected from Jadesola Hostel, Federal University of Technology, Akure, and pretreated through a combination of gravel of diameters < 32 mm, 24 mm and 16 mm with fine sand of diameter 0.2 mm arranged accordingly. The filtered water was thereafter released to a plastic constructed wetland (CW) which also consisted of same combination of layers of gravel and sand with common reed planted on it for complete treatment. The raw and treated greywater were analyzed for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), and heavy metals. It was discovered that CW planted with common reed was effective in the treatment of greywater with reduction in BOD by 91.4%, COD by 91.5% and TDS by 38.7%. CW had appreciable removal effect on heavy metals with reduction in: manganese (Mn) from 0.100 ppm to 0.012 ppm, iron (Fe) from 0.014 ppm to 0.002 ppm, lead (Pb) from 0.05 ppm to 0.001 ppm and zinc (Zn) from 0.154 ppm to 0.148 ppm. Therefore, the use of common reed in constructed wetland for greywater treatment is recommended for farmers involved in irrigation with greywater, especially during dry seasons, and most importantly under the rising global water scarcity due to climate change.
Jean Augustin Rubabura Kituta, Jean Berkmans Muhigwa Bahananga
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.457

Abstract:
This study assessing the infestation rate of fruit fly species on Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Capsicum spp, using incubation method, was conducted in Agricultural entomology laboratory of Research Centre in Natural Sciences (CRSN) Lwiro, at Kabare in The South Kivu Province in eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Five species of Tephritidae flies observed, i.e. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. latifrons, Dacus bivitatus, Ceratitis capitata, and Zeugodacus Cucurbitae. The highest infestation rate was observed on B. dorsalis and following C. capitata in those solanaceous chilli pepper (C. frutescens), eggplant (S. aethiopicum) and tomato (S. lycopersicum) than Z. cucurbitae, B. latifrons and D. bivittatus. However, the localities Kamakombe, Buhandahanda, Lwiro, Bishibiru have predominant in the majority of hosts in chilli pepper, eggplant and tomato.
Sharew Mekonnen, Belete Kuraz, Mulugeta Tesfaye
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.391

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the overall management practice and comparison of reproductive and productive performance between beneficiaries and none beneficiaries of oestrus synchronization and mass insemination (OSMI) of dairy cattle in north shewa zone of dairy cattle. Data were obtained by interviewing 270 estrus synchronization and mass insemination beneficiaries and 135 none beneficiaries’ dairy farmers. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packaging for social science (SPSS) version 20. Natural pasture and crop residue were the most common feed resources in the study areas. River water was the major source of water for their cattle and well water was used when river water is not available. In their order of importance; FMD, mastitis, and abortion were the major diseases of cattle in the study area. The reproductive performance of dairy cows in OSMI beneficiaries were age at first service (30.81±7.6), calving interval (6.9±5.2), lactation length (8.95±2.46), day open (5.3±3.18) and number of service per conception (1.5±0.38) whereas in none beneficiary age at first service (32.88±6.64), calving interval (18.18±5.8), lactation length (9.6±0.54), day open (5.17±3.43) and number of service per conception (1.22±0.54) months. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in milk yield between beneficiaries and none beneficiaries in HFC, HHFC and JERC dairy cows per day per cow.The major factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows are management, nutritional status, genotype, and disease. Therefor the productive and reproductive performance of the dairy cows reared by the participants were better than those of the nonparticipants.
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