Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports

Journal Information
EISSN : 2664-9837
Current Publisher: Sergii Iermakov (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 37
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Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 4-9; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0101

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The effects of different types of physical exercises on HRV have been investigated so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the chronic effects of six-week slow and controlled breathing exercise on HRV in physically active, healthy adults. Material and Methods: A total of 22 individuals (11 female, 11 male) participated in the study voluntarily. The experimental group (EG) attended to the breathing exercises for 15 minutes per day, three days a week for six weeks. Neither the EG nor the control group (CG) did join in any regular physical activity program during the study. Both groups participated in the HRV measurements before and after the six-week of process. Results: Only the EG showed statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters. The alterations observed in LF:HF ratio, HFnu, and LFnu parameters were to reflect the increase in parasympathetic activity. Although the changes in the other parameters of HRV such as SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, TP, HF, LF, and VLF were also related to increased vagal activity, these alterations were not significant. However, no significant change was found in the CG. Conclusions: These results show that only the slow, controlled breathing exercises for six weeks could be used to improve parasympathetic activity in physically active individuals. A study could be designed where the duration is kept over 8 weeks, and the effects of physical exercises only, breathing exercises only, and physical + breathing exercises together on HRV are examined.
, , Shahram Ahanjan, Iryna Skrypchenko,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 108-113; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0205

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Athletic jumps are specific cyclically-acyclic movements that despite the good performance of the techniques require from competitors a high level of motor, specific-motor and functional abilities. The aim of this study was to examine the response effect of vertical and horizontal plyometric training on explosive capacity and kinetic variables in long jump athletes. Material and Methods. The participants of this study were twenty professional jumpers (22.5 ± 4.2 years; 178.4 ± 9.8 cm; 70.3 ± 7.6 kg) who were divided into two groups: experimental (plyometric training) and control (standard training). They participated in the last track and field championship in country, moreover, three of them participated in the last Asian games, and one athlete participated in the world track and field championship. The experiments were conducted on June-July 2019 in twenty professional athletes. All tests were performed after a standard warm up protocol. The place of camera was always determined wisely around the jumping field to attain best photography. Organizing and controlling the imaging and motor analysis processes were done by a biomechanics expert. Results. Post training results in experimental group showed more improvement in 30 m sprint, vertical jump, horizontal velocity at take-off, and long jump completion, comparing the control group. Significant between group differences in all variables were detected post training. No significant post training improvements in flight time and take off duration were reported in control group. Conclusion. Vertical and horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to be more effective in promoting improvement in explosive capacity than kinetic variables.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 132-143; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0208

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The prediction of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m performance by parameters of critical velocity was examined in this study. Material and Methods. The participants of study were consisted of thirteen amateur soccer players (n=13, age=22.69±5.29 years, weight=72.46±6.32 kg, height=176.92±6.73 cm). The 800 and 2400 m running tests were performed for determination of critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity. The critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity were determined by three mathematical models (linear total distance, linear velocity, non-linear two parameter model). The repeated sprint and sprint endurance ability was determined by running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running test. The simple and multiple linear regression analysis was used for prediction of dependent variables (running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance) by independent variables (critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity) of study. The correlation between variables was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. It was found that anaerobic distance capacity was a significant predictor of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance (p˂0.05). However, it was determined that critical velocity predicted significantly only time parameters of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m test (p˂0.05). Also, the parameters of 800 m test (except for average velocity) were significantly predicted by running anaerobic sprint test parameters (p˂0.05). Conclusions. It may be concluded that anaerobic distance capacity is an indicator of repeated sprint and speed endurance ability in soccer and may be used in improvement of sprint endurance performance.
Serhii Ovcharenko, , , Iryna Stepanova, Oleksandr Pikiner
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 125-131; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0207

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The article is devoted to finding ways to optimize the training of players with cerebral palsy (CP). It is determined that testing and elaboration of criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players with cerebral palsy can be used as a mean of evaluation the sportsmanship of football players of this nosology in training and competitive activities. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of physical and functional preparedness of football players with cerebral paralysis and to develop criteria for their evaluation during the intensive training period, taking into account the functional classes of athletes. Material and Methods. 25 football players with cerebral palsy, candidates and members of the national team of Ukraine, three-time Paralympic champions, multiple world and European champions took part in the study voluntarily. Athletes of the selected group have 5-8 classes of the adapted classification of the International Association of Cerebral Palsy (CP-ISRA) for CP-Football. Biochemical parameters were studied before and after training work of different focus. The value of maximum oxygen consumption (MOC) was determined by means of bicycle ergometric testing. The physical state and level of physical fitness of football players were monitored during the study. The research was conducted on the basis of the research laboratory of Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sport and on the basis of the Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk Medical and Physical Dispensary" of the Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council. Results. It was found that athletes with cerebral paralysis are able to adequately tolerate heavy physical loads. Football players with disabilities had biochemical parameters of blood sampling and registration of recovery processes of the cardiovascular system after training activities of different focus within the permissible norm for both healthy athletes. Obtaining such data became the basis for the intensification of training process, which promoted the development of motor skills of football players. Conclusions. Obtained data were the basis for creation the criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players depending on their sports classes. In future, this will allow coaches to determine the effectiveness of the training period, obtain information about the condition of players in training, in the recovery process. On this basis it will help to individualize the workload of players and adjust the training process. The analysis of a direction of preparation and decision-making about educational process correction for football players with disabilities can be realized according to the received data in various structural formations of an annual macrocycle.
Olena Dorofieieva, Kseniia Yarymbash, Iryna Skrypchenko, , Aneliia Mytsak
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 66-73; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0201

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was assessment and correction of highly skilled swimmers’ operative status during competitions. Material and Methods. The authors carried out complex assessment of 46 high-skilled swimmers during competition period. The body impedance analysis and functional status express diagnosis were conducted before and after competitions. Results. The components limiting the operational state of swimmers were determined: “component composition of the body” (44.83% of the total load), “functional” (19.97%). Correlation relationships were established between the main indicators that determine the level of the operational state of athletes. The multiple regression equation was calculated, which made it possible to determine the influence of individual significant parameters on the level of the operational state of athletes and the confidence interval. A group of athletes with operational status indicators below the confidence interval received sport supplementation. Conclusion. The main characteristics of the athletes’ operative status are cellular biomarker phase, fat free mass, extracellular water, intracellular water, strength index. These characteristics should be used in assessment of both operative status and complex functional diagnosis of highly-skilled swimmers during competitions.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 297-302; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0604

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Movement variability is one of the fundamental topics concerning the control of human movement. In recent years, researches have focused on various aspects of variability, which has changed the noise to useful variable on human movement. Present study investigated movement variability level in high skilled dart players that repeated throws over many years. Material and Methods. Seven experienced dart players (three women and four men) were threw 36 darts in three sets (each set 12 throws) from a standard distance (2.37 meters), while the kinematic features of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were recorded during the throws. Qualisys motion capture system with six cameras was used to record the kinematics of the elbow. Results: entropy analysis revealed that greater variability in movement angle, velocity and acceleration resulted in better dart throwing performance but after reach to this level, throw variability was decreased. The remarkable point in these findings was that variability was constant across all samples despite the varied range of experience in throwing darts from 2.37 meters distance. Entropy analysis showed that in the throws of highly experienced individuals, variation led to greater throwing efficiency. Conclusions: these findings suggest that variability in a throwing activity, which revealed that moderate movement variability results in optimal throwing performance when dart throw has massive amount of practice during many years.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 227-239; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0503

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the coinciding anticipation timing (CAT), reaction time and dynamic balance performances of American football players according to their playing positions. Material: Thirty-five American football players, who train at least 3 days a week, and compete in Universities Protected Football 1st League, participated in this study, voluntarily. The players were divided into two playing positions: offensive (17 players, mean age: 20.76 ± 1.30 years) and defensive (18 players, mean age: 21.94 ± 2.87 years). The CAT at different stimulus speeds (6 mph, 12 mph), reaction time (visual, auditory, mixed), and dynamic balance performance (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, perimeter lenght) were measured in the laboratory environment. The CAT, reaction time, and dynamic balance performance of players were determined by Bassin Anticipation Timer, Newtest 1000, and Technobody Prokin-200, respectively. Results: The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS (20.0) program. Firstly, the raw data for CAT performance (6mph, 12 mph) were converted to absolute error score. According to Shapiro-Wilk test result, the all data showed normal distribution. Independent Sample t test was used to determine the differences between the two playing positions. In addition, the effect size between the two playing positions was calculated in parameters with showing significant differences, and Cohen’s d (1988) values were taken into account. Compared with the defensive players (20.15±3.81 ms), the absolute error scores at fast stimulus speeds (12 mph) of offensive players (17.45±3.48 ms) was found to be significantly lower (t(33) =-2.181, p=.036). The visual reaction time of offensive players (318.11± 17.47 ms) was significantly shorter than defensive players (340.58± 32.60 ms, t(26322) =-2.560, p=.017). In terms of dynamic balance parameters such as perimeter lenght, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral, there was no statistically significant difference between the playing positions (p>0.05). Conclusions: Perceptual-cognitive characteristics such as CAT, and reaction time performance differ according to the playing positions, and this difference may be related to the physical, and cognitive demands required by their playing positions.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 240-247; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0504

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: One of the most widely applied methods to assess upper-body strength in children and adolescents is the handgrip strength test. While in adolescents it has been determined which elbow position, and which type of dynamometer are most appropriate for achieving the maximal grip strength, in children is still not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether elbow position and the type of dynamometer affect the handgrip strength in children. Material and Methods: Grip strength was measured by TKK and DynX dynamometers, and their validity and reliability were also analysed. A total of 60 children, 6 to 11 years old, participated in this study, and performed the handgrip strength test with their elbow extended and flexed at 90°. Results: While using the TKK dynamometer, grip strength was significantly higher when the test was performed with elbow extended, in contrast to those obtained with elbow flexed (14.58±3.04 kg vs 12.97±2.99 kg, p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 271-277; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0508

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. ln this academic research, it was aimed to compare the physical activity and skinfold thickness of the students living in the city center and rural areas. Material and Methods. 89 students attending the 6th grade level, whose total age is 12 years old, residing in the city center and rural areas of Çanakkale participated in the study. Students were examined with SenseWear armband bmi, total energy consumption, daily step count, met, active energy consumption, physical activity time, reach time and sleep times. Body mass index was determined with Holtain Skinfold Caliper. For the analysis of the dataset, the Independent Sample t test was utilized to examine the difference between the students' physical activity levels and skin fold thickness. Then, the relevance between physical activity level and skinfold thickness was examined for pearson correlation. Significance value p<.05 and p<.01were accepted. Results. ln accordance with the data obtained with SenseWear Armband, it has been determined that a statistically substantial amount of difference between BMI total energy consumption und daily step number of students living in rural and city centers is present. According to the results of skin fold thickness measurements made with skinfold calipers, there was a significant difference in triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac and femur regions (p<.05). Conclusion. As a result of the research, it is concluded that students studying in the city center have less physical activity level than students living in the rural area.
Lachezar G. Stefanov, Ivan Ivanov,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 264-270; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0507

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. To investigate how bilateral pedaling asymmetries change at exercises with different levels of intensity. Material and Methods. Eight students of cycling, average age 25.4 years, were investigated. In the experiment, we recorded the pedal force of the right and left legs during three consecutive exercises of different intensity 35%, 55% and 85% respectively. To quantify the difference in physical parameters of pedaling between the left and right legs, we used two approaches that complement each other in the analysis of bilateral asymmetry. One approach involved determining an asymmetry index, and other was statistical analysis. Results. The Student's t-test indicated that the difference between the power samples for the left and right pedals decreased at 85% exercise intensity vs. 55% with a statistical significance of α = 0.05. The bilateral asymmetry in most cases decreased or in two cases remained unchanged. The cases where there was no statistically significant difference between the power samples for both legs at 85% and 55% intensity levels had the lowest asymmetry index. Conclusions. The bilateral pedaling asymmetry is reduced at 85% exercise intensity compared to the 55% one. The reduction in asymmetry index ranges from 1% to 14.1%, Combining the asymmetry index and the Student's t-test can increase the informativeness of pedaling power data when analyzing bilateral asymmetry.
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