International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2706-9567 / 2706-9575
Published by: AkiNik Publications (10.22271)
Total articles ≅ 293
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Zameeruddin Ahmed Hashmi, G Chandra Deepak, Mohammed Liyaqat Shareef
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 14-17; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2022.v4.i1a.313

Abstract:
Background: In the Road Traffic Accidents, the injury to the head and neck is the most important of all regional injuries. The nature of the internal damage may or may not be reflected in the superficial injury to the head and face.Objectives: To study various types of road traffic accidents and associated skull injuriesMethods: The sequence, frequency and distribution of the injuries is investigated in detail for all patients admitted to the hospital. Factors such as age, gender, injury and intoxication have been investigated. Both fatal and non-fatal accidents have been recorded. The data has been collected from PME reports and inquest reports, relatives and friends of the deceased.Results: Incidence of skull fractures is 397(84.3%) in males and 74 (15.7%) in females. M: F ratio is 5.36:1. Highest number of fractures are seen in temporal 100 (21%), then in occipital 56 (11.9%), frontal 19 (4%), least single bone fracture is seen in 9 (1.9%) cases. Temporal bone is the bone that is fractured the most, individually in 100 cases, around 246 (52.2%) cases survived for a duration in hospital and died in hospital, 185 (39.2%) cases died on the spot, 40(8.5%) cases died on the way to hospital.Conclusion: Effective interventions include designing safer infrastructure and incorporating road safety features into land-use and transport planning, improving the safety features of vehicles, improving post-crash care for victims of road crashes, setting and enforcing laws relating to key risks, and raising public awareness.
Ks Abishek, Saritha K Narayanan, M Ramakrishna Rao
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 4, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2022.v4.i1a.310

Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the level of fibrinogen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: We conducted a hospital based study of 100 random patients, divided into 4 groups, 25 in each group and compared serum fibrinogen between the group during the study period from November 2019 to April 2021.The patients will be sub classified into four groups:•Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications (Group – A).•Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with microvascular complications (Group – B).•Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with macrovascular complications (Group – C).•Patients with type2 diabetes mellitus with both microvascular and macrovascular complications (Group – D).Results: The difference between serum fibrinogen levels among 4 groups were statistically significant (p
P Bharath Raja, R Gandhi Babu, M Senthil Velan
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 435-439; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2g.289

Abstract:
Background: Both hypertension and depression are non-communicable diseases with multiple common factors playing role in pathogenesis of both the diseases.Objectives1.To find out the prevalence of depression among hypertensives attending a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu.2.To find out the association between risk factors and occurrence of depression among patients suffering from hypertension.Methodology: The present study was descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among the hypertensives attending the OPD of Rajah Muthiah medical college and hospital between 2019 and 2021. Hamilton rating scale for depression was used for the diagnosis of depression. Results: The prevalence of depression among hypertensives was found to be 58% with 27% having mild depression, 25% had moderate depression and 6% had severe depression. Increase in age, lower educational status, presence of comorbidities in addition to hypertension and poor compliance to treatment were found to be associated with the occurrence of hypertension among the hypertensives.Conclusion: Screening of depression shall be mandated among sufferers of all NCDs. Indirect intervention of improving the educational status among the population would aid in decreasing depression among hypertensives. There was increased chance of non-compliant among those suffering from both hypertension and depression
Bhavya R, K Vara Prasada Rao, Praveen Kumar Kola, Raghavendra Sadineni
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 360-366; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2f.269

Abstract:
Aim and Objective: To assess the correlations between clinical and biochemical parameters with radiological severity of acute pyelonephritis. Methodology: It was a descriptive analytical study. All patients admitted to Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, from March 2019 to December 2020 with a CT proven diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. All the patients diagnosed to have APN based on clinical and/or radiological findings were included in this study. Diagnosis of APN was based on both clinical and radiological criteria. Clinical criteria include the presence of
Senthil Kumar Ramalingam, Winston Thomas, Nirmala Dheivamani, R Senthil Kumar
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 333-340; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2f.264

Abstract:
Introduction: One of the common emergency paediatricians face in their daily practice is ingestion of foreign bodies. The clinical presentation, investigation and appropriate management vary for different foreign bodies. Advances in endoscopic techniques and accessories have enabled non-surgical removal in children with excellent outcome. Data are relatively few from this region of the world. Method: We present our experience over four years in upper gastrointestinal endoscopic management of ingested foreign bodies from January 2017 to December 2020. In this retrospective study the type of foreign bodies, nature, and number of foreign bodies ingested and the success of endoscopic intervention in these children were collected and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Result: A total of 137 children were subjected for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period. The majority of the foreign body ingested were coins followed by button battery. Most of the foreign body was located in the stomach. Endoscopic interventions were done using appropriate accessories and the procedures were successful with good outcome. Conclusion: The spectrum of foreign body ingestion varies in different parts of the region due to the varied cultural and social factors. Endoscopic intervention is a timely and safe procedure in majority of foreign body ingestion with excellent outcome in a specialised gastroenterology unit.
Suresh Babu Vedala, Avinash Gottumukkala, Krishna Sumanth Thota, Srinivasa Rao Giduturi
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 278-282; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2e.256

Abstract:
Background: Ureteral stents were being used widely urology practice. The indications include post ureteral surgery and for managing obstruction due to intrinsic or extrinsic causes. If left untreated, these retained stents may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives 1. To analyse the various presentations of retained DJ stent. 2. To adapt different modalities of treatment for the management of retained DJ Stents. 3. To assess the complications and outcomes of retained DJ stents. Materials and Methods: 32 patients presented to our out-patient department with retained DJ stent from October 2019 to September 2021. All patients with prior history of DJ stenting and indwelling time of more than one year included in the study. Results: Our study group was 32, most common indication for stenting was post-surgery for stone disease. Among which 8 patients had encrustations in kidney, ureter and bladder. Cystolithotripsy with Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was done in 6 patients. 14 patients had indwelling time between 1-3 years. Conclusion: Encrustation and stone formation in forgotten stents may lead to life threatening complications and pose a challenging management task for the treating surgeon. Combined endourologic techniques can achieve safe removal of forgotten stents. Satisfactory physician-patient communication is of paramount importance in maintaining compliance with treatment and follow-up, and decreasing the risk of adverse events with potentially litigious ramifications.
Nazima Alauddin
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 557-562; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2i.304

Abstract:
Background: Pregnancy is a normal physiological process that involves a complex interplay of social, emotional, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which begins soon after fertilization and continues throughout pregnancy. However, a host of medical disorders are known to complicate pregnancy. Hypertensive conditions in pregnancy appear to be one of the major causes of elevated rates of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To know the incidence, etiology, clinical course and fetal outcome of early onset of preeclampsia. Methods: After obtaining a detail history a thorough examination was carried out. • Laboratory investigations were done as follows: Hemoglobin. Platelet count. Peripheral Blood Smear for Hemolysis, Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine. Scrum Uric Acid, Liver function test, Urine routine examination and microscopy, Fundoscopy. Obstetric Color Doppler. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Non stress Test after 32 weeks. LDH. Results: In LSCS Emergency was done in 17 patients out of 20 and elective was seen in 3 patients of 20.In Vaginal delivery, Induced was done in 22 patients out of 30 and spontaneous was done in 8 out 30 patients. During Fetal Status, Development of IUGR was seen in 68% of the cases, Abnormal disorder was seen in 50% of the cases, IUD was seen in 34% of the cases, Non Reassuring NST was seen in 32% of the cases. Birth weight was 1 to 1.5Kgs was seen in 46% of the cases, 1.5 to 2 kgs was seen in 16% of the cases. 2 to 2.5kgs was seen in 12% of the cases. In 2% of the cases birth weight was >2.5kgs. In outcomes, NICU admission was done in 42% of the cases, IUD was seen in 34% of the cases, Early perinatal death
Sanjay C Suresh, Anand Kss, L Shashikala
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 212-214; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2d.246

Abstract:
The volume indices of the platelets are very easily available and this is considered very useful in diagnosing thrombocytopenia. There are only a handful studies which have reported platelet indices which would be very useful in differentiating different types of thrombocytopenia. This study is one such noble attempt to find whether this is actually useful in the initial evaluation of patients with thrombocytopenia using the platelet indices.
Sahib Singh Kailday, Aman Mahey
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 220-223; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2d.249

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of the study to assess the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in type 2 DM. Material and methods: A 5 months case-control study was carried out at Dhawan Hospital in Ludhiana, Punjab, India, at the request of the researchers. A total of 240 volunteers participated in the study, with 120 type 2 diabetes patients serving as case participants (Group A) and 120 healthy volunteers serving as control participants (Group B). Laboratory testing on a regular basis CBC, FBS, RBS, PP2BS, haemoglobin A1C, blood urea, serum creatinine, lipid profile, urine albumin, and Vitamin D3 levels were all measured using conventional techniques at the institute's central laboratory, according to the guidelines. Results: When comparing groups A and B, the mean age of group A (case) was 51.42 9.25 years, while the mean age of group B (control) was 50.12 10.18 years. The prevalence of low vitamin D levels in the healthy population was just 19.2 percent, while the prevalence in the diabetic population was 84.2 percent. Vitamin D levels were found to be sufficient, insufficient, and deficient in 18.51 percent, 61.11 percent, and 16.67 percent, respectively, in patients with controlled diabetes according to HbA1C criteria, but only 10.60 percent, 68.18 percent, and 24.24 percent in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, according to the same criteria. In contrast to diabetic patients with managed condition, a higher proportion of diabetic patients with uncontrolled state (24.24 percent) had overt vitamin D insufficiency (16.67 percent). There is a statistically significant relationship between the maintenance of euglycemia and the degree of Vitamin D deficiency in diabetic patients, as shown by a p value less than 0.05. Conclusion: All patients with type-2 diabetes should have their vitamin D levels checked, and those who are found to have insufficiency or shortage of vitamin D should be prescribed vitamin D supplements. In order to avoid vitamin D insufficiency, it is also necessary to maintain tight control over one's diabetic condition.
Baddam Akshitha Reddy, J Hari Kishan, M Shravani Veena, Bottu Kalyani, Mamidi Rohini Reddy, P Bhavya
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 300-303; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2e.262

Abstract:
Background: In COVID 19 there is systemic inflammatory response that can lead to lung injury and multisystem organ dysfunction. It has been proposed that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids might prevent or mitigate these deleterious effects. Conversly at the other end of the dose range high levels of corticosteroids are immunosuppressive and can increase risk of fatal infection including sepsis. Giving optimal level of corticosteroids at the right time is vital to control infections and restore homeostasis. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare benefits and side effects of high dose corticosteroids and low dose corticosteroids in treatment of covid 19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods: This study is retrospective, observational study of 80 patients diagnosed with covid 19 pneumonia. They were divided into two groups, one group of patients received low dose of steroids (0.5-1mg/kg/day for 7-10days) and other group of patients received high dose of steroids(>250mg/day for 7-10days).In these two groups of patients we compared duration of hospital stay, duration of oxygen support, mortality rate of the patients. These group of patients are followed up for development of side effects of corticosteroids, here we look into three side effects-recurrent infections, poorly controlled diabetes and skin manifestations. Data was analysed. Results: Out of 80 patients (40 in high dose group and 40 in low dose group) mean duration of hospital stay and mean number of days of oxygen support were more in high dose group compared to low dose group. However, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P value >0.05). In low dose group 22.5% died as compared to 40% in high dose group. However, on performing chi square test, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (P value >0.05). In low dose group 3.2% had complications as compared to 25% in high dose group. On performing chi square test, this difference was found to be statistically significant (P value
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