Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation

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ISSN / EISSN : 2706-8382 / 2706-8390
Total articles ≅ 63
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V. Chaika, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, M. Lisovyy, N Miniailo
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.002

Abstract:
The planet is experiencing an era of the sixth mass extinction of biota. Of particular concern is the impoverishment of insect populations, which account for about two-thirds of all biota species on the planet and are important for maintaining ecosystem stability and providing ecosystem services. Plant pollination is one of the most important ecosystem services on which human food security and the functioning of natural ecosystems depend. The economic value of pollination of entomophytic plants by honey bees for global crop production is estimated at $ 518 billion per year. In Ukraine, research on the ecological and economic assessment of ecosystem services is not conducted enough, which determines the relevance of our work. It is established that the total cost of the ecosystem pollination service of only four studied entomophilous crops in Ukraine (sunflower, rapeseed, buckwheat and open ground cucumber) is UAH 149.11 billion, which convincingly demonstrates the economic relevance of preserving the biodiversity of pollinating insects.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A. Kovpak
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 24-40; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.003

Abstract:
Novelties of this study include a synthesis of water quality parameters for the upstream sub-basin of the Dnieper River. This upstream sub-basin includes the Desna River. The synthesis revels new insights on the sources of the water pollution and the status of the water quality for different purposes such as drinking, aquaculture and recreation. The main research objective was to identify the main sources of water pollution and how those sources could decrease the water quality. As a result of our analysis, we conclude the following. The levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen in the Desna River (upstream sub-basin) are by 2-43 times and up to 53 times higher than the water quality thresholds, respectively. This poses a risk for recreational activities since too much nutrients often lead to blooms of harmful algae. We also find an increased level of biological oxygen demand in the river for drinking purposes. For aquaculture, decreased levels of dissolved oxygen are found. Climate change has an impact on water quality. For example, extreme floods caused by too much precipitation can bring pollutants to nearby waters. Monthly average temperature has increased by +2.7 degrees contributing to increased microbiological processes that could stimulate blooms of harmful algae. Main sources of water pollution are sewage discharges in cities, agricultural runoff and erosion activities after floods.
L. Vagaliuk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.004

Abstract:
Biodiversity ensures the functioning of ecosystems that provides oxygen, clean air and water, plant pollination, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem services. Recreational resources rely on our unique biodiversity, such as bird watching, hiking, camping, fishing etc. But it is known that anthropogenic load leads to degradation or destruction of natural landscapes. One of the manifestations of degradation is the fragmentation and division of solid forests or steppes into separate territories. As a result, they are transformed into small islands of nature surrounded by arable land, settlements, roads and railways. The leading ecologists think that a significant influence on the level of biodiversity has been identified (According to National report on the state of the environment in Ukraine in 2020). It was a result of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Therefore, determining the level of entomofauna biodiversity in different stations is relevant. During the research, the condition of entomofauna on the natural, semi- natural stations and sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of the Poultry Farm Kyivska was assessed. As a result of analytical and faunal studies, constant-dominant orders were 2 revealed in research areas: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. These orders include more than 80% of species and others only about 20% of insect species. The low number of species of entomofauna of dendrobionts is established due to excessive anthropogenic load and the depleted species diversity of trees and shrubs. Preservation of the ecological stability of landscapes by reproduction and maintenance of biodiversity requires the additional creation of protective forest plantations with high species richness of plants.
L. Bondareva, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.007

Abstract:
On the territory of the Academician A.V. Fomin Botanical garden three species of mites of the superfamily Eriophyoidea were found in pear orchards. It has been found that Eriophyes pyri Pgst and Epitrimerus pyri Nal. dominate. For the first time, individuals of Epitrimerus marginemtorguens Nal., have been found on pear 12 leaves. Eriophyes pyri is a widespread and dangerous pest of pears in all localities of cultivating this plant species in Ukraine. Epitrimerus pyri is less harmful in pear plantations of the botanical garden. Epitrimerus marginemtorguens appeared mainly in the second half of the growing season. The phenology of four-legged mites has been clarified and the sequence of Eriophyes pyri leaf population on a growing pear shoot has been determined. The period of formation of 7–9 ordinal leaves on the growing shoot is the key moment when the first generation of mites leaves the old galls and colonizes the newly formed leaves. During this period, the phytophagy moves from a hidden to an open way of life and is available for methods and means used in plant protection. A similar moment is also observed during the migration of the second generation to the apical leaves and the third generation – to the buds for wintering, but this process is greatly extended over time and is not so suitable for applying the acaricides.
D Gentosh, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, O. Bashta, K. Shvydchenko
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.005

Abstract:
The energy of germination and laboratory germination of Echinacea purpurea seeds have been studied, as it is the sowing qualities of seeds that are the basis for successful reproduction of the species in culture. Peculiarities of germination of culture seeds depending on harvest terms are studied. It is noted that the seeds of 2017-2018 are not conditioned and are not recommended for cultivation in medicinal crops in order to obtain quality medicinal raw materials according to generally accepted standards, while the seeds of 2020 harvest have a fairly high quality and belong to the basic category. The article also presents data on the effect of disinfection with ethyl alcohol on the sowing qualities of Echinacea purpurea seeds, the tendency to increase germination energy and germination in the variant with treated seeds. Seeds, endowed with a high rate of laboratory germination, belongs to the category of original and is recommended for further propagation. Such seeds may have good field germination, although this figure will be slightly lower in any case, because the laboratory for growing seeds creates optimal conditions, which is not always possible in the field. This is usually associated with the influence of biotic and abiotic factors: temperature, humidity, light, conditions and timing of sowing, soil fertility, its infestation by pests and pathogens, and so on. In the course of studies of germination energy and laboratory germination, attention was paid to the degree of damage to the seeds of Echinacea purpurea by mold fungi. On average, when determining the energy of germination, the degree of damage by molds was weak, but when determining laboratory germination, a large degree of damage to achenes by molds was additionally manifested. When comparing the degree of fungal infestation of treated and non-disinfected seeds, we noted a low degree of infestation (for disinfected achenes) and a medium degree of infestation (for non-disinfected seeds). When determining the germination energy of disinfected echinacea seeds, the signs of purple lesions were generally invisible.
M Kyryk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A Gryganskyi, A Vuek, M Pikovskyi, Inc. Ues
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.006

Abstract:
The results of studies conducted during the harvest of fruiting bodies of oyster mushrooms indicate that the development of harmful micromycetes during the first wave of fruiting was less than in the second about twice. It is established that the distribution of microorganisms is also influenced by the placement of substrate blocks in the fructification premises. In the first wave of fruiting, the number of affected blocks varied depending on the tier location. The least affected blocks were found on the 3rd tier, which is the highest – 3,6 %. The yield loss on this tier was 3.1 kg of mushrooms. On the second tier, the percentage of the contaminated blocks was 10,4. The largest amount of infected substrate was observed on the 1st tier – 27,1 %. The increase in the affected blocks on the 1st and 2nd tiers is due to excessive moisture, which leads to the flow of drops from the upper bags to the lower ones. Observation during the second wave of fructification has shown, that the dissemination and development of the diseases was considerably bigger. In the 1st tier, the substrate blocks were infected with the micromycetes by 34,6 %, and the rate of disease development was 13,4 %. The smallest amount of infected substrate was found on the 3rd tier – 4,4 %, and the rate of micromycetes was 1,8 %. Substrate blocks having infection with 4-5 point development were removed and disposed. The average lesion score ranged from 2 to 3. During the first and second waves of fruiting, the frequency of micromycetes on substrate blocks increases due to the development of Trichoderma (up to 69,4 %), Penicillium (up to 15,7 %), and Aspergillus spp. (up to 8,3 %), commonly known as green mold substrate pathogens.
I. Horobtsov, National Aviation University, M Radomska, L Cherniak
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 5-16; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.001

Abstract:
The paper considers issues of interaction between aviation and avifauna, relevant in terms of flight safety and safety of habitats for birds living in the impact area of ​​ airports. A number of parameters of aircraft and air traffic flow significantly affect the behavior and diversity of birds living in the respective areas. The analysis showed that species composition of avifauna at airports includes very few fully synanthropic species, while semi-synanthropes, such as members of the family Corvidae, are often found in airport areas and, due to their size and behavior, are of major hazard to aircrafts. A variety of methods for assessing the level of ornithological hazard are proposed by researchers and used in some countries. The authors presented a matrix method for assessing the risk of collisions between birds and aircraft, adapted to the conditions of Ukrainian airports. In particular, this method takes into account the peculiarities of avifauna monitoring carried out at the airports of Ukraine and the range of data on birds that may be available at these enterprises. The proposed analytical approach to ornithological risk assessment and ornithological management was tested on the example of Boryspil Airport, for which the attractiveness of the territory for birds, focal species of birds that need the most attention during ornithological observations by the airport staff, and the risk level were determined. It is necessary to expand the list of indicators according to which data should be collected during routine ornithological monitoring of airports.
O. L. Klyachenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.003

Abstract:
To conduct successful selective work aimed at high-yielding sugar beet hybrid creation, it is important to study the source material, its diversity and economically valuable features and patterns of their inheritance. The physiological approach and the development of ways to improve and estimate the population, based on physiological and biochemical indicators contribute to a deeper understanding of the production process. Therefore, the main goal of our work was to conduct a comparative physiological and biochemical evaluation of the production process of different sugar beet genotypes. Research objects were the MS hybrids with different combining ability and inbred lines of the I1 – I4 sugar beet generation. Research methods: physiological, biochemical and statistical. Genotypic features of multi-seeded diploid pollinators by physiological and biochemical parameters of individual metabolic links in the early stages of plant ontogenesis were established and the influence of inbreeding on photosynthetic productivity of plants was revealed. In simple MS hybrids obtained with the participation of combinational (by sugar content) O-type line comparing to one MS tester, a high positive heterosis in PHA and sugar content and a positive correlation between those traits were found. In hybrid combinations created by crossing combinational diploid pollinators compared to one MS tester showed positive heterosis in leaf surface area, chlorophyll content (a + b) and sucrose in the roots.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, , D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the NAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.002

Abstract:
Effective and economical methods of detection and identification necessary for the study of ecology, pathogenesis and limiting the spread of phytopathogenic bacteria, as well as for seed certification programs. The available methods for the detection and identification of four main causative agents of bacterial diseases of tomatoes Xanthomonas vesicatonia, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which are common in Ukraine. These methods include microbiological using selective media, serological, molecular methods based on the amplification of unique DNA sequences. The use of modern biochemical test systems has eliminated the need to identify phytopathogenic bacteria using long-term routine methods. Commercially available commercial test systems provide rapid identification at the species level and also detect new and quarantine pathogens. PCR-based methods have advantages over traditional diagnostic tests because isolates do not need to be cultured before detection and protocols are highly sensitive and fast.
О.і. Кitayev, Institute of Horticulture NAAS of Ukraine, , O.A. Kishchak, V.V. Filyov, L.P. Symyrenko Research Station of Pomology of the Institute of Horticulture NAAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.001

Abstract:
The authors present the results of researching the functioning of the leaf apparatus of the plum promise cultivars and elite forms bred at the L.P. Symyrenko Research Station of Pomology that was carried out for the purpose of determining their potential adaptability and productivity. The plants functional state was studied by means of the portable fluorimetr ‘Floratest’ establishing the inductive changes of the leaves chlorophyll fluorescence. The analysis of the green pigments in them was conducted in spirit extracts applying the spectrophotometric method. The considerable negative correlation was revealed (r = -0,71) between the a/b chlorophylls correlation and pigments summary content (in mg/g of the humid substance), on the one hand, and the chlorophyll b and chlorophylls a/b correlation (r = -0,85), on the other hand. That proves the high regulatory capacity and adaptive ability (at the level of the chlorophylls certain forms synthesis) of the leaves chloroplasts pigment systems of all the investigated crop cultivars and elite forms to the changes of the light regime in the tree crown. Concerning the parameters which characterize the plants potential photosynthetic effectivity and productivity the variety Oda has been recognized the most productive one among early ripening, Cacakska Najbolja, Zamanchivaya and Yantarna Mliivs’ka among middle-ripening, Stanley, Bluefree and forms 8124 and 8143 among late-ripening. The form 9996 had the lowest photosynthetic processes efficiency as for all the parameters. The rather high adaptability has been detected of the leaf apparatus of the trees of all the cultivars and forms to the changes of the enlightenment conditions as regards the indicators of the chlorophylls Fpl 1 and Fpl 2 fluorescence induction and green pigments content in the leaves. According to the plateau Kpl coefficient the viral infection was not revealed.
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