PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE

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ISSN / EISSN : 2706-7688 / 2706-7696
Total articles ≅ 90
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S. P. Tanchyk, N. I. Babilia, A. I. Babenko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.02.023

Abstract:
Winter barley is a valuable food, fodder, and technical crop. Our research is aimed at obtaining economically and energy-efficient, adequate to the bioresource potential of winter barley grain yield, depending on the preceding crops in Transcarpathia of Ukraine. Research and balance calculations available soil moisture showed that the conditions of Transcarpathia it is negative and ranges from 250 to 1210 tons / ha or 25-121 mm. Accumulation and efficient use of available moisture in the soil depends on the amount of precipitation and their frequency of precipitation, crop rotation (preceding crops), tillage system, fertilization, and weediness of fields. The largest reserves of available moisture in the soil during the sowing of winter barley were after winter rape and buckwheat, the smallest – after sunflower and, especially, corn for grain. During the autumn-winter period, the reserves of available moisture in a meter layer of soil were replenished by 21-35%, but the influence of preceding crops remained. The critical period of winter barley in terms of moisture occurs during earing - grain filling. Preceding crops of early harvesting (winter oilseed rape and buckwheat) have a positive effect on the accumulation and retention of moisture in the soil. Late harvest preceding crops (maize for grain and sunflower) reduce the available moisture content and reserves by up to 18% compared to early harvest crops. On average over three years, the highest yield of winter barley was after buckwheat and amounted to 5.9 t / ha, the lowest - after corn for grain and was at 4.9 t / ha, which is 0.8 t / ha lower than the control variant.
B. O. Mazurenko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.02.015

Abstract:
Photosynthetic pigments play an important role in the accumulation of dry matter and they can be the markers of stress. Change in the ratio of chlorophyll A and B indicates physiological changes and adaptation of the organism to changes of environmental conditions. Sowing terms and application of nitrogen fertilizers are long-term factors, so the content of chlorophylls in the flag leaf indicates long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic system. Establishing a relationship between the chlorophyll content at anthesis and the accumulation of dry matter in posy-anthesis period indicates the varietal response of triticale to fertilization and sowing dates. It was conducted a three-factor field experiment. There are studied two winter and one facultative triticale cultivar, two autumn sowing terms and fertilization system with application the different rates of nitrogen fertilizers in different growth stages. It was found that the content of photosynthetic pigments in each variety varied depending on sowing term and fertilizer system in terms of mg per 1 g of dry matter for chlorophyll A, B and the amount of A+B. At the same time, the difference between the factors and their interactions was insignificant for the total chlorophyll mass per unit area (g/m2) for chlorophyll A and the amount of A+B, but it was significant for chlorophyll B by the fertilizer system factor. This indicates that the main stress signal is chlorophyll B, so the ratio of chlorophyll A and B differed significantly depending on this factor. Cla: Clb ratio in the optimal sowing period is 5.3–8.1 in cv. Pidzimok kharkivskiy, 4.8–8.3 in cv. Amur and 5.0–6.7 in cv. Obriy mironivskiy. All cultivars have a strong positive correlation between the chlorophyll content at anthesis and accumulation of dry matter at post-anthesis perion under optimal conditions, but facultative triticale Pidzimok kharkivskiy has a negative correlation with unfavorable, due to increased chlorophyll, without increasing dry matter accumulation. Further study of the relationship between chlorophyll content and the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites is promising in the study of varietal response to stress and agronomic factors.
, , O. O. Opryshko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.02.047

Abstract:
Crop management used in these technologies is one of the main trends in the modernization of agricultural technologies. To implement crop management, growers need accessible and effective information about the state of crops. The aim of the work is to develop a method of plant identification on multispectral images of high resolution for crops of continuous sowing on the example of winter wheat. The research was conducted on 03/17/2019 on winter wheat crops in the tillering vegetation phase, Mukan variety in production fields near the village of Horodyshche, Kyiv region. Aerial monitoring from a height of 100 meters was carried out using a spectral complex Slantrange 3p, mounted on a UAV UAV DJI Matrice 600. To extract the reference graphics data from Slantview made a copy of the screen in full screen mode of the image window. Statistical processing of graphical data of spectral monitoring results was performed in MathCad. It was found that the reliable establishment of the spectral portrait of the soil for its pixel-by-pixel filtering from multispectral images is a difficult task because its color significantly depends on the state of moisture, which may differ in open and shaded by plants. A more promising way to eliminate random inclusions is to use a spectral portrait of plants based on the intensity ratios of its spectral components. A promising parameter for assessing the condition of crops is to assess their area of heir horizontal surface, which can be determined by pixel analysis of the image. A filtering option is proposed, which, as in the solutions implemented in Slantview software, needs to be debugged. In further researches it is expedient to consider questions of methodical maintenance of an estimation of quality of a filtration of data of spectral monitoring of vegetation.
S. Yu. Bulygin, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, S. V. Vitvitskyy, M. I. Chayka, KHARKIV NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY NAMED AFTER V. V. DOKUCHAIEV
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 59-67; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.059

Abstract:
A survey of the soil cover and the state of natural grass cover of saline and erosively dangerous lands of the valley and the beam system of the Sukha Yali River was carried out. Low-productive saline lands are located on the slopes and bottoms of beams, micro-lowering of lower and floodplain meadows. Plant communities confined to such soils are characterized by low species richness and poverty of fodder valuable species. The results of research on the improvement of unproductive lands on saline soils by sowing a set of forage grasses that are able to grow in conditions of soil salinity and have a high forage value are presented. It was found that during the observation period the yield of green mass and hay in all variants was much higher than the yield of natural grass. The biochemical composition of forage grasses is characterized by an increased content of crude protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C and essential amino acids. The data on the introduction of honey grasses for the improvement of saline forage lands in the complex with wild honeysuckles are given, their nectariness is determined. Bioagronomic evaluation of forage plants growing on chernozem salt marsh was carried out. Recommendations for the improvement of forage lands on saline and saline soils are given.
H. V. Motruk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, , O. V. Hryshchenko, , Ya. O. Likar
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 68-76; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.068

Abstract:
Microorganisms play an important role in the formation of soil fertility, ensure their functioning as biological bodies of nature and are an indicator of qualitative soil changes. Due to the effect of anthropogenic activity on the soil there is a decrease in the number and depletion of the species composition of the microbiota. The aim of the research was to estimate the number of different physiological groups of microorganisms on meadow-chernozem carbonate soil under different fertilizer systems. Determination of the number of different groups of soil microorganisms was carried out according to the method of Zvyagintsev by sowing the soil suspension on solid nutrient media. It was established that the most favorable indicators of microbiocenosis and the highest yield of peas of Tsarevich variety were formed by the aftereffects of organic fertilizers and N45P45K45. The variant without fertilizers causes the development of mineralization of organic matter in meadow-chernozem carbonate soil by the content of pedotrophic and humatizing organisms and formed the lowest yield of peas. Application of only mineral fertilizers for growing peas formed a high rate of accumulation of humus at the level of Kak. = 1,6-1,9.
G. I. Demidas, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Galushko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 18-27; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.018

Abstract:
Establish changes in the indicators of economic and energy efficiency of growing different varieties of clover for fodder purposes, depending on the methods of sowing, inoculation of seeds with nodule bacteria and fertilizers. Methods. Field and laboratory - for research in the field and laboratory conditions, analytical - to determine the chemical composition of the dry biomass of meadow clover, calculated - to determine the indicators of economic and energy efficiency. Growing meadow clover for fodder purposes on chernozems of typical low-humus northern part of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is profitable. Regardless of the elements of technology, it provides 14962-23743 UAH of net profit with a profitability of 88-259 % and the cost of 1 ton of feed units – 1415-2662 UAH and crude protein – 5363-10265 UAH, payback of energy consumption per 1 ha gross energy (KEE) – 6.2-9.0 and the output of 1 ha of exchange energy (BEC) – 3,2-4,6, as well as energy costs per 1 ton of feed units 2.86-4.20 GJ. The best indicators of economic and energy efficiency of meadow clover cultivation are provided by the Typhoon variety by inoculation of seeds with nodule bacteria on a background without fertilizers. Additional application of P60K90 or N60P60K90 on the background of inoculation, which is necessary to maintain soil fertility, worsens them, reducing the net profit by 3486-5943 UAH per ha.
I. V. Fedoruk, Podilskyi State University, O. N. Bakhmat
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 7-17; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.007

Abstract:
Based on the analysis of literary sources and publications, the features of soybean varieties for cultivation in Podillia were studied. The key directions of increasing the productivity of soybean varieties are considered. Advantages are given and substantiated, and the main disadvantages and problems of growing soybean varieties in Podillia conditions are indicated The features of soybean varieties, the influence of the inoculation process and the efficiency of micronutrient fertilization have been investigated, which made it possible to develop methods of growing technology taking into account plant biology on changes in climatic conditions. The growth processes and development of soybean varieties have been investigated: Maxus, Cordoba, Saska, depending on the treatment of seeds with an insecticidal-fungicidal preparation Standak Top, inoculant Hai Kot Super Hai Kot Super Extender and seed treatment with micronutrient fertilizer Como 15, as well as foliar dressing with micronutrient fertilizers Vuksal Boron and Bospholiar during the growing season of plants. Having carried out research on various groups of ripeness from such varieties of soybeans as Maxus, Cordoba, Saska, positive results were obtained on the yield from the introduction of micronutrient fertilizers, inoculants, treatment of the inoculum of soybean seeds with an inoculant and a microelement, the preparation Vuxal Como 15. And also from the treatment of seeds with the preparation Standak Top 1 l t, which in turn prevents the development of such diseases as fusarium, anthracnose, seed mold, promotes rooting of plants in the soil due to the accelerated development of the root system, an increase in the assimilation surface of the leaf apparatus, promotes the activation of nitroreductase, which in turn activates the work processes of photosynthesis, manifested in the so-called AgCelence effect, plants have an intensely saturated dark green color, control of soil pests. Carrying out experiments on the effect of seed inoculation on soybean yield, we combined an inoculant, VuksalKoMo preparation and Sdandak Top insecticidal fungicide preparation with a sowing period of up to 5-7 days in a tank mixture. One of the main requirements is the use of high-quality inoculants with a high content of viable nitrogen-fixing bacteria for processing soybean seeds, today there is a need, since it fully reveals and realizes the genetic and varietal potential of modern varieties, and this, in turn, will ensure high yields soybeans with optimal costs and the fastest return on investment, especially in today's conditions. In the study results, new technological aspects are presented, in which the processes of analysis and hardening of micro-manure and infectious-fungicidal preparation in the technological development and quality improvement of the production process are revealed. It should also take into account the relative humidity and reserves of productive soil moisture. The research results are aimed at solving urgent problems in the technology of growing leguminous crops, namely: developing a version of the technology for growing soybeans for the selection of varieties adapted to a given climatic zone, the use of inoculants and micronutrients in the conditions of climate change in Podillia.
G.I. Yaroviy, Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchaiev, O.I. Filimonova, , I.M. Hordiienko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 102-111; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.102

Abstract:
In Ukraine, the area under garlic is increasing and as of 2020 amounted to 1,100 hectares, due to the high profitability of production and constant demand in both domestic and foreign markets. At the same time, the evaluation of existing and new varieties of winter garlic is important for further growth in yields of this important crop. The aim of the research is to assess the genetic diversity of the studied varieties of winter garlic by ISSR loci and to determine the most productive in the conditions of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Winter garlic varieties Duchess, Lyubasha and Hungarian (line 20-16) were used for the research. The highest level of marketable yield (14.1 t / ha) was obtained when growing winter garlic of Lyubasha. The Hungarian variety (Line 20-16) provided a yield of 12.9 t / ha, the Duchess variety 9.4 t / ha. The formation of winter garlic yield by 12.3 % depended on the characteristics of the variety, the influence of the growing season was 87.3 %. Agronomically stable (As ˃ 70 %) was the winter garlic variety Hungarian (Line 20-16) with As = 73.8 %. Based on the above studies, allelic formulas (molecular genetic passports) of winter garlic varieties Hungarian (Line 20-16), Lyubasha and Duchess were formed. In the studied varieties of winter garlic, several amplicons were found, unique within the study group. The UCC812725 and UBC 812902 loci were unique in the Duchess variety, and the UBC 812791 and UBC 842702 loci were unique in the Lyubasha variety. The calculated Nei–Li similarity coefficients indicate a significant genetic similarity of the studied varieties of winter garlic. The Lyubasha and Duchess varieties are genetically closer to each other than the Hungarian varieties (Line 20-16).
O. V. Kuts, Institute of Vegetable and Melon NAAS of Ukraine, V. I. Mykhailyn, I. I. Semenenko, S. V. Shevchenko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 112-119; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.112

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to establish the effectiveness of different methods of obtaining sweet potato planting material (through potted seedlings or unrooted cuttings) in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Research methods: field, laboratory, statistical.The use of pottedseedlings method as a method of obtaining sweet potato planting material provides the formation of more developed plants of the culture (with an increased number of shoots per plant and their total length).The use of slips as a method of obtaining sweet potato planting material provides more intensive growth rates, the formation of tuber yields at 14.8 t / ha with a high content of dry matter (13.8 %), starch (10.7 %) and vitamin C 5.33 mg / 100 g).Using potted sweet potato seedlings occur with deformed tubers (3.5 %), but decreases the proportion of shrubs that do not form the tubers (8.3 % compared to 10.0 % for the use of the slips).
A. V. Yunyk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 39-49; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.039

Abstract:
The cultivation of high-oleic sunflower hybrids is promising due to the high competitiveness of sunflower on the international market and the growing demand for oil as the main product of its processing. Despite the importance of sunflower as one of the traditional crops of Ukraine, the technology of its cultivation now has many unsolved problems. Among the elements of cultivation technology aimed at increasing crop yields, research with high-oleic hybrids occupies a prominent place, requires the study of mineral nutrition levels, the need for sulfur, taking into account their impact on the oleic acid content. The purpose of the research is to establish the influence of sulfur on the background of different norms of mineral fertilizers on the formation of productivity of high-oleic sunflower plants on chernozems of typical low-humus right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The research program provided for the establishment of a field experiment in 2015–2017. The research was conducted according to the scheme of two-factor field experiment. The scheme of experiments provides for the study of the following factors: factor A – rates of mineral fertilizers, factor B – sulfur application Methods. During the research, generally accepted methods were used for scientific research in crop production. Based on the research, it was found that the maximum amount of dry matter accumulates in the variants with the introduction of N90Р75К135+S30 and N120Р100К180+S30. The introduction of sulfur increases the yield of dry matter from 5.69 % to 9.27 %. The highest yield of sunflower seeds is formed by applying N90Р75К135+S30 – 4.12 t/ha. Further increase in fertilizer application rates does not lead to a significant increase in yield. Application of S30 on the background of N90Р75К135 allows to increase the yield of sunflower by 0.35 t per ha or 9.28 %. Our correlation-regression analysis of the obtained research results indicates a close correlation between the accumulation of dry matter in ВВСН 55–57 and ВВСН 65–67 and the yield level (respectively r = 0.917 and r = 0.972). The highest fat content in the seeds (49.7 %) with the maximum content of oleic acid (88.5 %) and the maximum yield of oil (2.05 t per ha) provides the cultivation of the hybrid EC Romantic with the introduction of N90Р75К135+S30.
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