International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2706-9567 / 2706-9575
Published by: AkiNik Publications (10.22271)
Total articles ≅ 208
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The Role Of Aerobic Exercise In Improving Functioning, Treating The Symptoms Of Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 91-94; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2b.222

Abstract:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive long-term neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that directly affects the lives of individuals and their environment. Early intervention through the systematic application of aerobic exercise can help to better treat the symptoms in people with MS by improving their balance, quality of movement and reducing their functional limitations. The aim of this review is to describe recent research data on the efficacy of this method in improving the functioning and treatment of symptoms in people with MS. The Google Scholar and PubMed database were searched in English and Greek with the following keywords: multiple sclerosis, aerobic exercise, functional ability, rehabilitation. The review included 10 articles from clinical trials, systematic reviews and books. Discussion - Conclusions: The application of aerobic exercise seems to have a positive effect on the treatment of motor disorders in people with MS when compared to conventional physiotherapy. The results of this review show that aerobic exercise two to three times a week for more than six weeks is able to improve the functional level of people with MS.
Muni Bhavani Itha, Kalyan Chakravarthy V
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 136-139; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2c.230

Abstract:
The majority of soft tissue tumors are present in the extremities; however, many other sites can be affected, including the retroperitoneum. Retroperitoneal tumors represent a rare entity, and sarcomas are the most commonly seen tumors. Sarcomas are mesenchymal in origin; they arise from skeletal and extra skeletal connective tissues, including the peripheral nervous system. In a population-based series reported in the SEER database, the average annual incidence of retroperitoneal sarcomas was approximately 2.7 cases per million populations. Leiomyosarcomas are second in frequency at this location and are also the most aggressive of the sarcomas. Here we reported a case of a 48-year-old female, who presented with a left-sided abdominal lump associated with pain. Abdominal imaging showed a retroperitoneal tumor-infiltrating the ureter. Histopathological examination of the excised mass showed features of malignant retroperitoneal tumor with the possible differential diagnosis included 1. Leiomyosarcoma, 2. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor. Advised immunohistochemistry, for further evaluation and confirmation. Immunohistochemistry with a panel of antibodies confirmed the case as Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma.
Mamatha Pulloori, Kavangal Dhananjay
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 30-33; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2a.213

Abstract:
Serum uric acid levels are an ideal marker in sepsis cases to assess oxidative stress and to predict disease prognosis. Elevated serum uric acid levels are associated with chronic disease conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study was designed to assess the correlation between Hyperuricemia and mortality and morbidity in cases with clinically diagnosed sepsis. A total of 94 cases with a working diagnosis of sepsis above 18 years of age were recruited. The duration of hospital stay, mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory syndrome and acute kidney injury was noted. Patient discharge or death was considered an outcome of the sepsis. The most prevalent comorbidity was type 2 diabetes (44.68%), followed by type 1 diabetes (8.5%), type 2 diabetes with systemic hypertension (4.25%), chronic kidney disease (3.19%), cerebrovascular accident (3.19%), severe pulmonary disease (2.12%) and malignancy (2.12%). 59% cases had uric acid levels 7mg/dl. The comparison of uric acid levels with comorbidities (p=0.022), duration of hospital stay (p=0.003) and associated complications (p=0.003) was statistically significant. Hyperuricemia on patient arrival to the MICU with sepsis was associated with poor clinical outcome. High mortality rate was associated in cases with elevated uric acid levels.
Andreas Fotios Tsimerakis, Anastasios Kottaras, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras, Ioanna P Chatziprodromidou, Konstantinos G Papanikolaou
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 34-36; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2a.214

Abstract:
In cerebral palsy (CP), severe dysfunction of the posture and voluntary movement is caused, due to some damage to the brain during childhood, before it is even completely formed. For this reason, the physiotherapy approach is a demanding and time-consuming affair. The application of Kinesio Taping (KT), in combination with other physiotherapy interventions, helps in the function of the trunk and lower limbs in children with CP. The aim of this review of the literature is through recent studies to outline the effect of KT application on the function of the trunk and lower limbs in children with CP. The Google Scholar and PubMed databases were searched in English with the following keywords: Efficacy, Kinesio taping, gait, trunk, posture, cerebral palsy. The review included randomized clinical trials and pilot studies. Of the 10 articles that were included in this review, seven were randomized clinical trials and three were pilot studies. Discussion-Conclusions: The results show that the application of KT in children with CP has positive results in terms of increasing the function of the trunk and lower limbs. In most cases, in fact, it seemed that this happens not immediately after application, but shortly after its removal. Additionally, the combination of KT together with other physiotherapy interventions leads to even better results. More studies will be needed to further investigate its efficacy.
Abhilash Am, Saritha Hm
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2a.208

Abstract:
Background: BERA is an objective study for assessing hearing loss on patients with inconsistent responses on pure tone audiogram. BERA is a non-invasive and the most cost-effective method for diagnosing retrocochlear lesion, not affected by sedation, anesthesia or age. Which helps to identify retrocochlear hearing loss. BERA is most accurate and sensitive for diagnosis of lesions in VIII nerve and auditory pathway in brainstem, especially in adults. Objectives: Screening tool for evaluating cases of sensorineural hearing loss due to suspected retrocochlear pathology. Objective test in cases of inconsistent response for pure tone audiometry. Role in evaluating brainstem lesions. Method and Aim: This is a cross sectional prospective cohortHospital based study, review of 50 patient subjected to BERA for SNHL in any age group referred to department of ENT Vijayanagara institute of medical sciences, Bellary. We aim to find Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) andits applications in ENT. Result: In this study threshold and latency measures were obtained from 50 cases (100 ears) by brainstem evoked response audiometry. No restrictions were imposed on age, sex, degree of hearing loss, or audiometric configuration. The data was analyzed separately for pediatric age group (36 cases) and adults(16 cases). out of 36 pediatric cases screened 15 cases (41.7%) had normal hearing in 13 cases had profound hearing loss without any risk factors. 6 cases ( 16.7 %) hearing loss due meningitis. 2 cases (5.6%) hearing loss due to neonatal jaundice. In adult age group (14 cases) BERA was done to identify cases of retocochlear pathology and in cases of threshold estimation of hearing. Conclusion: BERA can be used to screen retrocochlear pathologies as seen in our study. Patients with hearing loss with tinnitus and giddiness screened and BERA performed had grossly degraded wave with identification of only wave I and absence of other waves and increased latencies and interaural difference in wave latencies suggests lesion in the auditory pathway. Depending on the absence of specific wave site of the lesion can also be made out. In our study 3 cases of retrocochlear pathology previously confirmed by MRI was taken and BERA was performed showing presence of only wave I and absence of remaining waves. BERA is screening test and should be confirmed by MRI.
L Srinivasa Rao, B Madhava Rao, D Harshavardhan, M Rajasekhar Reddy
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 147-149; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2c.233

Abstract:
Background: Ischemic heart disease also known as Coronary artery disease is a most common condition in Indian population which allows inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to a portion of the myocardium. It stands as one of the primary causes of death in both men and women and hence need for clinical investigation of IHD in our population is important. Aim: The study is designed to know the clinical profile of female participants attending tertiary care hospital in south India. Materials and Methods: All participants included in the study are symptomatic to IHD and biochemical and electrocardiogram was performed to screen the participants and participant’s history is collected. Results: A total of 140 participants were considered for the study and 120 were identified as IHD positive. Mean age of participants was 55 and most of the incumbents reported chest pain as the major complication followed by other complications like hypertension and diabetes. Conclusion: The incidence of IHD is found to be highest in 53-57 year age group with diabetes, hypertension and Dyslipidaemia as the major risk factors. Lack of awareness in participants also delayed them in their arrival to hospital. Hence there is an immediate need to conduct awareness campaigns in rural areas of our democratic country.
Samina Tarannum
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 143-146; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2c.232

Abstract:
Background: Increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins, especially Lp (a) play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis leading to premature myocaridial infarction and stroke. Lp (a) is a novel risk factor for atherosclerosis, whose role in multiracial populations has been debated. The significance of different lipid variables in cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease has been extensively studied but the role of Lp (a) in Indian population is yet to be determined. Objective: To determine the role of Lipoprotein (a) as a marker for ischemic stroke, with regard to Indian scenario. Design: This is a case-control study. Duration: One year (2019-2020). Setting: Department of Medicine, Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad. Participants: Hundred patients admitted in Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad. Methods: Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was based on clinical evidence of ischemic stroke and CT scan/MRI. Some exclusions were made. 50 age and sex matched healthy subjects were used as controls. In all patients, a detailed history, general physical examination, a detailed neurological examination and other risk factor variables were entered on a pre-designed proforma. SBP ≥140mm Hg, DBP ≥90mm Hg were considered hypertensive levels; any patient with FBS ≥126mg/dl (or) RBS ≥200mg/dl was defined diabetic. Each case underwent the investigations – Plasma Lipoprotein (a) Levels, Lipid Profile, Complete Hemogram, Complete Urine Examination, Blood Sugars, Renal Function Tests, Serum Electrolytes, ECG, Echocardiography*, X-Ray, CT-Brain*, MRI-Brain*. Lp (a) was measured by a Hitachi model 717 (7160) automated analyser using Lp (a) Latex DIACHI kit. *Denotes whenever required. Results: In the present study, cases of ischemic stroke (n = 100) had a mean plasma Lp (a) value of 38.034 mg/dl with a S.D. of 17.423, which was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in healthy controls, in whom it was 24.308 mg/dl with a S.D. of 11.469, indicating that serum lipoprotein (a) levels are a risk factor of ischemic stroke. Conclusion: Elevated serum Lp (a) is an independent risk factor of ischemic stroke. Measurement of serum Lp (a) has to be considered as a screening tool for the risk of vascular events in patients with various known risk factors. It is imperative to strictly control additional risk factors in individuals with elevated Lp (a).
Madhumati Varma, Ashok Dutt Mathur
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 104-106; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2b.225

Abstract:
Diabetes and thyroid endocrine diseases which interlinked, function of one gland can affect other so it is really necessary to evaluate how they influence each other when not functioning well.There were done study on diabetic and thyroid patient, data collected basis of demographic, duration of diseases, analysis which important like Glucose, TSH etc., data analyze in excel software, found diabetes mellitus type 2 amongst more fallowed by hypothyroidism and” Thyrobetes” about 10.7%. Introduction: Diabetes and thyroid endocrine diseases which interlinked, function of one gland can affect other so it is really necessary to evaluate how they influence each other when not functioning well. Objective of study: To define interrelation of factors responsible for interlink between diabetes and thyroid disease development. Method and Methodology: This study evaluates duration diseases of thyroid and diabetes with basic analysis like glucose, TSH Hba1c, lipid profile etc. and data analyses in excel software done, found diabetes mellitus type 2 amongst more number and percentage of patients fallowed by hypothyroidism and” Thyrobetes” about 10.7% and DM type 2 52%, hypothyroidism 49%. P was significant
Ch Amulya, Harsha S, Nemichandra Sc, Shastara P
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 203-208; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2d.241

Abstract:
Aim: To study the association of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic migraine leading to disability. Materials and methods: The index cases were obtained from patients attending the Neurology outpatient Department of JSS Hospital, who satisfied International Classification of Headache Disorder 3 beta criteria for diagnosis of chronic migraine. Patients were subjected to Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales along with, Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS) for assessing disability. Results: A total of 60 patients were studied. The associated anxiety and depression symptoms were more prevalent in patients with chronic migraine which increases disability. As per MIDAS disability assessment 20% (n=12) had grade I disability, 13.3% (n=8) had grade II disability, 50% (n=30) had moderate disability and 16.7% (n=10) had severe disability. Conclusion: More prevalence of anxiety and depression was noted in patients with chronic migraine compared to international literature because of variations in study population. Treating co-existing depression and anxiety in patients with chronic migraine decreases disability and also progression to chronic migraine in patients with episodic migraine.
Darshak Salat, Vachan Mehta
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 3, pp 95-97; https://doi.org/10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2b.223

Abstract:
Introduction: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone. It crosses the blood brain barrier and binds with receptors present in neurons and glial cells of various parts of central nervous system like hippocampus, cortex, sub-cortex etc. Due to its antioxidant property and regulating intra-neuronal calcium homeostasis, it can be hypothesized that vitamin D has a role to play in preventing age related cognitive decline. Materials and Methods: Total of 160 patients were included in the study. MMSE is useful for evaluating the subjects having dementia syndrome because these subjects cooperate well only for short duration. Mini Mental state examination score was used for the assessment of dementia. They were included in the study on the basis of serum vitamin D level and MMSE score. Results: The collected data showed that mean serum vitamin D levels were found to be lower in group A when compared to group B. After 3 months of treatment with supplements, the score of post treatment MMSE was found to be higher in group A as compared to group B. After 6 months of treatment with supplements, the score of post treatment MMSE was found to be higher in group A as compared to group B. Discussion & Conclusion: Vitamin D acts like a neurosteroid hormone in areas of neurotransmission and neuro-immunomodulation. Patients on medical therapy for dementia has also shown improve results with regulation of vitamin D. It has also exhibited neuro-protective properties against glutamate toxicity through antioxidant effects thus preventing apoptosis. The present study is one of on-going steps in the direction of establishing role of Vitamin D in prevention and treatment of senile dementia.
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