Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2663-7790 / 2663-7804
Published by: Universe Publishing Group - UniversePG (10.34104)
Total articles ≅ 38
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Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 52-64; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.052064

Abstract:
Flood bunds are earthen embankments constructed along rivers to control the floods. Historically speaking, floods in Indus River Basin (IRB) in Pakistan have been posing serious threats and damages to infrastructure and human lives. A long infrastructure of flood bunds (about 6807km) exists parallel to the main river to agricultural crops, human settlements, livestock, industries, etc. from the hydro-disasters arising from the floods in the country. Punjab Province has been severely hit by heavy floods causing severe loss to human lives, infrastructure, crops, livestock, etc. A study was carried out to evaluate the “health” of flood bunds by investigating their geotechnical, geometrical, geochemical, and hydraulic properties to ascertain strength against breaching during floods. A length of about 731 km of river Chenab in Punjab Province of Pakistan was selected to investigate the vulnerability of flood embankments at 78 sites of 38 flood bunds which were found critical after the 2014 flood in Pakistan. Different field activities including density test, measurement of geometrical parameters, collection of undisturbed/disturbed soil samples, physical inspections, and collection of ground-water samples from bore holes were performed. Laboratory tests including soil texture, Atterberg’s limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability, direct shear, etc. were performed in laboratories of Irrigation Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. An Index called river embankment breaching vulnerability index (REBVI) has been prescribed and calculated to evaluate the strength of the flood embankments against breaching. Cluster analysis has been carried out for different indicators keeping in view the value of REBVI. On the basis of REBVI and Cluster analysis, it was concluded that 11 out of 78 sites are showing high strength against the breaching action, while 35 sites indicated low potential against the breaching action. In other words, it has been found that the consistency of the embankment is very high for 11 sites and high for 35 flood bund sites. The consistency of the embankments is medium, low, and very low at the remaining 16, 12, and 4 flood bund sites due to moderate vulnerability, high probability of embankment breaching, and very high vulnerability respectively.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.045051

Abstract:
We can see considerable growth in the field of science and technology over the past few decades. This growth has also brought an enormous threat to the data used by users. Encryption and decryption of data play an important role in safeguarding the data. Many authors have contributed much outstanding research on unauthorized access to user data. In this journal, I have proposed an algorithm for data encryption using images. My main aim is to provide a new and highly customizable approach to protecting data using images and eliminating the use of plaintext. In my research, I will use images to encrypt and decrypt data rather than using plaintext.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.032044

Abstract:
The Earth Observation (EO) data of various Spatio-temporal resolutions are used to study potential sources of landslide hazards in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India. The studies are made in all the eight states of NER, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura on different project modes during the past decade. All types of landslides of various magnitudes and dimensions are triggered by rainfall, earthquakes, or by combined effects in this tectonically active region. Anthropogenic factors also play a role in places, particularly in urban areas. The NER is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, and it falls in the highest seismic risk zone, (Zone V), in the seismic zoning map of India. The region also receives much rainfall because of its geographic and climatic conditions. We report how the physiography, as well as the local geology, plays the main role in the failure of the rock formation and over-burden causing the landslide hazards, which create severe communication disruption and sometimes casualties. Fragile, soft, and weathered rock formations along the steep slope make the terrain much more susceptible to landslides. Deep-seated landslides disrupt transportation networks for a longer duration while shallow slides, mostly affect the urban life for a short duration. The reported causalities associated with landslide hazards are much high in the NER compared to other parts of India.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.027031

Abstract:
In the Bangla language, there are 50 complex-shaped characters and working with this huge amount of characters with an appropriate set of features is a tough problem to recognize handwritten characters. Moreover, ambiguity and precision errors are common in handwritten words. Furthermore, among a large number of complex-shaped letters, some are quite similar in shape, making handwritten Bangla characters difficult to recognize. In this work, we proposed a convolutional neural network-based approach for recognizing the handwritten Bangla alphabet. In character recognition, the convolutional neural network (CNN) outperforms most of the other models. However, to guarantee a satisfactory performance, CNNs usually need a great number of samples. Bangla handwriting recognition has been a hot topic for several years, but due to the similarity of many Bangla characters, it's difficult to achieve good results. By training and testing on Bangla character datasets, the model gets a 90.22% validation accuracy for Bangalekha isolated dataset and 93.22% validation accuracy for the Ekush dataset.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.013026

Abstract:
The rapid growth of Deep Learning (DL) based applications is taking place in this modern world. Deep Learning is used to solve so many critical problems such as big data analysis, computer vision, and human brain interfacing. The advancement of deep learning can also causes some national and some international threats to privacy, democracy, and national security. Deepfake videos are growing so fast having an impact on political, social, and personal life. Deepfake videos use artificial intelligence and can appear very convincing, even to a trained eye. Often obscene videos are made using deepfakes which tarnishes people's reputation. Deepfakes are a general public concern, thus it's important to develop methods to detect them. This survey paper includes a survey of deepfake creation algorithms and, more crucially we added some approaches of deepfake detection that proposed by researchers to date. Here we go over the problems, trends in the field, and future directions for deepfake technology in detail. This paper gives a complete overview of deepfake approaches and supports the implementation of novel and more reliable methods to cope with the highly complicated deepfakes by studying the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.008012

Abstract:
Electrification of the rural areas which are located far from the grid is comparatively more expensive due to the high cost associated with power transmission. Renewable energy-based hybrid micro-grid systems can be a cost-effective method for the supply of electricity in these remote areas. This study aims at assessing the technical and economic viability of a hybrid micro-grid system for rural areas of Bangladesh. A hybrid microgrid system consisting of PV solar cells, wind turbine, and Diesel Generator has been designed for remote regions of Kuakata, Patuakhali. A combination of different technologies capable of generating electricity has been used to ensure the reliable and continuous supply of electrical power. HOMER, a simulation software, has been used for optimizing multiple energy sources to maintain an uninterrupted supply of power in a cost-effective way. Finally, cost analysis and consistency checking have been done by another simulation software called RETScreen.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.01007

Abstract:
As a sustainable alternative to fossil fuel, hydropower is becoming increasingly popular since the concern over global warming is growing worldwide. Conventional hydropower technology involves the use of hydraulic turbines, which require a large static head of water created by constructing a dam across the river. This technology, though widely used, has a negative impact on river hydrology and aquatic lives. Hydrokinetic turbine, on the other hand, having a working principle similar to wind turbine doesn’t require a dam or barrier and has negligible impact on the aquatic environment. Bangladesh being the land of rivers can effectively implement hydrokinetic turbine-based technology for supplying electricity in off-grid remote areas. In this article, a review of hydrokinetic turbine technology for extracting the kinetic energy of rivers and oceans has been conducted. The status, merits, and applications of this technology have been briefly discussed. Finally, the prospect of this technology in Bangladesh has been assessed.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 128-136; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.01280136

Abstract:
Recently, the degradation of concrete has become a serious problem worldwide and one of the principle factors of degradation is the carbonation process. It is well established that environmental conditions affect the carbonation progress of concrete among the most important factors that can greatly affect the carbonation resistance of concrete are relative humidity (RH) and temperature. Carbonation has become a threat to concrete structures, especially in urban and industrial areas. Thus, it is necessary to have a proper design to maintain the structure's stability against degradation caused by carbonation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental and climatic conditions on the carbonation rate of concrete. The specimens were prepared using OPC and fly ash (FA). After 28 days of air curing, specimens were exposed to different climate conditions under sheltered and un-sheltered conditions. The carbonation tests were conducted at the ages of 6 and 12 months. It was found that the carbonation rates were significantly influenced by the climate and environmental conditions; the specimens exposed to a relatively dry environment and low annual precipitations have shown higher carbonation during one-year exposure. Moreover, in unsheltered conditions, the annual precipitation significantly affects the carbonation rate of concrete. Furthermore, it was observed that a 20% replacement of FA does not enhance the carbonation resistance of concrete.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 97-118; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.0970118

Abstract:
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), At least 2.2 billion individuals worldwide have near or far vision impairment out of 7.9 billion populations. In at least 1 billion cases, or about half of them, vision impairment might have been prevented or is currently untreated. The primary causes of vision impairment and loss are uncorrected errors and eye disorders. The majority of persons over the age of Fifty have visual impairment or blindness. Visual impairment or visual misfortunes are two terms that might be used to describe visual handicaps. This impairment makes it difficult for them to go about their daily activities such as shopping, strolling, mingling, and driving. The white stick is regarded as a symbol of opportunity, liberty, and security. In this paper, we attempted to discuss a comprehensive study of all the equipment and systems related to the simplification of visually impaired people's daily lives. Those devices can be portable or wearable or could be a system to detect objects. The emphasis was on the striking characteristics of that equipment, as well as the analysis was conducted predicated on a few variables such as power usage, mass, economics, and client. The aim was always to lay the groundwork for future researchers in the area by developing a handheld device or an efficient algorithm to protect visually impaired people.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 119-127; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.01190127

Abstract:
In the current condition, it is difficult to increase plant development and reduce expenses in agricultural sectors; nevertheless, an advanced thought leads to the use of an automated model that introduces automation in the irrigation system, which can aid in improved water and human resources management. An automated model has been developed using sensors and microcontroller technology, to make the most efficient use of water supply for irrigation. A soil moisture content detector is inserted into the soil of the crops, and an ultrasonic sensor is placed above the soil of the crops to measure the water level after irrigation has begun. A C++ program with threshold values for the moisture sensor was used to start the system in the crop field depending on the soil moisture level, and an ultrasonic sensor was used to control the water in the crop field. The Arduino UNO board is a microcontroller inbuilt of Atmel in the mega AVR family (ATMega328) and the sensors were used to lead the model in turning ON/OFF. A microcontroller was included in this model to run the program by receiving sensor input signals and converting them to soil water content and water level values in the crop field. The microcontroller began by receiving input values, which resulted in an output instructing the relay to turn on the groundwater pump. An LCD screen has also been interfaced with the microcontroller to show the percentage of moisture in the soil, field water level, and pump condition. When the soil moisture level reaches 99 percent and the water level reaches 6 cm after 2.5 and 4 minutes, respectively, the pump is turned off. This model, according to the study, might save water, time, and reduce human effort.
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