Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports

Journal Information
EISSN : 2664-9837
Current Publisher: Kharkov National Pedagogical University (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 49
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Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 4-9; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0101

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The effects of different types of physical exercises on HRV have been investigated so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the chronic effects of six-week slow and controlled breathing exercise on HRV in physically active, healthy adults. Material and Methods: A total of 22 individuals (11 female, 11 male) participated in the study voluntarily. The experimental group (EG) attended to the breathing exercises for 15 minutes per day, three days a week for six weeks. Neither the EG nor the control group (CG) did join in any regular physical activity program during the study. Both groups participated in the HRV measurements before and after the six-week of process. Results: Only the EG showed statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters. The alterations observed in LF:HF ratio, HFnu, and LFnu parameters were to reflect the increase in parasympathetic activity. Although the changes in the other parameters of HRV such as SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, TP, HF, LF, and VLF were also related to increased vagal activity, these alterations were not significant. However, no significant change was found in the CG. Conclusions: These results show that only the slow, controlled breathing exercises for six weeks could be used to improve parasympathetic activity in physically active individuals. A study could be designed where the duration is kept over 8 weeks, and the effects of physical exercises only, breathing exercises only, and physical + breathing exercises together on HRV are examined.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 74-88; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0202

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The use of blood parameters in monitoring athletes is an essential but an unstandardized component of managing athletic preparation. This study aims to describe and evaluate typical measurements and responses observed while monitoring elite cyclist during a training camp. The reported observations might contribute in constituting a scientific support for other practitioners to employ. Material and Methods. 35 elite cyclists from the Algerian National team aged 16 – 23 years participated in this study. Peripheral fasting blood samples were collected in resting after 24 hrs of physical inactivity and outside competitions. Complete blood count (CBC) and hormonal index values (Cortisol, Testosterone, Probnp and TnT) were tested twice before and after the training camp. The statistical data were analysed by the SPSS software version 22.0. Results. The observed rates of change were significant (p<0,01, p<0,05) for most erythrocyte variables, except for leukocyte and platelet distribution levels. Hormonal values recorded for Troponin (↓92,78%, p=0,000) and Cortisol (↓11,85%, p=0,000) remained significantly as an anticipatory response to competition. The responses of the ProBnp and testosterone were not statistically significant and experienced a different response with regards to their kinetics. Conclusion. This study is further support suggesting a viable approach to monitoring physical performance index in elite athletes. The results imply that reducing volume while increasing intensity of training just before competition can enhance performance during short preparation periods.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 114-124; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0206

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Researchers rarely focus on documenting parental experiences at sport tournaments. Therefore, our purpose was to document parent cardiovascular, metabolic and emotional responses to watching their child compete while also paying attention to their thoughts before and after the competition, levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies. Materials and methods. Parents, a mother and a father of same female adolescent, wore a device made by Firstbeat Technologies which continuously monitored their heart rate from Thursday evening to Monday evening. The competition was on Saturday, and it was the taekwondo Croatian National Championships for cadets. Their child had two fights: she won the first one and lost the second one. Parents completed a number of questionnaires and two open-ended questions regarding their expectations and overall experience. Results. Before the contest, dad expected his daughter would fight as best she could while giving her best effort. The mother hoped that her daughter would pass the first fight. Parents had a similar pattern of cardiovascular responses to watching their daughter compete but differed in intensity. Emotional profiles of the mother and father changed several times during the measurement period. Overall, parent's experienced low levels of stress, anxiety and depression and used numerous strategies to cope with the event. Conclusions. Although our research only included one pair of parents it suggests that parents experiences during the sport events are complex and worth investigating in future research on larger samples.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 132-143; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0208

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The prediction of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m performance by parameters of critical velocity was examined in this study. Material and Methods. The participants of study were consisted of thirteen amateur soccer players (n=13, age=22.69±5.29 years, weight=72.46±6.32 kg, height=176.92±6.73 cm). The 800 and 2400 m running tests were performed for determination of critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity. The critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity were determined by three mathematical models (linear total distance, linear velocity, non-linear two parameter model). The repeated sprint and sprint endurance ability was determined by running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running test. The simple and multiple linear regression analysis was used for prediction of dependent variables (running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance) by independent variables (critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity) of study. The correlation between variables was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. It was found that anaerobic distance capacity was a significant predictor of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance (p˂0.05). However, it was determined that critical velocity predicted significantly only time parameters of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m test (p˂0.05). Also, the parameters of 800 m test (except for average velocity) were significantly predicted by running anaerobic sprint test parameters (p˂0.05). Conclusions. It may be concluded that anaerobic distance capacity is an indicator of repeated sprint and speed endurance ability in soccer and may be used in improvement of sprint endurance performance.
Serhii Ovcharenko, , , Iryna Stepanova, Oleksandr Pikiner
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 125-131; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0207

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The article is devoted to finding ways to optimize the training of players with cerebral palsy (CP). It is determined that testing and elaboration of criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players with cerebral palsy can be used as a mean of evaluation the sportsmanship of football players of this nosology in training and competitive activities. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of physical and functional preparedness of football players with cerebral paralysis and to develop criteria for their evaluation during the intensive training period, taking into account the functional classes of athletes. Material and Methods. 25 football players with cerebral palsy, candidates and members of the national team of Ukraine, three-time Paralympic champions, multiple world and European champions took part in the study voluntarily. Athletes of the selected group have 5-8 classes of the adapted classification of the International Association of Cerebral Palsy (CP-ISRA) for CP-Football. Biochemical parameters were studied before and after training work of different focus. The value of maximum oxygen consumption (MOC) was determined by means of bicycle ergometric testing. The physical state and level of physical fitness of football players were monitored during the study. The research was conducted on the basis of the research laboratory of Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sport and on the basis of the Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk Medical and Physical Dispensary" of the Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council. Results. It was found that athletes with cerebral paralysis are able to adequately tolerate heavy physical loads. Football players with disabilities had biochemical parameters of blood sampling and registration of recovery processes of the cardiovascular system after training activities of different focus within the permissible norm for both healthy athletes. Obtaining such data became the basis for the intensification of training process, which promoted the development of motor skills of football players. Conclusions. Obtained data were the basis for creation the criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players depending on their sports classes. In future, this will allow coaches to determine the effectiveness of the training period, obtain information about the condition of players in training, in the recovery process. On this basis it will help to individualize the workload of players and adjust the training process. The analysis of a direction of preparation and decision-making about educational process correction for football players with disabilities can be realized according to the received data in various structural formations of an annual macrocycle.
Olena Dorofieieva, Kseniia Yarymbash, , , Aneliia Mytsak
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 66-73; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0201

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was assessment and correction of highly skilled swimmers’ operative status during competitions. Material and Methods. The authors carried out complex assessment of 46 high-skilled swimmers during competition period. The body impedance analysis and functional status express diagnosis were conducted before and after competitions. Results. The components limiting the operational state of swimmers were determined: “component composition of the body” (44.83% of the total load), “functional” (19.97%). Correlation relationships were established between the main indicators that determine the level of the operational state of athletes. The multiple regression equation was calculated, which made it possible to determine the influence of individual significant parameters on the level of the operational state of athletes and the confidence interval. A group of athletes with operational status indicators below the confidence interval received sport supplementation. Conclusion. The main characteristics of the athletes’ operative status are cellular biomarker phase, fat free mass, extracellular water, intracellular water, strength index. These characteristics should be used in assessment of both operative status and complex functional diagnosis of highly-skilled swimmers during competitions.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 98-107; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0204

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of the study was to expand knowledge of the efficiency of actions from top-level futsal teams. Goalkeepers’ activity, effectiveness and reliability were estimated with a view to implementing the objectives of the game in offence and defence and depending on the changing match status. Material and Methods. Data about the game were registered on a self-developed observation sheet. 23 goalkeepers participating in 31 matches of the World and the European Championships and the UEFA Futsal Cup played in the years 2012–2015 were observed. Results. It was found that actions to gain the playfield with the ball and to prevent a loss of a goal dominated in futsal goalkeepers’ both when drawing as well as winning and losing game and that game status does not determine the style of play of the goalkeeper. Only in nine of the 60 types of actions examined significant differences in activity were fund. Conclusions. The unequivocal claim that the current score during the competition determines the style of the futsal goalkeeper’s game (the frequency of taking actions in the game characteristic of his position), is unauthorized at this stage of research. The obtained significant differences in his activity in nine types of actions constitute only a small percentage (15%) of all his skills in the game. .
Lachezar G. Stefanov,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 89-97; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0203

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research is to create a non-invasive and easy to apply in practice approach to determine the anaerobic threshold based only on measurement of the pulmonary ventilation and the hearth rate. It uses proportions, with which these variables were changed during a maximal incremental test. Material and Methods. Twenty athletes from the national rowing team of Bulgaria with average age of 17.5 years were tested. Participants performed a one-time graded incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. The proposed new approach for determining the anaerobic threshold is related to detecting the power. Thus, one curve (obtained from differences in percentages of hearth rate and pulmonary ventilation) crosses the other one (obtained from pulmonary ventilation in percentages). The crossing point corresponds to the anaerobic threshold. This approach was compared with two methods determining the lactate threshold, by blood lactate measurement. Results. The Shapiro-Wilk test results indicated, that the samples of the heart rate of the compared methods have a normal or close to the normal distribution. The Fisher's F-test demonstrated, that the standard deviations of the samples do not differ significantly two by two at ɑ=0.05. The Bland&Altman test presented, that the 95% of all measurement data points lie within the confidence interval limit for each of the comparisons made between the new approach and two methods. Conclusions. Our proposed approach is non-invasive and can be easily applied in the field conditions, without using gas-analysing devices. In addition, it is reliable, reproducible and comparable to the accepted for “Gold Standard” methods for determination of anaerobic threshold with 95% statistical significance.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 108-113; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0205

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Athletic jumps are specific cyclically-acyclic movements that despite the good performance of the techniques require from competitors a high level of motor, specific-motor and functional abilities. The aim of this study was to examine the response effect of vertical and horizontal plyometric training on explosive capacity and kinetic variables in long jump athletes. Material and Methods. The participants of this study were twenty professional jumpers (22.5 ± 4.2 years; 178.4 ± 9.8 cm; 70.3 ± 7.6 kg) who were divided into two groups: experimental (plyometric training) and control (standard training). They participated in the last track and field championship in country, moreover, three of them participated in the last Asian games, and one athlete participated in the world track and field championship. The experiments were conducted on June-July 2019 in twenty professional athletes. All tests were performed after a standard warm up protocol. The place of camera was always determined wisely around the jumping field to attain best photography. Organizing and controlling the imaging and motor analysis processes were done by a biomechanics expert. Results. Post training results in experimental group showed more improvement in 30 m sprint, vertical jump, horizontal velocity at take-off, and long jump completion, comparing the control group. Significant between group differences in all variables were detected post training. No significant post training improvements in flight time and take off duration were reported in control group. Conclusion. Vertical and horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to be more effective in promoting improvement in explosive capacity than kinetic variables.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 297-302; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0604

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Movement variability is one of the fundamental topics concerning the control of human movement. In recent years, researches have focused on various aspects of variability, which has changed the noise to useful variable on human movement. Present study investigated movement variability level in high skilled dart players that repeated throws over many years. Material and Methods. Seven experienced dart players (three women and four men) were threw 36 darts in three sets (each set 12 throws) from a standard distance (2.37 meters), while the kinematic features of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were recorded during the throws. Qualisys motion capture system with six cameras was used to record the kinematics of the elbow. Results: entropy analysis revealed that greater variability in movement angle, velocity and acceleration resulted in better dart throwing performance but after reach to this level, throw variability was decreased. The remarkable point in these findings was that variability was constant across all samples despite the varied range of experience in throwing darts from 2.37 meters distance. Entropy analysis showed that in the throws of highly experienced individuals, variation led to greater throwing efficiency. Conclusions: these findings suggest that variability in a throwing activity, which revealed that moderate movement variability results in optimal throwing performance when dart throw has massive amount of practice during many years.
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