Veterinary Science Research
EISSN : 2661-3867
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 25
Latest articles in this journal
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2633
In animal research systematic reviews and meta-analysis have been playing an important role improving the quality of evidence that professionals use worldwide. However, it is claimed that it is in its initial stage of development. In veterinary medicine the heterogeneity in the evaluation of variables of exposure and response makes it difficult to gather the data results for a meta-analysis and evidence-based rapid reviews and other types of reviews can accelerate the way how we obtain this information and a problem-solving approach can be developed in the veterinary medicine field.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2877
Characterization of genetically modified organisms through determination of zygosity and transgene integration concerning both copy number and genome site is important for breeding a transgenic line and the use of these organisms in the purpose for which it was obtained. Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization or mating are demanding and time-consuming techniques traditionally used in the characterization of transgenic organisms and, with the exception of mating, give ambiguous results. With the emergence of the real-time quantitative PCR technology, different applications have been described for the analysis of transgenic organisms by determination of several parameters to transgenic analysis. However, the accuracy in quantitation by this method can be influenced in all steps of analysis. This review focuses on the aspects that influence pre-analytical steps (DNA extraction and DNA quantification methods), quantification strategies and data analysis in quantification of copy number and zygosity in transgenic animals.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2623
The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction method for R. tomentosa and C. zeylanicum leaves and the evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts. The results of the study showed that the active ingredients of crude extracts were clearly separated by Thin-layer chromatography and the presence of rhodomyrtone in R. tomentosa crude extract and cinnamaldehyde in C. zeylanicum crude extract. R. tomentosa crude extract was antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with 13.1 mm of inhibition zone, but is not effective against Salmonella Typhimurium. C. zeylanicum leaf extract did not show antibacterial activity on both S. aureus and S. Typhimurium. At a dilution of 1/2 of the R. tomentosa crude extract can completely inhibit S. aureus growth. This study also indicated the presence of antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in C. zeylanicum and R. tomentosa crude extracts. The results showed that R. tomentosa and C. zeylanicum crude extracts should be used as a biotherapy alternative to antibiotic therapy. However, further study would be needed to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts in vivo.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/vsr.v3i1.2634
Ticks are common in the world. Diseases caused by ticks and fleas bring significant economic losses to the livestock industry. With the pathogens they carry, Blood-fed ticks infect humans and domestic animals. This study was conducted between January 01 and August 30, 2018, in the Konya province of Turkey, to determine the prevalence and species of ticks in cattle. 272 pieces of cattle were examined in terms of tick infestations. These cattle were selected from herds of 16 different cattle breeders in 5 different regions of Konya. Ticks were collected by the simple random sampling method. Tick infestation was detected in 70 (25.7%) pieces of cattle that were examined during the study.Tick infestation was followed in 68 (29.3%) pieces female cattle and 2 (5%) pieces male cattle. During the study conducted, the following results had been determined; according to age, 12 (14.5%) of ticks were juvenile, 58 (30.7%) of them were adults, according to the body condition, 26 (23.4%) of them were good, 35 (26.1%) of them were average and 9 (33.3%) of them were week.It is found that cattle in the study area were infested in the tick species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus 65/272 (23.9%) and R. bursa 5/272 (%1.8). 332 female and 304 male total of 636 ticks were collected from the cattle. Genders were determined under a stereomicroscope. The high tick infestation shows that fight against tick is a hard process, and planning is a must to reduce the tick burden in cattle. Besides, this study will enable us to make suggestions to the relevant sectors in terms of parasitic struggle in eliminating the health and economic problems caused by ticks in the Konya province by determining the prevalence and species.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2624
Seasonal climatic variations is one of the most important environmental issue at present, the devastating impact of which is visualized on the ecology, ecosystem and species survival. The livestock sector, that has been the source of animal protein for ever-increasing human masses, is subjected to the increased environmental temperature and higher frequency of extreme events. The impact of high degree of heat stress is found to have a direct bearing on the milk production, growth, feed intake, reproductive efficiency and disease incidence of the animals. The environmental temperature above the thermo-neutral zone of the animals has not only been adversely affecting the productivity and survival in the intensive livestock production systems, but the impact is equally seen in the extensive systems. Besides reduced milk production and change in composition, the impact of heat stress on dairy animals in general can be seen from the reduction of sperm quantity and quality in case of male and marked decline in the fertility and embryo quality in case of females. The paper analyses varied aspects of climate change impacts on production, productivity, reproduction and health of livestock, with special focus on dairy animals.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2673
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite, with worldwide distribution. The main source of infection for humans is livestock and meat-producer animals. The relationships between Toxoplasma genotype and biological characteristics of the parasite have already been identified. According to the pathogenicity of the parasite in laboratory animals, Toxoplasma is divided into three genotypes included type I, II and III. Understanding the genotype of the parasite, could help us to predict clinical features and severity of disease. The aim of this study was to identify genotypes of T. gondii in cattle and sheep meat and meat products in Ahvaz city southwest of Iran.One hundred and ninety samples of tongue, heart and muscles of sheep and cattle and meat products, including sausages and burgers, were collected from slaughterhouses and stores. To identify Toxoplasma gondii, DNA were extracted from samples and B1 gene were amplified by specific primers. To determine the genotype of T.gondii, PCR-RFLP was done on positive samples using by amplifying GRA6 gene and endonuclease Msel enzyme. Data analysis showed that the strain of the parasite in all positive samples belonged to genotype I.In this study the predominant Toxoplasma genotype was type I which can cause severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients. Further research is needed to determine the genotype of the parasite in humans and other animals.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2638
Quality milk production in modern dairy systems is facing many challenges. Salient in them is mastitis which is responsible for decline in milk production, altered milk composition and compromised udder health. The malaise consists of multiple bacterial etiologies which can be broadly classified into contagious pathogens and environmental pathogens S. aureus is being isolated invariably in all epidemiological studies, followed by E. coli. Pathogenic virulence in mastitis is often accounted due to microbial ability of producing wide array of virulence factors that enhances pathogenicity and sustainment potential in the epithelial linings of udder. Mastitis affects quality parameters of milk i.e. constitutional as well as mineral profile due to local damage and inflammatory mediators. It decreases the lactose secretion because of oxidative stress generated due to the formation of free radicals in the milk. In mastitic milk, IgG2 becomes the predominant antibody which is thought to be the main opsonin supporting neutrophil phagocytosis in the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, it plays a significant role in the battle against mastitis pathogens. Mastitis infected cow shows a notable elevated level of the sodium and chlorine and demoted level of calcium, potassium and inorganic phosphorus. In micro minerals, mastitis affects are pretty much same as in most macro minerals i.e. lower down their concentration in milk secretion. Consistent preventive strategy alongside strict surveillance and biosecurity is recommended for combating this challenge.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2380
Racehorses in training are in situations of repeated stress that may have effects on hydration and health, including airway health. The main hypothesis of this descriptive study was that daily consumption of a structured water (SW) product for 4 weeks will result in improved hydration, reduced markers of upper airway health concerns and increased heart rate variability. Two groups of Thoroughbred racehorses matched for physiological, training and racing attributes were studied for 4 weeks. One group (n = 17) received 10 L (~15%) of their daily water as SW (followed by ad libitum filtered deep well water) and the control group (n = 15) only filtered deep well water. Duplicate (two separate days) blood samples and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures were obtained at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. Hydration was assessed using BIA. The upper airway was assessed by nasopharyngeal endoscopy at baseline within 60 minutes of breezing (weekly near-race gallop pace). On weekly breeze days heart rate was recorded at rest, during exercise and recovery and data were analysed for heart rate variability. Compared to controls, horses drinking SW showed: (a) increased hydration by 2 weeks that was sustained to 4 weeks; (b) upper airway health (less mucous and less trace bleeding) post-breezing; and (c) increased heart rate variability (more restorative autonomic response) at rest. There were no performance benefits, no adverse events occurred, and blood hematological and biochemistry parameters were normal throughout. It is concluded that drinking 10 L daily of SW increased hydration and may have conferred some wellness benefits.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i2.2528
Antibiotic resistance represents a widespread problem in milk production. The identification of compounds for a topically applied ointment used in mastitis therapy remains elusive. Compounds from the genus Hymenaea can be administered in cases of multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection for ruminant species, but the protective properties are not well known. Wi this research the aim is verify the protective effects of H. martiana against S. aureus infection in bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) and to obtain an antioxidant profile evaluation in vitro. The MAC-T cells were challenged with S. aureus after being exposed to the extract of the H. martiana in the protective assay. For the verification of the viability of the MAC-T cells, the MTT assay was performed, and was used dilutions of the plant extract, starting at 2.5%. The extract of H. martiana was evaluated for antioxidant aspect in different diluition by FRAP, ORAC and DPPH. A variety of flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, etc.) have been identified as the main components by using mass spectrometry, reinforcing our in vitro findings that flavonoids, especially quercetin, have a medicinal profile capable of killing mastitis-causing bacteria. An excellent antioxidant pattern was observed in the 2.5% solution; however, membrane integrity in MAC-T cells was compromised. Those findings suggest low dilutions of H. martiana extract has a desirable protective effect from S. aureus pathogenesis. Our in vitro studies can be gleaned upon for further in vivo studies.
Veterinary Science Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/vsr.v2i1.1619
In some species of growing mammals glutamine is an essential amino acid that, if inadequate in the diet, is needed for normal growth and development. It is thus sometimes considered to be a conditionally essential amino acid in some species. A review of studies that have measured L-glutamine concentrations ([glutamine]) in horses demonstrates that plasma [glutamine] has routinely been reported to be much lower (~330 µmol/L) than in other mammals (> 600 µmol/L). Plasma [glutamine] represents the balance between intestinal transport into the blood after hepatic first pass, tissue synthesis and cellular extraction. The hypothesis is proposed that sustained low plasma [glutamine] represents a chronic state of sub-optimal glutamine intake and glutamine synthesis that does not meet the requirements for optimum health. While this may be without serious consequence in feral and sedentary horses, there is evidence that provision of supplemental dietary glutamine ameliorates a number of health consequences, particularly in horses with elevated metabolic demands. The present review provides evidence that glutamine is very important (and perhaps essential) for intestinal epithelial cells in mammals including horses, that horses with low plasma [glutamine] represents a sub-optimal state of well-being, and that horses supplemented with glutamine exhibit physiological and health benefits.