NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture

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ISSN / EISSN : 2617-8907 / 2663-2160
Total articles ≅ 60
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Iryna Karaeva
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.22-27

Abstract:
Cultural studies cover the genesis and development of culture as a specific human lifestyle. Its universals are representations of human cultural experience, including humans, their life and death. The meaning of human life, death, and immortality became the main objects for consideration and research at all stages of Aldous Huxley’s literary activity.The analysis of his early philosophical novels and novels that offer an anti-utopian model of culture shows his tendency to destroy his characters in order to defend their personalities, a refusal to accept the patterns of ordinary being, when the man’s will is aimed only at self-preservation and reproduction. To identify this tendency, we studied the novels Crome Yellow, Antic Hay, Point Counter Point, Eyeless in Gaza, After Many a Summer, Time Must Have a Stop, Brave New World, Ape and Essence. At this stage of spiritual search, A. Huxley justifies suicide as a way of self-realization.Having reached the level of the philosophical outlook, A. Huxley proposes and promotes the spiritual ideals of self-improvement, love for neighbour as for ‘another one’, the attitude to death as an existential, which is a certain stage of human existence, not tragic but natural. It is reflected in the novel Island. Thanatology is one of the main subjects at school. The yoga of death is promoted: it treats life and death as a single entity, as a kind of art, which should result in Paranirvana.The article proves that A. Huxley’s stance on the problems of purpose of life, death, and immortality had been changing along with the evolution of his outlook. It is shown how this genesis is reflected in A. Huxley’s literary works. Death in A. Huxley’s works is interpreted via meta-anthropological approach as the existential transcendent being of man.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.54-63

Abstract:
The paper contributes to the anthropological debate surrounding the methodology of the New Melanesian Ethnography and the model of the dividual personhood it is based on. The author introduces a disciplinary and historical context in which the theory was formulated and proposes an extended explication of the monograph The Gender of the Gift that is generally credited as the seminal work for the theoretical movement. Two points of critique are introduced and foregrounded in the ethnographic material from Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu: the limited heuristic potential of the dividual model and its ideological relativism that is fraught with dangerous political consequences for the disciplinary project of anthropology.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.11-21

Abstract:
This article traces the implementation of the concept of ‘temple consciousness’ in hierotopic processes, including the construction of monuments and the organization of memorial sites. The memorials were designed to stand as an eternal reminder of an event that was experienced as a common heroic story in its symbolic representation. The study shows the transit and transformation of memorial discourse in the Soviet and post-Soviet symbolic spaces, which manifested itself in the redefinition of memorial sites in the direction of either actualization or levelling of the cultural and historical memory, given the dominant ideological paradigm. The sources of research, in addition to architectural and artistic monuments, include the mythopoetics of the mass culture, which also acts as a projection of ideology and contains archetypal patterns of the collective unconscious.Lenin’s memorialization as ‘the leader of the world proletariat’ became useful. The memorial policy of the Bolshevik Party was influenced by the ideas and events that took place back in history, including the discovery of the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in Luxor (1922) and the teachings of Russian cosmologist Nikolai Fedorov in the work Philosophy of Common Cause published in full in 1913. The use of religion should point to key preconditions that have ensured the development of Soviet ideology which should be codified through the dominance of religion, in particular as ‘political religion’ or ‘secular religion’. The peculiarity of this phenomenon is the merging of two forms of thinking: political and religious.In addition, the Bolshevik atheists allowed the bodily resurrection of Lenin considering their unconditional belief in the “science of the future”; incidentally, they were not mistaken, because the leader’s body, engaged in the research work, survived until the invention of the cloning procedure. The secularized religious energy was mobilized to achieve political goals, which made possible the implementation of a totalitarian system, revealing the imitative essence of totalitarianism, which parasitized on religious thinking. Lenin’s Mausoleum is seen as a reliquary temple in the view of the communist cult of Eternity, which became the basis of Lenin’s cult.The levelling of the cult of Lenin began in the 1970s, which was facilitated by the pompous celebration of his 100th anniversary, which gave rise to political anecdotes as a symptom of the destruction of Lenin’s myth. The Revolution of Dignity (2013–2014) in Ukraine contributed to the dismantling of monuments to Lenin which were seen as personifications of Soviet-style ‘Leninism’ and symbols of imperial-Russian oppression.The purpose of this article is to substantiate the legitimacy of the author’s proposed concept of ‘political hierotopy’.
Valentyna Panchenko, Daryna Zhyvohliadova
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.28-34

Abstract:
Globalization processes stimulate the search for new principles of organization of a multicultural environment, optimization of dialogue of its subjects, and the search for new organizational structures of cooperation that would meet the qualitatively new challenges of international coexistence in a post-industrial society. In order to effectively reconcile interests and support the sustainable development of a common world, the multiplicity of actors and forms of intercultural interaction in modern realities requires the ability to direct intercultural cooperation to reorganize the system of transnational cultural practices. International cooperation is becoming a space and a way to promote the sustainable development of solidarity, interdependent communities, creating the most complex system of joint action, led by global international institutions and network structures.The network form of organization of interaction in the field of culture provides cooperation with more varied opportunities for the formation of common resources (tangible and intangible), optimizes the entire system of coordination of their mutual influence on cultural policy and social change. A classic example of a successful and thoughtful organization of network cooperation is the functioning of the European network on cultural management and policy (ENCATC). The network promotes the development and implementation of new key competencies in the field of cultural policy, cultural and creative industries at both local and global levels of the world community. ENCATC expands the resources of cultural management by finding new modern forms and mechanisms for synchronizing knowledge and actions, the synergy of local project experiences, and other forms of activity not only in the field of culture but also in the socio-political, economic spaces of cooperation.
Borys Chumachenko
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 90-98; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.90-98

Abstract:
In this article an attempt is made to place Bakhtin’s case in the context of the Soviet 1960s with their specific mental world. The study question is why this almost forgotten figure of the 1920s has become a proper man in a proper place in time of transition from Stalin’s Great Fear to Khrushchov’s liberalization with its continuation till 1968 and how this resurrection from the dead occured. The virtues and scientific significance of Bakhtin’s works are doubtless and undeniable. But there is something else that helps to explain Bakhtin’s phenomenon and its popularity. His readers mentality determines the fate of books and the spreading of ideas. The sixties witnessed the unprecedented success of Bakhtin’s books. They changed the vocabulary of humanities and the mode of thinking in the generation of so-called Thaw. Bakhtin became one of the most influential figures of the sixties and greatly stimulated the emergence of the new trend known as culturology. Bakhtin’s Rabelais was a special success. This text can be read on different levels and interpreted in many ways. Its content combines such genres as literary criticism, the history of culture, and philosophy. The readers of the sixties paid special attention to Bakhtin’s vision of popular culture with its central image of carnival and were especially sensitive and receptive for the concept of Laughing Renaissance as a spiritual twin of Thaw which had Marxist roots, not Bakhtin’s. Thanks to the complexity of the text’s possible interpretation, Bakhtin was mistakenly considered as an ideologist of Thaw, and his Rabelais – as an intellectual product of this historical moment full of optimism, great expectations and hopes. Bakhtin was read by the generation of the 1960s in accordance with its mentality, its pursuit of a new form of “Socialism with human face” when left and even Marxist ideas dominated in the non-conformist discourse. But all of that had little in common with authentic Bakhtin who could share neither this philosophical worldview nor the illusions of the 1960s. The view of laughter as a kind of social therapy and as a means of emancipation in society was far from Bakhtin’s. He fully realized the demonic nature of carnival and saw it as his ambivalent ally from hell hostile to every kind of ideocracy. His readers who had invented Renaissance as a prototype of their time and the first Thaw in history misunderstood the inner intentions of Bakhtin himself. But doing this quite unconsciously, they gave the first and triumphant life for the outstanding scientific and philosophical text on Rabelais written by the person of a damaged life from the past.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 64-69; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.64-69

Abstract:
The article regards the phenomenon of the icon in the interpretation of Greek theologian and philosopher Christos Yannaras. His work Personality and Eros is taken as a basis, where the author describes this phenomenon, based on a thorough body of works of Orthodox thought.The icon is primarily considered not only as a model of reality, reflection or image of events and objects, or allegory-allegory; attention is focused on the icon as a category of cognition. The study traces the conditions of functioning of the iconological language, as well as its connection with apophatic and cataphatic theological thought. The specifics of the poetics of the iconological language are also revealed, aiming at both concealment and elucidation of the truth.An attempt is also made to transfer the theory of the icon to the anthropological plane, in accordance with the erotic gesture of self-denial. The focus is on the aesthetic component of the iconic perception not only of icons but also of other phenomena of art or the surrounding world. Thus, owing to the derivatives of the theory of the icon, the analysis of art in the anthropological plane is carried out.Possible types of reduction of the iconological language according to the function of the icon as a means of cognition are also revealed. In this regard, the significance of the so-called ‘theology of assimilation’ and its possible connection with the moralistic reduction in the interpretation of Ch. Yannaras are analyzed. On the other hand, aesthetic reduction is also described, which, in turn, has the ability to provoke iconoclastic resistance.Thus, the aim of the work is to study the phenomenon of the icon as a category of knowledge in the works of Ch. Yannaras, as well as to consider the icon and the iconological language in their connection with issues of the aesthetic and anthropological nature.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.46-53

Abstract:
Ruth Benedict’s Patterns of Culture has a long history of professional criticism by cultural anthropologists. Still, at the beginning of the 1990s, appeared singular attempts of critical rethinking of the concept of patterns of culture, which were provided with appropriate reconstruction. The initiative belonged to P. Bock and S. Leavitt. Other instances of critical analysis came from attempts to generalize the phenomenon of re-reading the works of Ruth Benedict. In this article those rare initiatives of ‘critical re-reading’ are represented by the paper by B. Babcock and J. Boon. As an analytical unit for reviewing B. Babcock’s academic exposition of conceptual considerations and criticisms, we chose the description of positive perception by Ruth Benedict of the idea from W. Dilthey that we have no grounds for hoping to get any eventual categorical form of rationalization of life from philosophy. As the textual analysis has shown, Ruth Benedict picked this postulation of W. Dilthey’s to block the effect of ‘final’ apologetical theses for support and acceptance of functional descriptions of living archaic cultures of Trobriand Islands and Mainland of Melanesia by B. Malinowski as a template for description of any culture. Regarding the attachment of gestalt psychology implications to existing apologetic arguments for presentation of the mentioned functional descriptions of living archaic cultures as a sample for description of any living culture, the multiplicative meaning of Dilthey’s thesis for Ruth Benedict becomes clear. This multiplicative assignment of Dilthey’s argument shows that in critical reconstruction by P. Bock and S. Leavitt gestalt psychology implications were incautiously presented as a horizon for inclusion of the ideas of configuration, individuality, and culture into the concept of pattern of culture. Concurrently, J. Boon managed to demonstrate that descriptions of antagonism of Indian tribes of Pueblo and Plain cultures contain no depictions of internal testing of one culture by the other. Therefore, a full description of these cultures antagonism as opposition of Apollonian and Dionysian patterns of Indian tribes of Pueblo and Plain culture made up the focal matter of ‘dispositional description’, which is an important methodological achievement of Ruth Benedict.
Lyudmila Gots
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 5-10; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.5-10

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to study mythological transhumanism in the context of the problem of artificial life in the folktales of premodern. The research methodology in the field of cultural studies is based on the comparative mythology, genetic method, as well as structural, semiotic, hermeneutic, and axiological analysis. The criterion for selecting plots for analysis in this article is the category of artificial life created with the help of technology (everyday household practices, craft, magic, etc.), as opposed to birth or revival solely by the order of the demiurge. This paper argues that transhumanistic intentions of humanity are already represented in mythological and traditional thinking. The study showed a frequent use of the motive of the creation of artificial life by a person in folktales. This suggests that transhumanistic thinking may be universal in culture. The peculiarities of the representation of the problems of artificial life in the traditional consciousness are revealed. It was found that folktales about the creation of artificial life from natural materials are related with animism, totemism, and magical ideas. It was found that the mythological creation of artificial life by a demiurge has an invariant in the folk tales. It is the implementation of the transhumanistic act of human creation of artificial life with the help of technologies (everyday household practices, craft, magic). The image of an ordinary head of the household, artisan, master reflects the archetype of the demiurge-creator, the Magician, while the image of an artificial creation reflects the archetype of the Doll who Came to Life. The “man–god” and “alive–dead” binary opposition is blurred in traditional thinking. Quasi-parents treat their artificial creations resemble ordinary children. At the same time, the status of a quasi-child is interpreted ambiguously: as a blessing for quasi-parents, as a curse, or in a neutral way. We found out the reasons why folktales about the creation of artificial life often have a negative ending.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 106-112; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.106-112

Abstract:
Perception of museums as space of co-operation between public and collections is rethought constantly, with primarily taking into account a sociocultural situation. It is reflected on the specifics of the direction of activity and determination of the mission of different museums. Nowadays, scientists interpret the museum space as social space and regard museums as institutes of social memory (historical memory or cultural memory). Communication, interactivity, and participation are considered to be the main components determining the development of the modern museum. The aim of this study is to analyse the strategy of determination of priority directions of the museum activity and the place and role of museums in the processes of memory. Museums accumulate and translate the experience of a certain culture and the way they present this experience; it is a part of the complicated process of formation of the nation identity. Museum professionals often say that an important task now is to choose one and only line among the events and to create a common collective experience that in turn influences the self-identity of an individual. First, every museum must choose the educational strategy and define the priority directions of their activity. The sharpest discussions in Ukraine concern the direction of the national museums. If a museum considers the priority direction of the activity organization of leisure, then the question is whether it can have the status of national. The function of leisure is important but cannot be basic; in fact, the essence of the museum is the function of cognition. A special attention should be paid to the fact that a tendency of “walls without the museum,” that is the museum without traditional collections, now undergoes substantial changes. Such museums afterwards begin to complete their own collection. It is presently impossible to ignore such an important theme as the maintenance of the cultural heritage and digital transformation. Museums actively use multimedia technologies for the maintenance and popularization of the heritage. But a specific feature of the museum as an institution of storage, study, andtranslation of subject forms of culture has not been lost. Museum objects themselves are the basis of adaptive and inculturation possibilities of the museum. In the epoch of globalization, a museum can create optimal terms for the cultural identification. Presently our task is not consideration of certain historic events and their influence on forming the historic memory of the Ukrainian people. It is important to mark that potential of museums as grounds of proceeding in the national memory and Ukrainian identity considerable enough, but not exposed, and not only by regional museums. The study and use of experience of the creation of complex narratives on difficult questions of history in the museums of the world are important enough for Ukrainian museum professionals. Modern museums, while developing projects related to traumatic remembrances, questions of firmness, dialogue, problems of reconciliation in conflict periods of history, run into numerous problems but must not forget that these projects will assist a reflection among the public.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture, Volume 4, pp 113-118; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-8907.2021.4.113-118

Abstract:
The article researches the topic of “artistic distrust” as a possible rebel path of the rebellious artists from the mainstream to the underground existence. The artist’s existence of reality on the principle of doubt about any norms (the model of “anthropology of distrust”) has a long historical longevity. Through the analysis of both high-quality works of art and safe normative art in different periods we observe various examples that may show this point of view. In medieval art we notice the precedent of “disobedience” and non-compliance with the norms of the official church in decorations of the temples and overcoming of anonymity. Thus the artist Anton Pilgram resorted to self-affirmation, as long as the master signed his own work in the spotlight and made a self-portrait on it.From the Renaissance, the idea of individual search, experiment, that is, disobedience and doubt in traditions, has been working in the minds of Europeans. The latest philosophical thought of the beginning of the “anthropology of distrust” sees its origins in the worldview models of the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci, with his curiosity and the genius of exploration, has remained an iconic figure to this day and an obvious symbol of total doubt and distrust of all that is established. With the ideal of a beautiful, flawless man, philosophy and art parted with difficulty, in the dramatic realization that it was time to present the unattractive, the ugly, the unfinished, and the negative as artistic qualities in the works of the New Age. “Anthropology of distrust,” doubting the inviolability of existing (at different times) norms manifests itself dualistically. In the works of great masters the denial of norms thatexisted in the art of a particular era had a progressive, positive meaning, because it opened up new levels of worldview to culture. In global art practice, the vast majorities of artists were and are conformists. Conformism in art supports tradition, holds the level of skill, but has no pretensions to open new horizons in the artistic reflection of the world. The situation is quite different when the artist questions any stability in art, or totally denies them. This is not a riot for the sake of a riot, but a feeling of something missing that the artist himself is not yet able to explain. According to the promising thinking of the bright philosophers of the 17th–20th centuries, self-distrust, doubts about the perfection of one’s own achievements, and a look into the non-existent are productive for culture. These impulses of the psyche proved to be fundamental and indisputable in the mentality and culture of modern times. The most radical were the programs of Dadaism and Futurism. In a person of the pre-modern era, the deviation from the norm caused stupor. Now the procedural features of the “anthropology of distrust,” the feeling of one’s own deficiency activate the artist’s creative thought and encourage a reckless search, sometimes even complete self-denial. At all times, until today, the bravest in their own rebellion against existing norms (both artistic and social) often fall on the margins of life and the artistic process, or even underground. Such artists are not understood or supported by the general public, and even worse, they are treated with suspicion and sometimes hostility. In the early 1990s, when the young generation of Ukrainian artists opposed the remnants of the Soviet mentality in both art and social life, the “anthropology of distrust” had a life-giving meaning. The mobilizing philosophy of “distrust” regarding the normative nature of socialist realism led to the formation of Ukrainian “contemporary art” which later turned into neo-conformism.
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