Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports

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EISSN : 2664-9837
Published by: Sergii Iermakov (10.15561)
Total articles ≅ 112
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Nikola Aksović, , , , , , , Victor Rozhechenko, Milan Zelenović
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 126-133; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0207

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Team sports, basketball and handball, as well as their competitions, are very popular throughout the world. The aim of this research was evaluation and comparative analysis of the results of a vertical jump between young basketball and handball players. Material and Methods. A group of 37 participants took part in the research: 21 basketball players from the basketball club OKK ''Novi Pazar'' (age: 15.5 ± 0.5) from Novi Pazar formed the first subgroup and 16 handball players from the handball club RK ''Železničar 1949'' (age: 25.4 ± 5.8; body height = 193.5 ± 7.5 cm; body weight = 94.0 ± 7.4 kg; body mass index = 25.03 ± 2.38 kg/m2) from Niš formed the second subgroup. Explosive power of the vertical jumps was assessed by the following tests: countermovement jump, countermovement jump/arm swing, squat jump. Participants had at least 5 years of training experience and held similar acute training histories prior to study commencement, completing 4 weeks of baseline conditioning during the general preparatory phase. Participants were free of injury, illness and disease as determined by a team physician prior to study participation. Results. The results of the independent samples t-test show that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between basketball and handball players in all vertical jump tests. Conclusions. This article contains new information about vertical jumps of young male basketball and elite male handball players that could be extremely useful for coaches. Also, these findings suggest that basketball coaches may benefit from talents’ identification in young basketball players.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 93-100; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0203

Abstract:
Background and study aim. The ecological-dynamic approach promotes motor learning through task variability, modification of environmental constraints and appropriate use of feedback, original and creative motor solutions. This study wants to open a critical perspective on the didactics of physical activity selecting a methodological perspective adherent to ecological-dynamic approach. The aim is to highlight the significant aspects and the uniqueness and unrepeatability of heuristic learning, starting from theoretical lines. Material and Methods. For this purpose, an accurate survey of the scientific literature has been analyzed, highlighting the points of contact and contrast of cognitive and ecological-dynamic approach. Results. In the context of physical education, the most used pedagogical approach is the linear one. Teaching is influenced by spatial and temporal constraints, spaces and equipment, with reproduction styles and with predefined tasks and motor responses. This modality promotes awareness of motor skills and not transferability to other subject areas, as indicated by ministerial documents. Non-linear pedagogy, while promoting motor learning as a consequence of the interaction between the subject and the context, shows some limits. The first concerns the learning of transversal skills and, the second concerns the use of prescriptive teaching, absent in the ecological-dynamic approach, through heuristic learning. It is necessary to overcome the areas of prescriptiveness that still resist in the paradigm most recognized by the scientific community, the Constraints Led Approach, closely related to nonlinear pedagogy. They do not favor completely a heuristic learning as the anthropometric constraints suffer from the limitation of biomechanics. Also, goal constraints are prescriptively determined by the physical education teacher, which is not compatible with heuristic learning. Conclusions. This analysis highlights the need, usefulness and usability of heuristic learning in different professional fields. The study aims to offer a new perspective on physical education objectives in the National Indications, projecting them towards a social and transversal purpose.
Lachezar G. Stefanov
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0204

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to verify the X-method for determining the second anaerobic threshold in rowers.Material and Methods. Twelve male athletes from the national rowing team of Bulgaria were tested. Participants performed a one-time graded incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. The workload were conducted on rowing ergometer system Concept 2, and spirometry system Clark C5. We obtained ventilatory indices, intensity and heart rate bred-by-bred for each participant, for each test stage. The anaerobic threshold was determined by two methods: 1) by the localization of the respiratory compensation point visually, after polynomial regression analysis of the trends for the dynamics of the ventilatory variables related to time and 2) by the X-method using the change in the ratio between heart rate and pulmonary ventilation. We compared the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold determined by both methods.Results. We found similar values for heart rate at the respiratory compensation point and the anaerobic threshold determined by the X-method for each of the investigated. The Shapiro-Wilk test showed a normal distribution of the two samples with a significance level of α = 0.05. Thus, the t-test for two paired samples showed a p-value of 0.202 at α = 0.05. We found a correlation coefficient r = 0.973 between the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (determined by X-method) and the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (detected at the respiratory compensation point). The Blant-Altman analysis showed that 95% of the points in the scatter plot lie within the confidence interval.Conclusions. The two methods give similar results and can be applied alternatively in the investigation of rowers in the age group 18.3 ± 1.07 years. The X-method always gives a reliable intersection point, which in our studies is close to the second anaerobic threshold. Comparative studies are also needed in other contingents for the wider use of the X-method.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 75-82; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0201

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. With its dynamic and constantly changing characteristics, basketball, which requires more than one movement, is one of the most preferred and popular team sports in the world. It is important to know that basketball requires programs based on speed, agility and strength fitness components, in which endurance and strength parameters are predominant. In this context, resistance training, which provides skill excellence and increased muscle strength, is important for basketball players. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of 4-week specific core training applied to pre-adolescent and adolescent children who do basic basketball training on explosive strength. Material and Methods. A total of 16 [Control Group (CG): n=8; Experimental Group (EG): n=8] individuals (age 13.29 ± 1.96 years) who did not have any health problems from basketball school and continued basketball basic training were included in the study. The groups continued their usual basketball basic training program (2 days a week, 60 minutes a day). However, in addition to the basic training program, the experimental group was subjected to an isometric training program for 12-minute core strengthening. Training programs were made for a total of 4 weeks. We examined the effects of core training on speed, vertical jump and agility parameters. Statistical analyzes of the data obtained as a result of the research were obtained using the IBM SPSS 23.0 package program. Results. There was no difference between the groups for sprint and vertical jump parameters of core and basic basketball training (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in favor of EG in the agility test analysis results (p<0.05). As a result, we can say that 4-week core training applied in addition to the basic basketball training program in children improves agility characteristics. Conclusions. The findings showed that core training programs have positive effects on explosive strength parameters. In addition, strengthening the core area significantly improved the agility parameter, which is important in ground-direction changes. This, in parallel with the studies, supported that core training programs should be an integral part of other training programs. This study also showed that core stabilization training applied in a short time improves explosive strength parameters in children.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 134-143; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0208

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The objective of the study was to perform a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to determine the validity of running-based sprint test in relation to 30 second Wingate anaerobic test. Material and Methods. A search of the relevant literature was done using the key words, ‘running-based anaerobic sprint test’, ‘RAST’, ‘Validity’ ‘repeated sprint’ and ‘Wingate’. Twelve studies including 368 participants were finalized to systematic review and meta-analysis. The mean ± standard deviation of the number of participants was 30.66 ± 16.17 years. Results. The summary of effects size were calculated to established the validity of running based sprint test (RAST) with 30 seconds Wingate test as a criterion measure. All studies indicate that effect size of Peak Power (PP) shows higher summary effects 0.58 (95%CI – 0.37, 0.79), similar outputs were observed for Mean Power (MP) 0.67 (95%CI – 0.45, 0.90). Therefore, the average outcomes were significantly different from zero. Conclusions. Running-based anaerobic sprint test is a valid alternative method of 30 seconds Wingate test to measure anaerobic power outputs of healthy individual belongs to various sports disciplines. Although, anaerobic capacity or power output is a determinant factor in power dominating sports. Therefore, RAST is compatible to laboratory-based Wingate 30 second anaerobic test (WAnT) in field-based settings.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0202

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of interest in physical education lesson and life satisfaction of students studying in secondary schools Material and Methods. The research group consisted of 421 students in total 52.3% (n=220) were male students and 47.7% (n = 201) were female students. Structural equation model was used in the analysis of research data. Results. The effect of interest in physical education lesson on life satisfaction was found to be 19.8% (R2 = .198, p <0.05). In the gender variable, the effect of interest in physical education lesson on life satisfaction in girls is 12.8% (R2 = .128), whereas it is 25.7 (R2 = .257) in boys. According to the model, as the level of interest in physical education lesson of students studying in secondary school increases, their life satisfaction increases. While it is concluded that the interest level of students studying in secondary schools in physical education and sports lessons positively predicts their life satisfaction, this rate is higher in male students. Conclusions. Since the participation of students in physical education and sports activities contributes to the multifaceted development and life satisfaction of students, it is necessary to increase the interest of students in physical education lessons and especially to engage female students. It is very important for physical education teachers to provide an environment for student participation in physical education and sports lessons. School-based interventions that can increase female students' participation and interest in physical education and sports lessons can be effective.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 111-117; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0205

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Football is a globally recognized sport and played both professionally and recreationally. As it is a physically challenging sport, it must inform players on preventing injuries from occurring or reoccurring. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on injury prevention towards lateral ankle sprain (LAS) among amateur football players in Brunei. Material and Methods. A total of 140 respondents participated in the cross-sectional study who fit into the inclusion criteria. An online questionnaire was adapted and shared with amateur football players in Brunei from September 2021 to October 2021. Questions were related to (1) demographic data; (2) injury history; (3) knowledge; (4) attitudes; and (5) practices to prevent a lateral ankle sprain. Results. Tendon/ligament injury was the highest amount of frequency at n= 97 (69.3%), in which the participants have sustained it throughout their playing years. More people perceive that the cause of injury was mainly due to lack of physical fitness 84.2%, fatigue/exhaustion 55%, uncured injuries 49.3% and contact with other players 75.7%. 84.3% agreed that the importance of injury prevention is crucial. Participants reported that the injury prevention methods are mainly used to prevent lateral ankle sprain were stretching 81.4%, specific warm-up training 79.3% and taping 67.9%. Conclusions. Our results show that players think that injury prevention is critical, yet most of them are still under-informed about avoiding injuries properly. Despite evidence that stretching is ineffective in preventing injuries, many athletes stretch to prevent damage. Warm-up training and taping are two other standard injury prevention techniques these amateur football players use. Future research should raise exercise knowledge among Brunei’s amateur football players to prevent injuries.
, , Viktoriia Yu. Bohuslavska, Natalia V. Gavrylova, Olexsandra Yu. Brezdeniuk, Svitlana V. Salnykova, Viktoria V. Holovkina, , Vasyl Y. Lutskyi
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 118-125; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0206

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The level of functional preparedness of the population is influenced by many factors. The greatest influence is exerted by the economic condition of the country, climatic features of the region, food quality, environmental factor, social status of the population. Therefore, functional readiness standards should be updated periodically. For an objective assessment of functional readiness, all energy potential should be considered: aerobic, anaerobic lactatic and alactatic. Women of different somatotypes have significant differences in the degree of development of indicators of functional preparedness. Hypothesis. The models of functional preparedness developed by us for women of different somatotypes will clearly demonstrate significant differences in the level of preparedness in representatives of different somatotypes. The aim of the study is to develop standards of functional readiness for women aged 25-35 and models of functional preparedness for women of different somatotypes. Material and methods. The study involved women aged 25-35 years (n = 392). Somatotype was determined in all subjects. The power of aerobic energy supply processes was determined by the method of bicycle ergometry according to the PWC 170 test. The threshold of anaerobic metabolism was determined by the test with a stepwise increasing load. The capacity of anaerobic lactatic energy supply processes of muscular activity was determined by a bicycle ergometric 60-second test. The power of anaerobic lactatic and alactatic energy supply processes was determined by Wingate anaerobic tests WAnT 30 and WAnT 10. Standards of functional preparedness were developed according to the author's method based on the rule 3σ. Results. Functional preparedness standards have been developed for women aged 25-35 according to the full range of muscular energy supply regimes. Models of functional preparedness for women 25-35 years of different somatotypes have been developed. Conclusions. The developed standards are based on modern experimental data and consider all human energy potential (aerobic, anaerobic lactatic and anaerobic alactatic). Standards of functional preparedness cannot be universal for different countries and even different regions of large countries. Models of functional preparedness of women of different somatotypes show a significant difference from the standards set for women without somatotype. Somatotype should be considered when assessing indicators of functional preparedness.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 68-75; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.01.08

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Inter-repetition rest pertains to a short period of rest between repetitions during strength training. Manipulating inter-repetition rest may influence fatigue accumulation, manifesting alteration in lifting mechanics. This study aimed to examine the effects of different inter-repetition rest protocols on joint velocity and ground reaction force during snatch exercise. Material and Methods. Fifteen male (n=15) athletes participated in this study (age = 23.0 ±2.31 years; body weight = 65.32 ± 1.37 kg; height = 168.80 ± 5.64 cm; snatch one repetition maximum (1RM)/bodyweight = 0.78 ± 0.12), performing three sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1 Repetition Maximum snatch with 10, 30, or 50 seconds of inter-repetition rest implemented randomly across three sessions. Ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and ground reaction force in the three protocols were used for comparison. The participants visited the exercise science laboratory for four sessions between 0800-1700 hrs. These sessions were separated by 72 hours. Results. One-way repeated measure analysis of variances (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of inter-repetition rest on the maintenance of kinematic and kinetic variables. The ground reaction force for 10 seconds inter-repetition rest protocol showed a significant drop in force output across repetition (p = .037, p < 0.05). Conclusions. The utilization of inter-repetition rest in snatch exercise may reduce neuromuscular fatigue across repetitions, maintaining consistent performance output. Specifically, the 50 second inter-repetition rest protocol reduced the negative effect of neuromuscular fatigue in the kinematic and kinetic variables during snatch exercise.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 26, pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2022.0106

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The tear of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint is experienced by people of all ages for a variety of reasons. The physiotherapy procedures with different equipment help recover lost functions. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of ‘TRX’ (Total body Resistance eXercise) suspension trainer and platform ‘BOSU’ (Both Sides Utilized) after anterior cruciate ligament of knee joint reconstruction. Material and Methods. The study included 20 patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, 13 women, age (31.7 ± 3.4) and 7 men, age (31.7 ± 3.5) participated in the assessment. The strength of the calf flexors and extensors muscles was assessed by Lovett scale. The range of motion of the knee joint was assessed by goniometer. The static and dynamic body balance was assessed by Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. The stability of the knee joint was assessed by Lachman test. The statistical data reliability was evaluated using Student's T criterion. Results. The data obtained showed that stabilization exercises with ‘TRX’ suspension trainer ant platform ‘BOSU’ have positive effect on knee joint after reconstruction. In the first and second group strength of the calf flexors and extensors muscles, amplitude of knee joint, static and dynamic balance significantly increased (p0.05). Conclusions. Physiotherapy exercises with TRX suspension trainer and platform ‘BOSU’ can help patients to return lost muscles strength, knee joint amplitude, static and dynamic balance and knee joint stability.
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