Hydro Science & Marine Engineering

Journal Information
EISSN : 2661-331X
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 23
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L. Surinaidu, Mohd. Hussain, K. Aruna Kumari, M.J. Nandan
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v3i1.3208

Abstract:
Indiscriminate and rapid urbanization without sufficient infrastructure to manage huge domestic sewage (urban rejected water) generated by urban centers posing serious threats to different ecosystems in many places across the world. On the other hand, the downstream of urban centers facing an acute shortage of water for irrigation. In recent years reuse of urban waste water is being increased in many countries including India irrespective of adverse impacts on other ecosystems. The present study has provided a synoptic review on urban rejected water reuse for irrigation in the major cities of India with a special focus on banks of the Musi river basin in South India where huge wastewater irrigation is being practiced in the world in comparison with global waste water irrigation practices. In all the cases major contaminants namely fecal coliform, nitrates, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) are found in water and with increased soil and groundwater salinity on long term use. The review indicated that there a large scope to intensify the irrigation with proper treatment of wastewater. The study also suggested to understand the impacts of rejected water reuse impact on soilwater-food chain and also emphasizes the need for the establishment of sufficient ETPs to minimize the adverse impacts and also to protect hydroagro ecosystems.
Ming Zhao
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v3i1.3407

Abstract:
Hydro Science (HS) is a branch of science associated with engineering and technologies in hydraulics, hydrology, and water management. Its development is closely linked to the progress of human being civilization. Traditional HS has made a significant contribution to human living standard and health. The water treatment and supplying system and the city sewage system enabled people to have clean water to drink and have their wastewater removed. In addition, the irrigation hydraulic structures like channels and dams increased the product of agriculture to eliminate starvation in the world.
Svetlana Vasilievna Budnik
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v3i1.3172

Abstract:
In article the expediency of application of methods of protection soils from erosion and in general principles of the antierosion organization of territory of land tenure for adaptation of territories to changes of a climate is considered. The expediency of updating of these methods in connection with new results of supervision for runoff on slopes and the new purposes of their application is shown. In particular, it is shown, that antierosion constructions need to be placed above a place of concentration of a runoff, instead of on it as the probability of destruction of a construction in this place is great. Application the soil-water-security systems of agriculture provides regulation of a microclimate of territory (reduction of warming up of a surface), allows to lower peak of a high water from downpours, translating a part of a superficial runoff in intrasoil and underground and to these to prevent losses from them including loss of a fertile layer of soils, saturation by a moisture of a zone of aeration favorably influences development of forest vegetation and agricultural crops.
Hadiza Muhammad Liman, Peace Nwaerema, Jacob Yisa
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v3i1.2795

Abstract:
This study examined impact of climate variability on reservoir-based hydro-power-generation in Jebba dam, Niger State of Nigeria. Data of rainfall, temperature, evaporation, reservoir inflow and outflow and power output for thirty-one years were obtained from Jebba Hydropower Station [JHP]. The Man-Kendall and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) were used to establish the influence of weather parameters on the reservoir inflow and outflow. Findings showed increased electricity generation during dry season than wet season. The highest annual mean amount of the electricity generated was in 2016 having mean of 689.12mwh, dry season (352.26mwh) and wet season (336.86mwh). Reservoir inflow showed negative trend with severe fluctuations in 1998 (1436.42M3/Sec), 1999 (1581.08M3/Sec) and 2010 (1641.08M3/Sec) with steady increase in 2016 (1556.0042M3/Sec), 2017 (1556.4242M3/Sec) and 2018 (1635.7542M3/Sec). The reservoir outflow pattern showed tremendous and negative trend in fluctuation with increase in 1998 (1421.75M3/Sec) 1999 (1581.58M3/Sec) and 2010 (1641.16M3/Sec) and a steady increase in 2016 (1535.00M3/Sec), 2017 1558.83M3/Sec and 2018 (1632.00M3/Sec). Thus, rainfall and reservoir inflow had strong relationships with the amount of power generated than temperature and evaporation. Therefore, the government should increase the water carrying capacity of the reservoir construction by storing water to be used during dry periods.
Qingfeng Wang, Zhigang Miao, Li Zhou
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.1691

Abstract:
As a key supporting equipment for the construction of LNG carriers, the installation platform undertakes the support and guarantee of LNG carrier tank internal construction. This paper takes the secondary shielding installation platform of A-type tank as the object of study, the study firstly considers the semi-rigidity of the nodes and the material nonlinearity based on finite element software, and then the residual structure is calculated using static nonlinear method after single truss, two trusses and three trusses are invalid simultaneously. The research results show that the truss with higher components importance coefficient has greater impact on the residual structure when the truss is invalid; After the 2 trusses of installation platform become invalid completely, the further progressive collapse will not occur; When A1-HJ, A2-HJ and A2-HJ are dismantled at the same time, it will lead to the local progressive damage, which can cause the collapse of large-scale structures. The research findings can support the design and use of the installation platform.
Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Nnabo Paulinus Nwankwo, Christopher Ogwah
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2412

Abstract:
This paper presents a review on previous activities of mining on water resources of Ebonyi State, SE, Nigeria. As high demand for water increases due to population growth and rapid development across the state has made it necessary to monitor water resources within the study area. However, less information is available on evaluation of impact on mining activities on water resources. For the purpose of this research, related articles were downloaded from Google, published article on effect of mining on water resources was download and thoroughly studied to evaluate effect of mining on water resources of the study area. Results obtained from findings revealed that mining activities that was carried out in the past has negatively affected the geochemistry of water resources and caused acid mine drain within the study area.
Qiang Liu, Liqiao Liang
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2266

Abstract:
Declines in wind speed (u) (termed as “stilling”) has been reported in many regions of the world. To explore the temporal trends of u and its aerodynamics effects is vital to understand the changes in water resources. This study analyzed the changes of temporal trends for u and its aerodynamic effects using the data during 1959-2000 at 266 stations across China. The improved PanPen model was used to estimate Epan and quantify the contribution of radiative and aerodynamic components (aerodynamic component separated into wind speed u, vapour pressure deficit D, and air temperature Ta). Climate factors include Epan measured with the standard Chinese 20 cm diameter pan, u, Ta, relative humidity (rh) and sunshine hours (sh). The results showed: stilling occurred in most of stations (206 among 266) and 105 stations presented significant decreasing trends at 99% confidence level; stilling was the main cause for controlling the trends in Epan in most part of China, especially in the west and north of China. The results indicated that decreasing trends in Epan due to stilling would inevitably alter water resources, and should be put further investigation incorporation other factors.
Mohsen Nasrabadi, Younes Aminpour
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2341

Abstract:
In the present study, the flow over the stepped spillway was ‎ numerically investigated by using Flow3D model. The effect of step angle on different properties of Nappe flow regime such as the water surface profile, location of free-surface‎ aeration inception, Froude number at the ‎spillway’s toe, and pressure, flow velocity, air concentration and cavitation index were evaluated. The realizable k–ε was applied as the turbulence ‎model, and Volume of Fluid (VOF) model was used to determine the free surface flow profiles of the spillway. ‎The model was verified using experimental data. In order to investigate the different ‎characteristics of Nappe flow regime, 17 numerical runs was designed, in which, ‎four step angles, four flow discharge were considered to investigate the flow characteristics over the stepped spillway. The results indicated that the numerical model is well suited with the experimental data over the stepped spillway (RMSE = 0.147 and ARE = 6.9%). In addition, with increasing the step angles, the aeration inception point is generally moved ‎downstream. By increasing the step angles from zero to 10 degrees, the Froude number does not change ‎significantly, however, at the angle of 15 degrees, the Froude number decreases by about 42 ‎percent.
Dongyang Deng, Lian-Shin Lin, Andrea Nana Ofori-Boadu
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2448

Abstract:
This study investigated coal-mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) contaminant concentrations and conducted the combined treatment in phases I and II: phase I, evaluating effects of mixing the two based on extent of acid neutralization and metals removal; phase II: conducting anaerobic batch reactor treatment of AMD and MWW under varying COD/sulfate ratios (0.04-5.0). In phase I, acid mine drainage water quality conditions are as follows: pH 4.5, acidity 467.5 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity 96.0 mg/L as CaCO3, Cl- 11.8 mg/L, SO42- 1722 mg/L, TDS 2757.5 mg/L, TSS 9.8 mg/L, BOD 14.7 mg/L, Fe 138.1 mg/L, Mg 110.8 mg/L. Mn 7.5 mg/L, Al 8.1 mg/L, Na 114.2 mg/L, and Ca 233.5 mg/L. Results of the mixing experiments indicated significant removal of selected metals (Fe 85~98%, Mg 0~65%, Mn 63~89%, Al 98~99%, Na 0~30%), acidity (77~95%) from the mine water and pH was raised to above 6.3. The Phase II results suggested under the wide range of COD/sulfate ratios, COD and sulfate removal varied from 37.4%-100% and 0%-93.5% respectively. During biological treatment, alkalinity was generated which leads to pH increase to around 7.6-8.5. The results suggested feasibility of the proposed technology for co-treatment of AMD and MWW. A conceptual design of co-treatment system which is expected to remove a matrix of pollutants has been provided to utilize all the locally available water resources to achieve the optimum treatment efficiency. The technology also offers an opportunity to significantly reduce capital and operating costs compared to the existing treatment methodologies used.
Lamine Hassini
Hydro Science & Marine Engineering, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i1.1598

Abstract:
A three dimensional model to predict the hydro-mechanical state of unsaturated and deformable material during hot air drying has been proposed. The material viscoelastic behaviour was formulated using Bishop’s effective stress theory for partially saturated material using the liquid saturation as the Bishop parameter. The hydro-thermal and mechanical equations were coupled by the fluid pressure and the solid matter velocity. The model was applied to a deformable material (innovative clay-cellulose fibers composite) subjected to convective drying. A generalized Maxwell model with five elements, whose parameters were measured experimentally and correlated to water content was used to describe the material’s viscoelastic behavior. The hydro-thermal part of the proposed model was validated on the basis of a comparison of experimental and simulated drying rate curves. The Von Mises stress was simulated and compared to the experimental tensile strength in order to predict the time and the region of material failure. For a drying process at95°C, the region of failure risk was identified. The failure may occur on the lateral surface of the slab in contact with air at a drying time of 2.5h.
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