Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports

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EISSN : 2664-9837
Published by: Sergii Iermakov (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 89
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Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 234-243; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0405

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The work aim is to develop and experimentally test the combined impact method performance in the preparatory period of the annual macrocycle of 18–19 year old volleyball players (girls). Material and Methods. The study involved volleyball players (girls) aged 18–19 years old (n = 24, training experience – 9 years). Volleyball players (girls) were divided into control (n = 12) and experimental (n = 12) groups. Results. The method contributed to a higher rate of growth of most parameters of special readiness among volleyball players (girls) of the experimental group. A significant improvement in special readiness (p <0.05) was revealed for all parameters in both groups. In the experimental group, an improvement (p <0.001) was observed for 8 out of 11 parameters. In the control group, a significant improvement in the results (p <0.001) occurred in 3 cases out of 11. A significant improvement in speed and strength training parameters (p <0.001) was revealed: in 3 out of 4 cases (experimental group); in 1 out of 4 cases (control group). The quality of performance of the game basic techniques improved by: 4–22% (p <0.04–0.001 in experimental group) 4–11% (p <0.05–0.02 in control group). Conclusions. It is advisable to devote more time to the development of more significant motor abilities of volleyball players (girls) (speed, speed and strength, dexterity and coordination). It is advisable to improve endurance in combination with the development of other motor abilities and in the process of technical and tactical improvement. In the physical training of volleyball players (girls), it is advisable to use as many training means as possible, which are similar to the main game techniques according to spatio–temporal and dynamic characteristics. Movements with load contribute to the development of intermuscular coordination and allow to quickly form the correct idea of the trained motor action.
, Valeriy Vynogradov, , Ganna Cherhenko
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 208-214; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0402

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of the research is to investigate the efficiency of designed complexes of training exercises aimed to improve the coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing. Material and Methods. 22 qualified athletes specializing in fencing aged from 15 to 18 took part in the research. The study design included the sequential pedagogical experiment that was realized through the several stages. At the first stage, the preliminary testing of the athletes’ coordination abilities (n=22) was conducted. During the preliminary testing the following tests were applied: jumps to the line; shuttle run (4x9 m.); T-test, straight touch from en-garde position to the target of 10 cm in diameter from close range (10 attempts); straight lunge attack from en-garde position to the target of 10 cm (10 attempts). At the second stage of the pedagogical experiment two complexes of exercises aimed at developing the coordination abilities of the athletes were applied for 3 months. The experimental complexes of exercises were used twice a week. At the third stage, the efficiency of experimental complexes aimed at the developing of coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing was checked through a control testing. The Statistica 10 software created by the StatSoft Company was used for statistical processing of data. Results. It was established that during the process of coordination abilities development, the greatest attention should be given to the athletes’ ability to control timing, spatial and physical parameters of moves and moves consistency. To improve the process of developing the coordination abilities of the qualified athletes in fencing two complexes of training exercises were developed. The results of the pedagogical experiment confirmed the statistical differences in the levels of the athletes’ coordination abilities manifestation before and after using experimental training complexes (p<0.05). Conclusions. It has been shown that specially developed training complexes could be used during the training process in order to develop and increase the level of coordination abilities of qualified athletes in fencing. The analysis of experts’ opinion showed that the development of coordination abilities in fencing should be oriented towards the development of athletes’ ability to control timing, spatial and physical parameters of movements.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 225-233; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0404

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. It was aimed to measure the effects of single-leg stance on measuring the individual postural limits and balance skills of elderly adults. Material and Methods. The present study involved a total of 360 elderly adults aged between 70 and 80 years. The participants were divided into two groups as 187 individuals in experiment group (99 women / 88 men) and 173 individuals in control (94 women / 79 men). In measuring the risk of fall and balance skills, the Functional Reach Test, Timed up and go Test, and Single Leg Stance Test were used. The participants in experiment group were asked to stand on one foot for a total of 4 minutes (2 minutes in morning and 2 minutes in evening) every day while brushing their teeth for 50 weeks. Since the data showed normal distribution, the independent samples t-test was used in determining the intergroup difference, whereas the dependent sample t-test was used in determining the intragroup pretest-posttest difference. Results. It was determined that there was a significant relationship between elderly adults’ balance skills and 4-min/day single-leg stance practice (p<0.05). In all the tests, it was found that the balance skills of women and men have improved and men had better values in comparison to women. Conclusion. It is thought that, via simple procedures such as lifting up one foot while brushing the teeth, the balance skills of elderly adults can be improved, the risk of fall can be reduced. They can be supported in terms of living an independent life.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 253-260; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0407

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study was to determine the peculiarities of using pattern recognition method in the management of the cumulative effect of strength loads in 8-year-old boys. Materials and methods. The study participants were 48 boys aged 8. The experiment was conducted using a 22 factorial design. The study materials were processed by the IBM SPSS 22 statistical analysis program. Discriminant analysis was performed. The study examined the impact of four variants of strength load on the formation of the cumulative training effect of three, six, nine, and twelve classes in 8-year-old boys. Results. The discriminant analysis provided information about the impact of four orthogonal variants of strength loads on the formation of the cumulative training effect of strength exercises of three, six, nine, and twelve classes in 8-year-old boys. The obtained data make it possible to choose a load mode at each step of the CTE formation and to manage schoolchildren’s strength training. Conclusions. The verification of the obtained discriminant functions shows their high discriminative ability and value in interpretation with respect to the general population (p < 0.05). It was found that the formation of the CTE of three classes is most influenced by the third load variant, six classes – by the third load variant, nine classes – the third load variant, twelve classes – the first load variant. The discriminant function structure coefficients made it possible to identify the factor structure of the CTE of 3, 6, 9, 12 classes, to find that the CTE3, CTE6 are associated with the work at the first place “Exercises to strengthen arm muscles”, the CTE9, CTE12 – with the work at the third (“Exercises to strengthen back muscles”) and the fourth (“Exercises to strengthen leg muscles”) places. The CTE of three, six, nine, and twelve classes depends on the modes of strength exercises and has different focuses. The CTE3 – speed and strength focus; CTE6, 9 – comprehensive focus; CTE12 – explosive-strength focus. The obtained values of centroids for the CTE of 3, 6, 9, 12 classes enable the management of schoolchildren’s strength training.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 215-224; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0403

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Continuously increasing the volume and intensity of the training sessions often leads to overtraining. It has been demonstrated that glutathione supplementation might improve the aerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle and reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of glutathione supplementation on fatigue, recovery processes, and competitive results of elite swimmers during a six-week training period. Material and Methods. Twenty-four elite swimmers (10 women and 14 men) from the Bulgarian national swimming team, with a mean age of 18.7±3.78 years, took part in this double-blind placebo control study. The swimmers from the experimental group were supplemented once a day with a capsule of 250mg glutathione, whilst the swimmers from the control group took a placebo once a day. The urine concentration levels of cortisol and cortisone, as well as the degree of overtraining, were evaluated on the 1st(T1), 14th(T2), 28th(T3), and 42nd(T4) days. Anthropometric measurements and a nutritional assessment were performed at T1 and T4. Results. The swimmers showed a gradual decrease of cortisol and cortisone during the study, with significantly lower concentrations in the experimental vs the control group at T4 (19.4 vs 42.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05). At the end of the study, the swimmers from the experimental group showed improvements in their time in 41 out of the 43 swimming events, whilst those from the control group had significantly smaller improvements (-1.66 vs -0.97%, p < 0.05). Conclusions. In conclusion, glutathione supplementation at a dose of 250mg/day for six weeks improves the adaptation of elite swimmers towards training schedules, which is likely to lead to better sports results.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 261-266; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0408

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is the ratio of the amount of carbon dioxide produced (VCO2) to the amount of oxygen uptake (VO2) is important. It indirectly informs about the predominant metabolic pathway to provide the energy needed during exercise. The relationship of maximal RER with aerobic and anaerobic capacity in athletes remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximal RER and anaerobic power and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in anaerobic trained athletes. Material and Methods. Thirteen male alpine skiers (age 18.1 ± 3.1 years) competing in national and international competitions participated in the study. Athletes first performed an incremental treadmill run test to determine their VO2max (ml/kg/min), maximal RER (VCO2 / VO2) and maximal running speed (km/h). After 48 hours, the athletes performed the Wingate anaerobic test to determine peak power, mean power, minimum power, and fatigue index. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relations between variables. Results. Maximal RER was positively correlated with peak power (r = 0.587, p < 0.035), mean power (r = 0.656, p < 0.015) and minimum power (r = 0.674, p < 0.012). Maximal RER did not significantly correlate with fatigue index (p > 0.05). Maximal RER was negatively correlated with the VO2max (r = – 0.705, p < 0.007) and maximal running speed (r = – 0.687, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal RER may be useful for evaluating anaerobic capacity in anaerobic-trained athletes. Measuring the maximal RER values of athletes during incremental exercise may provide information about physiological adaptations in response to physical training.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 244-252; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0406

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Researchers since the late 1970s have been interested in finding out the reasons attributed to outcomes. To facilitate attribution research in Croatia we translated and validated The Revised Causal Dimension Scale (CDS-II) and examined its invariance when attributing most and least successful competition performances. Materials and methods. To achieve our stated aim, 384 kinesiology students completed the translated CDS-II. To test the latent structure of the questionnaire, we used CFA and tested two alternative models (orthogonal solution and model with correlated latent variables). Additionally, we examined the CDS-II invariance when attributing the most and the least successful competition performance in sport using longitudinal CFA. The reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha coefficients. Lastly, we tested differences in latent means between most and least successful performance using pairwise t-test. Results. Similar to the originally published findings, CFA indicated the CDS-II structure with correlated latent variables had an adequate and better fit than the orthogonal solution in both situations. Furthermore, we confirmed configural, metric and scalar invariance, as well as partial strict invariance since one item’s residuals differed significantly from the others. Cronbach alpha coefficients were adequate across both situations. Lastly, athletes attributed their most successful performances to more internal, stable and controllable reasons than their least successful performances. Conclusions. We confirmed that the Croatian version of the CDS-II has adequate psychometric properties and is therefore suitable for research in sport situations.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 188-193; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0307

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the work is a comparative analysis of morphological and functional indicators and characteristics of the somatotype of armwrestling athletes and street workout athletes. Material and Methods. The study involved Street Workout athletes (StW, n = 15, age - 14.87 ± 0.42 years, training experience - 1.48 ± 0.22 years) and armwrestling athletes (ArW, n = 11, age - 14.87 ± 0.42 years, training experience - 1.48 ± 0.22 years). The body length and body mass were determined. The level and harmony of physical development were assessed by the regression method. Handgrip was assessed in a static mode. The electronic handgrip dynamometer Camry EH101 (China) was used. The handgrip is determined by the maximum frequency of the grip in 10 s. The electronic device "Kepai" (China) was used to measure it. The content of muscle and adipose tissue, the level of visceral fat were determined. The body structure monitor OMRON BF-511 (Japan) was used. The handgrip index, hand impulse index, static and dynamic handgrip index were calculated. Differences were assessed using the Rosenbaum test (Q). Results. A high level of handgrip was determined for all athletes. The average value of the strength index was the StW group - more than 60% of body mass; the ArW group - more than 70% of body mass. The following indicators were observed in the ArW group: harmonious physical development had (27.27 ± 13.43)% of athletes; disharmony due to excess body mass had (45.45 ± 15.01)% of athletes; disharmony due to body mass deficit had (27.27 ± 13.43)% of athletes; normal fat content had (63.64 ± 14.50)% of athletes; low-fat content had (18.18 ± 11.63)% of athletes; high and high-fat content had (9.09 ± 8.67)% of athletes. The ArW group was characterized by high - (50.00 ± 15.81)%, high - (40.00 ± 15.49)%, and normal - (10.00 ± 9.49)%-the specific weight of muscle tissue. In the StW group, the following indicators were observed: harmonious physical development had (46.67 ± 12.88)% of athletes; disharmony due to excess body mass had (53.33 ± 12.88)% of athletes; normal fat content had (57.14 ± 13.23)% of athletes; low-fat content had (42.86 ± 13.23)% of athletes. All athletes in the StW group had a high proportion of muscle tissue. It was found that exercises with your body mass in a street workout decreased fat content compared to armwrestling. Conclusions. The results confirmed the specific effect of the sport on the body of athletes. Handgrip should be considered as a success predictor in these sports. The information content of the proposed handgrip indices for monitoring the functional state of athletes was confirmed.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 194-201; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0308

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study was to determine the ratio between means of teaching and motor training in junior school physical education classes. Materials and methods. The study involved 32 boys who were 8 years old at the beginning of the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups of eight people each. A pedagogical experiment was conducted using a 22 full factorial design. The study recorded the following indicators: number of repetitions required to teach exercises; grade for a unidirectional movement coordination exercise (test 1); grade for a multidirectional movement coordination exercise (test 2); error in time accuracy of performing the squat thrust (test 3); error in time accuracy of 5 jumps on marks in 5 s (test 4); error in assessing muscular effort with visual control (test 5); vestibular stability, error (test 6). The obtained experimental material was processed statistically using statistical analysis software packages (SPSS 20). Results. According to the logistic function analysis, the achievement of an optimal result in differentiating temporal characteristics of movement requires 8.5 months, strength characteristics of movement – 8 months, movement coordination – 8 months, vestibular analyzer stability – 10 months. It takes 3 to 5 months to obtain positive increases in testing results in boys aged 8-9. The ratio of time allotted for strength training (ST) and coordination training (CT) to teaching motor actions (TMA) varies as 1:4 (ST: TMA) and 1:4.5 (CT: TMA). Conclusions. The ratio of time allotted for strength training, coordination training, and teaching to the time of the main part of the class ranges between 14.3-23.5% (strength training), 17.1-23.5% (coordination training), and 53.0-68.6% (teaching). As exercises become more complicated, the time allotted for strength and coordination training increases.
'Arif B. Azlan, , , Ruzita Abd. Talib
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 178-187; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0306

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Non-sport activities like traditional games can be a practical way to promote physical activity (PA) during physical education (PE) lessons, especially among those who are less inclined towards sports. The purpose of this study is to compare the PA variables and acceptance between playing traditional games and free-play during physical education lessons among secondary school students. Material and Methods. Fifty-six (n = 56) subjects participated in this study wore accelerometers for a total of 40 minutes during each PE lesson to record PA. In the first week, a 40-min free-play PE lesson was done while in the second week, a 40-min PE lesson incorporated with traditional games (TG-PE lesson) was done. After following both lessons, subjects filled up a questionnaire on acceptance of TG-PE and free-play PE lessons. Results. The mean total activity count (p < 0.05) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (p < 0.05) were 20% and 19% greater respectively during TG-PE lesson compared to free-play PE lesson. The mean acceptance scores showed students preferred playing TG (19.29 ± 4.21; p < 0.00) over free-play PE lesson (17.59 ± 3.13). Conclusions. In conclusion, incorporating fun and meaningful activities such as TG during PE lessons can serve as an alternative strategy to promote PA during school hours. Further studies are warranted to determine other types of TG that may promote PA among secondary school students.
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