Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases

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EISSN : 2582-3221
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 153
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A. B. Dharmarathna, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430245

Abstract:
Introduction: An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown reason was named as COVID-19 by WHO and declared as pandemic. It was observed as most people infected with the COVID-19 virus is mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without getting treatment. Older people with chronic diseases are more likely to develop serious illness. There is no effective modern medicine available so far for the treatment of COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the Knowledge on prevention of COVID-19 Epidemic in among the Traditional Doctors. Methodology: Descriptive study was conducted among the 20 Traditional Practitionerson Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic by purposively selected, open ended questionnaire that used a 5-point Likert scale for the response option. Recoding in to different variable and Analysis each question. According to that frequency distribution as 1-3 responses in to1 - Inadequate knowledge 4-5 responses in to 2- Adequate knowledge. The questionnaire included socio demographic characteristics, questions regarding the Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic (Q1 toQ10). SPSS Software (16 version) used for Statistical analyzing. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, mean mode, Slandered deviation and percentage were used to describe variables. Results: According to the present study mean age was 49.6+1.2737(SD). Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 Adequate knowledge vary in 50 -80% and Inadequate knowledge vary in 15-50%. In our study 80% of them were mentioned that corona infection was mainly affected to the respiratory tract, most common symptoms were sore throat in 70%, transmission of the Corona infection through air 50%, reduce social distance less than one meter 80% was the main cause for the infection transmission through the society, the precautions for prevent the corona infection through the society that Keeping social distance more than one meter in 85%, The advises given by them in the management lived separately from others until cure the diseases in 45%,The treatment protocol followed them in the treatment Administration of immunity enhancement drugs 30%, wholesome foods and behaviors suitable for corona infection were reducing Kaphadosha (one of the body humor) 35%. Conclusion: In the present study Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 most of them have adequate knowledge. Although they were not expressed much details of the treatment protocol in the management. It is recommended that further large scale studies are needed to confirm the knowledge and Prevention of Corona epidemic.
Benatta Mahmoud
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430244

Abstract:
Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a mesenchymal tumour composed of variable proportions of adipose tissue and vascular and smooth muscle elements. It can cause potentially life-threatening complications. This report aims to describe a bilateral angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis of Bourneville; the second aim is to discuss the treatment modalities of this disease. A 51-year-old woman with abdominal mass and characteristic triad: Epilepsy, mental retardation and skin lesions (adenoma) (Fig. 1), with no notion of hematuria or abdominal pain, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showing bilateral renal masses of 28.4×17 cm on the left kidney and 22× 11.7 cm on the right, respectively (Fig. 2-3). Serum creatinine was 13.4g/l. Body-scan imaging finds cardiac rhabdomyoma (Fig. 4) and brain calcifications (Fig. 5). the patient underwent surveillance with scan imaging every month, and at the last control, she was asymptomatic, serum creatinine was still normal. The management of giant bilateral AML is a complex and multifactorial decision. Patients can knowingly choose an active surveillance program, even with giant AML, but the economic situation and mental status can limit the therapeutic choice.
Mohammad Jahidur Rahman Khan, Samshad Jahan Shumu, Farzana Mim, Selim Reza
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430243

Abstract:
Vaccines are one of the most significant innovations of modern science. Worldwide, millions of lives are saved each year by the vaccine. Vaccine hesitancy, which represents the refusal to receive vaccines when vaccination services are available and reachable, is a major obstacle to global health. While vaccine hesitancy has been present for many years, its damaging effects are likely to be more evident during the COVID-19 pandemic than ever before. This study aimed to find out common causes of vaccine hesitancy, assess COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates worldwide, and present the approaches by which vaccine hesitancy rate can be reduced. This study revealed though vaccine hesitancy is a worldwide phenomenon, the causes differ from country to country or reign. More studies are needed to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, especially in the Middle and South America, the Middle East and North Africa, Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe. The leading causes of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are found lack of confidence towards the government or pharmaceutical companies, less concern about the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and shortage of supply of different types of COVID-19 vaccines. Healthcare personnel and social media play an essential role in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Convincing the general population about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, the consequence of being unvaccinated, and the delivery of free vaccines in an easily accessible way can reduce vaccine hesitancy rate.
C. A. Ologunde, F. T. Akinruli, T. O. Layo-Akingbade
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430242

Abstract:
Introduction: Malaria, Typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis, AIDS and hepatitis B virus disease are major public health problems in the tropical and subtropical countries; they exert a huge burden of morbidity, mortality and economic loss on the populace. Aims: The study investigates the prevalence of co–infection of malaria, typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis, hepatitis B virus and HIV virus among 306 students between the ages of 10- 21 years in three local government areas of Ekiti – state Nigeria. Methodology: Blood samples were randomly collected for the examination of malaria parasites, typhoid fever, hepatitis B virus and HIV virus while urine examination was done for urinary schistosomiasis by random sampling and survey for a period one week. Results: The results show that the overall prevalence of malaria, typhoid fever, urinary schistosomiasis and hepatitis B virus were 42.2%, 2.9%, 2.9% and 2.9% respectively. The female students had the highest prevalence of single infection with malaria fever having the highest figure (42.2%). Malaria and Urinary schistosomiasis had the highest prevalence of double infection of 2.3 %, while schistosomiasis and hepatitis B had the lowest prevalence of 0.3%. Also, male students had the highest prevalence of double and triple infections. The co-infection rate of malaria, urinary Schistosomiasis and hepatitis B was 0.3% and this occurred in male between the ages of 19-21 years, none of the students tested positive for HIV virus and therefore no students was found in the quaternaries. Conclusion: Co-infections is prevalent in this study area, therefore there should be integrated control approach directed against these diseases.
Akriti Kafle, , Sudip Khanal, , Sirjana Pandit Pahari, Pratikshya Gurung, , Kabita Pathak, Suraj Baral, Anil Kafle, et al.
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 31-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330241

Abstract:
It is great time to know the psychological consequences and know how hoteliers are coping to it because of Covid19 lockdown. Thus we tried to access prevalence of perceived stress and associated factors among hoteliers of Nepal. A hotel based quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire cum interview schedule. The data was recorded in Microsoft Excel sheet, and was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. A descriptive analysis was done using mean, frequency, percentage and standard deviation. Bivariate analysis was done using Mann-whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test as the data were non-normal. Significance level was observed at p-value less than 0.05. There was significant relation between stress score and variables like age, gender, marital status, smoking, alcohol, bread winner, sound sleep, family conflict, too many responsibilities, pay loans, pay rent of hotel, other source of income, paying salary, happy with government, lockdown only solution, economic problem and social problems. (p -value <0.05) Male had significantly higher stress than female. Similarly married participants showed significantly higher stress than unmarried. Stress level has been increased among the hoteliers of Nepal due to covid19 lockdown and has affected the tourism sector very badly.
, Pius Ononigwe, Faith Ireye, Patrick Okundia, Osamuyi Irowa, Helen Eboreime, Ekaete Tobin, Lauretta Iruobe, Bruce Osa, Uwa Okhuarobo, et al.
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330240

Abstract:
Background: Positivity rate is a very reliable indicator in determining the effectiveness of public health interventions of infectious disease magnitude. Aim: To use positivity rate as performance indicator of effectiveness of COVID-19 Control measures in Edo State, Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Laboratory based record review of 20,220 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based laboratory results from COVID-19 line-list analysed from the four (4) NCDC accredited molecular laboratory within Edo State. The weekly COVID-19 test positivity was computed in relation to the total samples tested between 23rd March to 30th November, 2020. Data collected were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 software with statistical significance set at p˂0.050 and 95% Confidence Interval. Results: A total of 20,220 PCR results reviewed with 2696 (13.3%) COVID-19 cases identified while 17,524 (86.7%) were negative. The average weekly sample collection and testing was 552.28 ± 369.98, with average weekly COVID-19 case yield and positivity rate (%) of 77.89 ±106.23 and 12.20±13.75% respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was identified between sample tested and COVID-19 case yield (R = 0.569; < 0.01). The first wave of the COVID-19 in Edo State witnessed a consistent and progressive decline in test positivity rate till it deepened at 0.6 % by the end of November, 2020. Conclusion: Increasing sample testing has significant positive correlation with COVID-19 case detection in Edo State. Positivity rate was a good indicator to monitor COVID-19 outbreak response in Edo State. Targeted surveillance and sample collection for testing can significantly help improve the quality and case yield during epidemic outbreak response. Bridging the gap in sample collection for testing can greatly influence how quickly an epidemic outbreak response and control is achieved.
, Jitendra D. Lakhani, Pramod R. Jha
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330239

Abstract:
Here we are presenting a case of dengue fever presented with an atypical symptom of “oculogyric crisis” with features of multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Increased vascular permeability, plasma leakage, haemorrhagic manifestations, and thrombocytopenia are charecteristics of dengue fever. A 19 year old male patient, with no co-morbidity came to Dhiraj hospital with chief complaints of fever which was high grade & intermittent, it is associated with chills & rigours for 5 days. Also complain of abdominal pain over epigastric region, dull aching non radiating associated with decreased appetite since 5 days. Dengue infection has a wide range of clinical features. Neurological complications can occur in any spectrum of dengue infection. The diagnosis of oculogyric crisis is majorly clinical and it requires a focused detailed history and detailed physical examination to find out possible triggers for the crisis and to rule out other reasons for abnormal eye movements.
Oluwalana T. Oyekale, Bola O. Ojo, Damilola E. Oguntunmbi, Oluwatoyin I. Oyekale
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330237

Abstract:
Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are among the commonest infectious diseases requiring hospitalization. There is an increasing resistance development of bacterial pathogens of LRTIs to the commonly prescribed antibiotics necessitating regular surveillance for these bacteria and their antibiogram. Aim: To identify bacterial pathogens of adult LRTIs, determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and suggest the best empirical treatment of adult LRTIs in the setting. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 194 respiratory samples from 194 consecutive consenting adult in-patient of a Federal Teaching Hospital were processed. Identification of isolated bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates were carried out following the standard protocol. Results: Bacteria isolation was seen in 52.1% of all specimens, highest isolation rate was from sputum (55.2%). Isolation was higher in males (54.9%) than females (48.1%) but no significant difference was seen (P=0.36). Gram negative bacteria were predominantly isolated (64.4%) and Klebsilla pneumoniae was the most common (33.7%). Eight extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were also detected. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. All MRSAs were sensitive to vancomycin. There was poor sensitivity pattern seen against most antibiotics tested. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria were the predominant bacterial pathogen isolated, and isolates were resistant to most antibiotics tested, though, all were sensitive to carbapenems. Levofloxacin plus gentamicin, and carbapenems were the suggested first and second line empirical treatment of choice respectively for adult LRTIs in this and similar settings.
, H. N. Ravikumar, Vani Ravikumar, C. Vani
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330236

Abstract:
Background: Novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since the beginning of 2020 leading to range of symptoms from mild flu to respiratory distress, which is called COVID-19. RTPCR being the main diagnostic test can confirm the presence of the virus in the clinical samples, while various studies have defined Interleukin-6 and D-dimer as potent biomarker for severity. In this study, we have attempted to correlate the severity of COVID-19 with the presence of IL-6 and D-dimer and the Cycle threshold (Ct vlue) as determined by chip based RTPCR. Aim: The study aims to correlate the Cycle threshold value obtained after chip-based RT-PCR with markers such as IL-6 and D-Dimers. Methodology: It is a retrospective, observational study done in 799 subjects in a span of three months (August 2020 to October 2020) at R V Metropolis Diagnostic and Healthcare Pvt Ltd. All symptomatic patients who tested positive in the Laboratory for COVID-19 by chip-based RT-PCR were included. Chip based RTPCR or Truenat test was performed on Nasopharyngeal swabs of the suspected subjects. Interleukin-6 was determined by Electrochemiluminiscence assay while D-dimer was done on the principle of Chemiluminiscence. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 12.0 version. Results: Total number of subjects enrolled were 799, with mean age of the subjects being 46.80± 17.55 years. In the study, males were found to be affected by COVID-19 more than females with ratio of male to female being 1.65:1. 498 (62.3%) of males presented with COVID-19 while it was observed in 301 (37.6%) females. Out of 799 subjects, 289 (36.2%) were symptomatic and out of 289 subjects, 140 (17.5% of total subjects) required hospitalisation. Cycle threshold values of both screening as well as confirmatory genes were determined separately in the cases of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and there was no significant difference between the Ct values in cases of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were subcategorised under hospitalised and non-hospitalised and Again, no significant difference was seen between the two subset of patients in terms of Ct-value and, indirectly, the viral load of their clinical sample. The results convey that IL-6 and D-Dimer was significantly high (p=0.001 and <0.001 respectively) in case of symptomatic patients.D-Dimer was significantly high (p= <0.001) in the patients who needed hospitalisation. IL-6 was significantly raised as well (p=0.02). Screening and confirmatory gene were found to have no significant relationship with IL-6 and D-Dimer, neither any correlation was observed with them. Conclusion: Biomarkers such as Interleukin-6 and D-dimer can very well help in determining the severity and need for hospitalisation in a COVID-19 affected patient, but they have been found to have no relationship with cycle threshold value of RTPCR in our study.
, Djam Chefor Alain, Charles Kouanfack
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i230234

Abstract:
Aim: The purpose of this work is to assess changes that occur on COVID-19 infection in Cameroon since the start of the epidemic. Study Design: We use a data-based analysis on longitudinal data of reported COVID-19 cases in Cameroon. Place and Duration: The data for the study were obtained from the reports of confirmed COVID-19 cases from an official website between March 7, 2020 to September 29, 2021. Methodology: A modified Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SIRD) model for the contagion was used to describe the cumulated cases of COVID-19 during different phases of the epidemic that correlated with highest spikes. The approach features several aspects: one is that model parameters can be time-varying, allowing us to capture possible changes of the epidemic behaviour, due for example to containment measures enforced by authorities or modifications of the epidemic characteristics, country events, and COVID-19 vaccine introduction; the second aspect is that the model accounts for a social distancing parameter. The time-varying parameters was handled using a phase-to-phase modelling in which initial parameters were the number of susceptible individuals at the end of each phase. In addition, daily incidence data were used to estimate daily reproduction number. Secondly, we used an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) approach to analyse the dynamic of the effective reproduction number R and forecast the new number of infected contacts. Results: There was less than 54% compliance of social distancing during all phases. The reproduction number was above 1 during each phase of the analysis. As of September 2021, it was 2.43 suggesting a constant increase of infection. Time-series of the reproduction number was unseasonal and stationary. Forecasting of R gave a value of more than 2, suggesting a continued rise in the number of infected cases in the Country in the next coming months. Conclusion: It is uncertain when the pandemic will last in the country. While social distancing is in decrease, prevention through vaccination is an option to reach more people and stop the propagation of the disease.
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