PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE

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ISSN / EISSN : 2706-7688 / 2706-7696
Total articles ≅ 113
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L. A. Garbar, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, U. Lishchuk, N. I. Dovbash, N. V. Knap, National Scientific Centre «Institute of Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine», Mukachiv agricultural college
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.028

Abstract:
Nutritional conditions of plants during the growing season is one of the main factors aimed at realizing the genetic potential of sunflower hybrids for growing them in any soil and climatic conditions. Currently, it is important to study the genetic potential of domestic hybrids under different growing conditions in order to identify their competitiveness, which provides an increase in quality and yield of the crop. The use in the production of a significant range of complex microfertilizers on the background of the main fertilizer helps to increase the efficiency of plant use of nutrients of mineral fertilizers and soil, is one of the ways to increase crop yields and quality of agricultural products. Despite the relevance of sunflower as the main oil crop, the technology of its cultivation is not a perfect study, in addition, previous studies often contain conflicting indicators. An important place among the agronomic techniques aimed at increasing crop productivity belongs to the provision of optimal plant nutrition conditions during the growing season. The purpose of the research was to establish the influence of culture conditions and selection of high-yielding hybrids (NK Diamantis, SI Kupava, NK Neoma) for specific soil and climatic conditions through the formation of their productivity. The purpose of the research was to establish the influence of culture conditions and selection of high-yielding hybrids (NK Diamantis, SI Kupava, NK Neoma) for specific soil and climatic conditions through the formation of their productivity. The research was conducted during 2018–2019 on typical low-humus chernozems. The research program provided for the establishment of a three-factor field experiment, which studied hybrids (factor A) fertilizer options (factor B) and foliar fertilization of crops (factor B) in phase 4 and 8 sunflower leaves with Ecoline Bor, Nertus Bor, Bast Bor. The studied sunflower hybrids are NK Diamantis, SI Kupava, NK Neoma. The results of the research revealed significant changes in the diameter of the sunflower inflorescence under the influence of different nutritional conditions created by fertilizer options. The influence of hybrid characteristics also determined this indicator. Plants of the hybrid NK Diamantis formed baskets, the diameters of which varied from 17.6 to 21.2 cm, SI Kupava - from 18.8 to 22.1 cm, NK Neoma – from 17.2 to 21.6 cm. The maximum value was obtained on variant with the introduction of N36P56K108S28 + N23 + Ecoline Boron (phase 4 and 8 leaves) in plants of the hybrid SI Kupava, which corresponded to 22.1 cm. The weight of 1 000 achenes belonging to genetically determined traits of culture, in plants of the hybrid NK Diamantis, depending on the fertilizer variant varied from 59.3 to 62.3 g, SI Kupava from 69.8 to 74.0 g, NK Neoma from 68.8 to 72.6 g. The maximum value was provided by the variant with the use of N36P56K108S28 + N23 + Ecoline Boron (phase 4 and 8 leaves). Studies have shown that the most productive was the hybrid SI Kupava with the maximum yield on the variant with the use of N36P56K108S28 + N23 + Ecoline Boron (in phase 4 and 8 leaves of 1 l / ha) – 3.46 t per ha.
, National University of Life and Enviromental Sciences of Ukraine
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 86-93; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.086

Abstract:
The scale wind erosion is increasing in Ukraine in connection with the arid climate and intensive agricultural land use. Deflation causes significant damage not only to the soil cover, but also to the environment. Research has shown that the resistance of soils to deflation depends on their structural state. The aim of our work was to establish the influence of different tillage systems and fertilizers on agrophysical parameters of the soil. According to the method of dry sieving according to Savvinov, the content of particles larger than 1 mm and the number of agronomically valuable particles per 1% of humus according by V. V. Medvedev were determined in the soil. The research was conducted on a stationary experiment of the Department of Soil Science and Soil Conservation named prof. M. K. Shikula in Separated subdivision of NULeS of Ukraine “Oleksandr Muzychenko Velykosnytinske Educational and Research Farm” of Fastiv district of Kyiv region. The soil of the experimental site is chernozem typical. It was found that in the variant with the application of straw, green manure and mineral fertilizers for reduced tillage, the content of particles larger than 1 mm was the highest and amounted to 75.1-77.5 %. Conservation tillage systems provided a deflation-resistant soil surface, as the content of particles over 1 mm was greater than 60%. Reduced tillage together with the fertilizer variant "Straw 1.2 t / ha + N12 + N78P68K68" creates the best conditions for aggregation in a layer of 0-30 cm of chernozem typical. On non-plowing tillage, more favorable aggregation conditions were on the variant "Straw 1.2 t / ha + green manure N12 + N78P68K68". On variant with plowing, the indicators of the structural state of chernozem typical deteriorated.
V. O. Mineralova, Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of NAAS, A. I. Parfeniuk, O. I. Mineralov
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 94-101; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.01.094

Abstract:
The results of researches of influence of raspberry plant varieties on the species composition of micromycetes in rhizospheric soil and on vegetative organs of plants in the conditions of organic production are given. The mycobiota of raspberry varieties Joan J and Himbo-Top during plant ontogenesis was analyzed and the species composition of phytopathogenic micromycetes in the rhizosphere and on plant leaves was established. It was found that the population is dominated by fungi of following species: Septoria rubi, West, Botrytis cinerea, Pers, Aspergillus niger, V. Tiegh, Alternaria alternata, (Fr.) Keissl., Fusarium graminearum, Schwabe, regardless of the phase of ontogenesis of plants that produce mycotoxins, and can cause disease in animals and humans. According to the results of research, it can be assumed that in the phase of inflorescence growth in the mycobiota of rhizospheric soil and on the vegetative organs of raspberry plants of Joan J and Himbo-Top the greatest competitiveness can be characterized by isolates of fungi Septoria rubi and Alternaria alternata. The obtained results indicate a significant differentiation of the studied varieties by the reaction of interaction between plants, microorganisms and the environment. Thus, while in the mycobiota of rhizospheric soil and vegetative organs of raspberry plants of the Joan J variety during intensive fruiting of plants the isolates of Aspergillus flavus fungi were characterized by the greatest competitiveness, in Himbo-Top cultivar the highest rates of radial growth were shown by isolates of Aspergillus oryzae and Alternaria alternata
A. V. Vasylchenko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 17-27; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.03.017

Abstract:
Improvement of conventional methods of potato growing is an important task of modern agriculture. Nowadays nanoparticles (NPs) gain increasing attention of scientists as promising tools for increasing productivity of crop cultures. NPs of such elements as Fe, Zn, B, Si, Cu, Co, Se and Ag can significantly increase potato productivity. Ag NPs show synergic effect with some microbial preparations. However, the influence of such elements as Zn and Se on the productivity of potato and joint application of NPs with microbial preparations for pre-sowing treatment are not studied sufficiently. The influence of Ti and I NPs on potato productivity, the influence of NPs on Ukrainian potato cultivars, the influence of NPs on the potato productivity in Polesia region conditions are not studied yet. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pre-sowing treatment of seed potatoes with Zn nanoparticles (NPs), Ti NPs, composition of Se + I NPs, composition of Zn + Ti + Se + I NPs NPs, “Avatar-2 protection” multicomponent trace element preparation, “Azogran” microbial preparation “Azogran” and the combination of “Azogran” preparation with the composition of Se + I NPs on the productivity of potato cultivar Suvenir chernihivskyi in the Polesia region conditions. Two small plot studies were planted for three years in order to conduct the study. Each small plot study had been performed on different soil types: soddy podzolic soil and alkaline chernozem. Studies were situated on the lands of the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agro-industrial Production of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine. It has been found that the composition of Se + I NPs, “Azogran” microbial preparation and the combination “Azogran” preparation with the composition of Se + I NPs had the most prominent influence on the potato productivity, increasing it on soddy podzolic soil by 33.13; 38.34 and 45.35 % respectively and on alkaline chernozem by 10.97; 17.98 and 37.27 % respectively. The composition of Se + I NPs and “Azogran” preparation are shown to develop synergic effect. The results of the study suggest high efficiency of the use of nanoparticles in potato growing.
S. Shylo, L. V. Tsentylo, A. I. Babenko
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.03.048

Abstract:
The realities of the current state of Ukraine's economy show that the share of agricultural production in its structure is 15-18 %, and in the case of state support, may increase to 25 %. The main task of agricultural production is food security of the state, and the successful solution of this problem largely depends on the level and rate of growth of grain farming. Due to its high nutritional value, winter wheat occupies a leading place among the most important grain crops. In world agriculture, it is one of the three strategically important agro-food crops (wheat, rice, corn). Therefore, world food security depends on the state of development of wheat production. The potential of modern adaptive technologies for growing winter wheat is 30-50% increase in its yield from the current level. However, the main obstacle to the growth of wheat production may be climate change, which results in deteriorating moisture supply. Given that moisture reserves determine the agrochemical, agrophysical and biological properties of the soil, ensure the growth and development of plants, as well as the formation of elements of the crop structure. One of the determining factors in the formation of the water regime of the soil in winter wheat crops is the optimization of its placement in crop rotation after different preceding crops. The urgency of this issue has led to the choice of research. The article presents the peculiarities of the formation of available moisture reserves for the cultivation of winter wheat, depending on the preceding crops. It was found that in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe in terms of the ability to provide winter wheat for the sowing period (0-10 cm layer of soil) with available moisture, the preceding crops were placed as follows: winter rape-sunflower-soybean-corn for silage. At the time of sowing, sufficient moisture reserves in the 0-10 cm layer of soil were formed by placing winter wheat after peas and winter rape, respectively 11,5 and 10,9 mm. The highest yield of winter wheat on average in 2019-2021 at the level of 5,68 t/ha was ensured by its placement after peas. The use as a precursor of winter rape and soybeans reduced its yield by 4,40 and 5,40 %, respectively, which in absolute terms was 0,25 and 0,31 t/ha. After maize for silage and sunflower, crop yields decreased by 0,48 and 0,67 t/ha, respectively. The highest quality indicators of winter wheat grain - protein content of 13,1 and 13,3 % and gluten 25,2 and 25,5 % were obtained for its placement after legumes (peas and soybeans). Winter rape, as a preceding crops, provided grain quality indicators at the level of 13,0 % protein and 24,5 % gluten. When placed after sunflower and corn in silage, the protein content was 12,6 and 12,8%, and gluten – 24,0 and 24,1 %, respectively.
A. N. Honchar, , , O. S. Makarchuk
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 56-65; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.03.056

Abstract:
In agroecosystems, microorganisms are the main factor in the soil formation process, plant nutrition and phytosanitary condition of the soil. Therefore, all measures aimed at restoring soil fertility and increasing productivity, environmental safety of agricultural production are closely linked to the activities of microorganisms. Increased local activity, biomass and diversity of microbiota are one of the most important characteristics that distinguish the rhizosphere from the total soil volume. The aim of the research was to study the number and composition of the microbial complex of the rhizosphere of cereals (winter wheat of different varieties of domestic selection) in the process of ontogenesis. To conduct a set of microbiological studies, soil samples were taken and prepared (typical chernozem) in compliance with the standard requirements for sample preparation and storage of samples in the laboratory. The analysis of rhizosphere soil samples was performed according to the variants of different varieties of winter wheat of domestic selection. The number of soil microorganisms was determined by the method of inoculation of suspensions on nutrient media according to generally accepted methods in microbiology. Determination of the total microbial biomass in the soil was carried out by the rehydration method, and the intensity of "respiration" of the soil, respectively, by the release of CO2 and O2 absorption by the manometric method (Warburg apparatus). It is established that varietal specificity is significantly related to the peculiarities of microbiome formation in different phases of plant growth and development, which is an integral indicator of functional and metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. The number and composition of the microbial complex of winter wheat rhizosphere in the process of ontogenesis changes significantly, especially in the ratio of the number of spore-forming and non-spore forms of microorganisms under the same conditions of crop cultivation. The total pool of saprotrophic microorganisms of the rhizosphere demonstrates the variability of biomass and changes in favor of ecoplastic Bacillus. An increase in the number of spore-forming bacteria to 4.2 x 107 CFU/g in the variants of growing certain varieties was found. It is shown that in the cultivation of different varieties of winter wheat there are stable indicators of the intensity of CO2 emissions - from 5.2 to 7.0. A similar trend can be traced to the absorption of O2 (not more than 5.3-6.8).
N. Yu. Tereshchenko, O. Yu. Kursenko, O. I. Khyzhan, O. Yu. Bobunov, L. O. Kovshun
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 111-118; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.03.111

Abstract:
The paper presents the methodology of preparation of samples of oilseeds, lettuce, apples for research by chromatographic control of xenobiotics of the following chemical groups of pesticides: benzimidazole derivatives, anilinopyrimidine derivatives, bipyridylium derivatives. The implementation of the following processes is considered: homogenization of the sample, purification of the extract by solid-phase or liquid-liquid extraction, obtaining a plant extract, obtaining an extract of analytes. For fine-grained homogenized samples of sunflower seeds, the optimal ratio of raw material -extragent is 1:20, for pasty homogenized samples of apple fruit - 1:10, for liquid samples of homogenized lettuce - 1: 5. Analysis of the distribution of xenobiotics in the system octane/water, the dipole moment of solvents allowed to determine the extractants that are able to dissolve and remove xenobiotics from raw materials. It was found that a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (4: 1) should be used to remove benzimidazole derivatives and anilinopyrimidine derivatives, bipyridylium derivatives are best extracted with methanolic trifluoroacetic acid (9.5: 0.5). Quantitative analysis of xenobiotics content in extracts obtained from samples artificially enriched with xenobiotics was performed. The most complete xenobiotics were removed from samples of plant products containing traces of fat. The most difficult process of sample preparation is the process of obtaining sunflower seed extract. The content of xenobiotics in extracts obtained from samples artificially enriched in analytes is influenced by the temperature at which the process takes place and the duration of extraction. Based on the chemical composition of the sample matrix and the list of analytes, the conditions of the variable component of the methodology are proposed: obtaining plant extract under the action of selective solvents, homogenized raw material-solvent with constant stirring of the extraction system at 180-200 rpm, or under the action of ultrasonic vibrations with a frequency of 37 kHz from 4°C to 25°C for 5-25 minutes. The control of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the studied plant extracts and analyte extracts was investigated by the methods of high-performance liquid and gas chromatography (liquid and gas) with mass-selective detectors.
M. O. Kiroiants, , T. I. Patyka
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.02.054

Abstract:
The purpose of the work. The aim of the study was to conduct research on the manifestation of the dominant representatives of the bacterial biome of the rhizosphere of spring barley antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic micromycetes. Research methods. The standard diffusion method of double culture in Petri dishes was used to study the antagonistic properties of the dominant strains of rhizosphere bacteria. The level of antagonistic activity of microorganisms was assessed by the indicator (%) of inhibition of growth and development of the mycelium of micromycetes Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb. 23.2, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. 3.45, Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch. 18.77. Results and scope of their application. Studies have shown that Bacillus methylotrophicus 10 had an inhibitory effect on Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb. 23.2 ‒ 77,4%, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. 3.45 – 66,6% and Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch. 18.77 – 86,7%, while the bacteria Phyllobacterium ifriqiyense 1 showed activity against phytopathogens by 45,1%, 63,1% and 65,0%, respectively. Conclusions. Thus, both strains of rhizosphere dominant bacteria have high antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic micromycetes, which gives grounds for their further study.
S. Yu. Bulygin, S. V. Vitvitskyy, M. E. Bulygina, O. I. Vitvitska, National Scientific Centre «Institute of Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine»
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 91-101; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.04.091

Abstract:
Проведені дослідження впливу різних технологій обробітку чорнозему звичайного на запаси продуктивної вологи за вирощування кукурудзи на зерно та пшениці озимої у степовій зоні УкраїниВизначені параметри продуктивної вологи при технології вирощування польових культур за «нульового обробітку» ґрунту («No-till») щодополицевої оранки.Встановлено, що система «No-till» сприяє суттєвому зменшенню втрат вологи на непродуктивне випаровування за високого коефіцієнта засвоєння атмосферних опадів, забезпечує надійний захист ґрунту від ерозії.У разі вкриття поверхні ґрунту близькому до 100 % влітку під кукурудзою запаси продуктивної вологи в кореневмісному шарі в 1,5 і більше рааи перевищують відповідні запаси за традиційної технології; у разі відсутності мульчі режим зволоження за технології без обробітку ґрунту складається більш напружений у порівнянні з традиційною.  Режим зволоження ґрунту під озимою пшеницею по кукурудзі на силос кращий за “нульовою” технологією, але суттєвої різниці між варіантами в середньому за 3 роки не виявлено.У малосніжну зиму за “нульової” технології з мульчею висота снігового покриву була в 3,2 рази вищою у порівнянні з традиційною технологією.Виявлено, що обов’язковою умовою вирощування культур без обробітку ґрунту в зоні недостатнього зволоження є створення потужного шару мульчі завдяки нетоварній частці врожаю культур, яка в подрібненому вигляді залишається на поверхні ґрунту. Проєктивне покриття мульчею у 100 % або близьким до цього рівня є запорукою широкого впровадження технологій вирощування без обробітку ґрунту в посушливих умовах Степу.
B. O. Mazurenko, S. M. Kalenska, , M. Ya. Hrygirevskiy
PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCE, Volume 12, pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.31548/agr2021.04.007

Abstract:
Оптимізація живлення рослин на початкових етапах розвитку має важливе значення для формування елементів продуктивності головного та бічних пагонів і врожаю зерна. У статті представлено результати дослідження впливу повільнодіючих безхлорних добрив у припосівне внесення в нормі 100 кг/га на формування елементів продуктивності пшениці озимої порівняно з зональним контролем – нітроамофоскою 16:16:16. Для вирішення поставлених завдань закладався польовий дослід у 2019  2021 рр. на двох сортам пшениці м’якої озимої – Богдана та Самурай. Вивчалися комплексні повільнодіючі добрива NPK(S) виробництва FertinAgro (Іспанія) марки DuraSOPActiBION 9:20:12:(15), DuraSOPElite 10:10:17:(20), DuraSOPPhos 4:26:12:(10). Вплив погодних умов на формування таких елементів продуктивності пшениці озимої, як маса зерна з колоса, кількість зерен у колосі й маса 1000 зерен, суттєво перевищував досліджувані чинники в обох сортів. Формування елементів продуктивності за впливу досліджуваних добрив залежало від сортів і по-різному проявлялося в різних погодних умовах. Добрива DuraSOP не мали суттєвої різниці у впливі на кількість і масу насіння з колосу у сорту Богдана порівняно з контролем у посушливих умовах, але маса насіння з колоса суттєво зросла порівняно з контролем (від 1,67 до 1,74-1,78 г) за сприятливих умов, тоді як кількість зернівок суттєво не різнилася. Форма добрив у припосівне внесення в сорту Самурай немала істотного впливу, оскільки за посушливих умов формувалося 1,17-1,21 г зерна в колосі, а за сприятливих 1,47-1,49 г, що суттєво не відрізнялося від контролю (нітроамофоска). Застосування DuraSOP ActiBION дозволило збільшити кількість продуктивних стебел на момент збирання на 8,4 % порівняно з контролем і на 7,7 % у сорті Богдана у разі застосування DuraSOP Phos. Сорт Самурай слабше реагував на повільнодіючі добрива, тому суттєва різниця була лише у варіанту DuraSOP Phos коли кількість продуктивних стебел За різностороннього впливу на формування елементів продуктивності всі досліджувані повільнодіючі добрива суттєво впливали на формування врожаю зерна у сорту Богдана – у середньому урожайність на цих варіантах становила від 6,58 до 7,03 т/га (приріст 0,27–0,72 т/га), тоді як на контрольному варіанті формувалося 6,31 т/га зерна. Водночас у сорту Самурай приріст від заміни нітроамофоски на повільнодіючі форми добрив становив 0,11–0,31 т/га, тобто суттєве збільшення урожайності було лише за застосування DuraSOP Phos, що дало можливість отримати 6,80 т/га зерна, тобто приріст становив 4,8 % від контролю (6,49 т/га). Використання повільнодіючих добрив також дало змогу збільшити вміст білка в зерні на 0,3–0,5 %,що загалом є несуттєвим приростом, але в окремих випадках дає змогу підвищити клас зерна під час реалізації.Сортова реакція на різне співвідношення макроелементів у добривах для припосівного внесення є одним з елементів технології, які мають високий вплив на продуктивність пшениці та її розвиток на початкових етапах, тому використання ефективних форм дає можливість підвищити врожайність до 11,4 % порівняно з типовими комплекс ними добривами.
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