Journal of Engineering Research and Reports

Journal Information
EISSN : 2582-2926
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 566
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, F. Oladoye Stephen
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 38-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117437

Abstract:
Aims: Vehicle accidents on most highways had caused a lot of losses. Many sustained injuries that marred them and left families helpless. Nigeria highways are not exempted. Drunk-driving increases tendency, severity and causality of crashes. Effects of auto crash damage to lives and properties necessitated the development of the Microcontroller-based Driver Alcohol Detection System (MDADS). Study Design: The system employed ATMega328p microcontroller (CU) which coordinated operations of 7 units that made the MDADS. The units are: Sensor Unit (SU), Switch (S), Power Unit (PU); LCD Indicating Unit (LIU), Alarm Unit (AU), DC motor (Ignition) Unit (IU) and Liquid Crystal Display Unit (LCDU). Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted for 7 months in the Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji (FEDPOLEL), Nigeria. It was conducted between October 2020 and July 2021. Methodology: Once the MDADS is ON, it assesses presence of alcohol in the endogenous alcohol molecules from the driver with the help of the SU. The SU sends signal to CU to control and sends signal to trigger the IU, AU and the LCDU of the MDADS, if the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) exceeds the stipulated threshold 0.29ml/l. 60s tolerance was given to driver to switch OFF the ignition. If driver refuses to comply by switching OFF the ignition, the CU sends a “SWITCH OFF” signal to the IU, the LCDU displays “Drunk” and the buzzer continuously sounds alarm. The designed system was tested and parameters for evaluation were taken. The parameters among other includes True Acceptance Rate (TAR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR), Unable to Accept Rate (UAR) and Detection Accuracy (DA), Results: TAR were 0.81, 0.79, and 0.77 for man, alcoholic drinks and herbal mixture respectively. FAR were 0.03, 0.00, and 0.00 for man, alcoholic drinks and herbal mixture, respectively. For human being, Precision (P) and Recall concept (R) were 0.04 and 0.15 respectively while for P and R for others were negligible. Conclusion: The results reveals that the system can be profitably employed for and improved safety on the highways through precise warning before “switching off” of car engine. A further design should be done to differentiate vividly between drunk drivers and presence of other alcoholic substances such as drugs that contain some alcoholic contents, petrol, methylated spirit and alcoholic drinks.
M. S. Eisa, F. S. Abdelhaleem, V. A. Khater
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 25-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117436

Abstract:
Treating cracks in asphalt pavements is a major stage of each maintenance work for engineers. The goal of any crack cure is to limit the water intrusion into underlying pavement structure layers. Such water infiltrates in to base layers of the pavement and may cause damage to the pavement structure. The previous studies focused on crack repairing materials and methods but not the bonding at the interface joint. In this study, the influence of the repairing materials and depth on the bonding at the interface joint using two repairing materials. Slabs were cast to simulate surface of road. Unlikely, slabs contain cracks in the middle of slab with different depths (35 mm, 50 mm, 70 mm). Consequently, these cracks were repaired with two methods; firstly, repairing them with RC+Sand and secondly, with Sika flex®-1a. The slabs were tested after being repaired to know the best method and depth. It has been concluded that slabs having cracks that have been repaired with RC+Sand increase failure load compared with empty cracks and cracks that have been repaired with Sika flex®-1a. Also, cracks with small depth that have been repaired with Sika flex®-1a increase failure load compared with empty cracks.
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 15-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117435

Abstract:
This study assessed the production management practice being adopted in the manufacture of quality sandcrete blocks in selected sampled parts of Owerri municipal, Imo State, Nigeria. Myriads of literature identify sandcrete blocks as a significant material being used in the building & civil engineering practice and assert that its application as a walling material cannot be over emphasized. Sandcrete block manufacturers in Owerri, Imo State were used for the assessment of the quality of their products in line with the Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) specifications. The study adopted field sampling, experimentations and work study methods to determine the compressive strength and water absorption rate properties of the selected sampled sandcrete blocks. The results of the study reveals among others that the mean compressive strength values obtained were as low as 1.92N/mm2, and about 17% water absorption rate from sampled commercial blocks. The results obtained did not compare favorably with the NIS specified acceptable minimum standard values. The study therefore underpinned poor production quality control practice as well as lack of impact of regulatory bodies in Imo State as among factors that contributed to the negative results obtained.
, Tamer H. K. Elafandy, Mahmoud M. Mahran, Mohamed Said
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117434

Abstract:
Many researchers have been conducted on the ferrocement as a low cost construction material and a flexible structural system. This experimental investigation on the behavior of ferrocement beams after exposed to different type of ferrocement and different of ferrocement layer are presented in this paper. The experimental program consisted of seven simply supported beams tested up to failure under four-point load. The dimensions of 150mm×250mm×2000mm. Each beam was reinforced using steel 2 f 12 in top and 2 f10 in bottom and the stirrups was 10 f 10/m. In addition to six of them contains ferrocement different steel wire meshes and different of ferrocement layer. The test specimens are divided in three groups and the results of each one compared with the control specimen. The first group (A) which used the welded wire mesh. The second group (B) which used the expanded wire mesh. But the third group (C) which reinforced using woven wire mesh. The mid span deflection, cracks, reinforcement and concrete strains of the tested beams were recorded and compared. The performance of the test beams in terms of ultimate flexure load cracking behavior and energy absorption were investigated. The experimental results emphasized that high ultimate loads, better crack resistance control, high ductility, and good energy absorption properties could be achieved by using the proposed ferrocement beams. The cracks propagation decreased and its number and width decreased by using woven, expanded and welded wire mesh especially in specimens with two layers of wire mesh. Theoretical calculation was carried out to compare the oplained results with the theoretical ones, which show good agreement.
, Maduako Kingsley Obinna, Kunle Akinyinka Akande, Adeaga Oyetunde Adeoye
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 193-204; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217433

Abstract:
Auto Thermal Control device is an electronic based device which employs the application of temperature sensors to controlling household appliances without human interference directly. In this work, thermal source is used to regulate electrical fan and room heater depending on ambient temperature. The room heater, which is adjusted to a set temperature, switches ‘ON’ when the temperature of a room is low (cold). While the same is switches ‘OFF’ with increase in the room temperature. This triggers ‘ON’ an electric fan at different speeds, and thus cools the room. A temperature sensor, tthermistor, monitors change in room temperature. Two types of thermistor exists: Positive Temperature Coefficient, PTC. An increasee in the resistance of PTC results in increasee in temperature). In the Negative Temperature Coefficient, NTC; a decreasee in resistance yields to temperature increase. This article explored a NTC thermistor. The design could be a ready product in the market of the developing nation where environmental automation is yet fully deployed.
, O. K. Owolarafe
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 177-192; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217432

Abstract:
Aims: A snake gourd seeds sheller which comprises of hopper, decorticating chamber, and the cleaning chamber was designed, fabricated and evaluated in this study. Methodology: A 3-level factorial response surface methodology (RSM) of design expert version 6.0.8 of 2002 was used to identify the relationship between the response functions and the process variables of the device. The factors considered are shaft speed (300, 350, 400 rpm), soaking time (8, 15, and 20 minutes.), hammer diameter (115, 135 and 150 mm) and feed rate (90, 120, 150 kg/hr.) in the determination of shelling efficiency while air speed (2, 4, and 6 m/s) and angle of air injection (20, 40, 600) were used in the determination of cleaning efficiency. Results: The shelling efficiency was observed to increase with increase in hammer speed, hammer diameter and soaking time but decreased with increase in machine feed rate. The maximum shelling efficiency of 97.61% was recorded when the soaking time is 20 minutes, hammer speed is 400 rpm, hammer diameter is 150 mm and feeding rate is 90 kg/hr. The cleaning efficiency increases with increase in air speed and angle of air injection. The cleaning efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.5 % when the angle of injection and air speed is 600 and 5.0 m/s respectively. The effect of the speed and the angle of injection was found to be significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that with the result of the performance evaluation of the machine, it is suitable for inclusion in the process line for the seed and hence its potential could be harnessed.
, Clement Olufemi Akoshile, Taiye Benjamin Ajibola
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 169-176; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217428

Abstract:
A solar tracker is a system that is used for the mechanical orientation of solar payloads (collectors and photovoltaic panels) towards the sun. A simple, low-cost, but effective open-loop dual axis solar tracking system was developed in this work. The tracker is an embedded system that consists of a microcontroller integrated with other components in an electronic circuit to coordinate the activities of the circuit in driving out and in the motor shafts of electrically powered linear actuators used to move the payload. The work is divided into two parts: hardware and software. The hardware part consists of two movable (tilting and axial moving) rectangular frames fixed together and used to hold the payload and two electrically powered linear actuators (jacks) used to move the rectangular frames in the tilting and axial directions. The software part was a code written in the C programming language following an algorithm developed from measured parameters of the jacks and the sun’s position and embedded into a microcontroller. The testing of the dual-axis solar tracker was done by measuring a parabolic trough collector’s position with respect to the sun hour angles and solar declination angles and comparing the values with the calculated angles for two days. The results obtained showed that the tracker followed the sun with deviation of ±2o (percentage errors that ranged between 0.01% and 3.26%).
C. A. Emma-Ochu, K. C. Okolie, C. I. Ohaedeghasi
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 162-168; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217427

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to establish the challenges to health and safety compliance for construction projects in South East Nigeria. This study which is essentially survey based and empirical collected quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaire survey and field observations. The questionnaires were administered to indigenous construction firms and professionals in the construction projects in Abia, Anambra, Imo, Enugu and Ebonyi States of the South East area of Nigeria which are the study population. The tools used for data analysis were Regression using Friedman Q Test Ranking and crosstab. The findings revealed that the challenges to health and safety compliance in South East Nigeria are bribery and corruption, ignorance of the benefits of compliance, lack of health and safety culture, perception of stakeholders, neglect of human rights and moral values, non-commitment of the major construction players, inadequate training of staff and lack of skilled health and safety personnel, non-inclusion of health and safety in contract document and tendering process and inadequate funding. This study concludes that the lack of awareness and understanding of health and safety significantly hinders compliance to health and safety. The study therefore recommends that using enforcement in form of incentives based approach will equally take care of the identified different challenges to Health and Safety Compliance in South East, Nigeria. Furthermore, the health and safety regulations should not be enforced only through inspections and sanctions, rather there should be economic incentives to encourage and motivate self- compliance.
Osumanu Musah Mohammed
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 143-161; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217426

Abstract:
Renewable technologies are technically viable and economically attractive; traditional energy technology receives many investment dollars. This study examines the integration of renewable energy sources using functions that associate emissions with power generation; traditional producing units can represent these emissions. The environment friendly design has become a significant concern in the first decade of the 21st century. As a result of climate change and a limited supply of traditional energy sources (fossil fuel), the world needs to take renewable energy seriously. Renewable sources of energy are derived from the energy flow that occurs naturally in a continual manner. Many people define renewability as the ability to regenerate at a rate equal to or faster than a given energy source's depletion rate. Currently, fossil fuels are used to meet most energy needs, which should be replaced in the future by cleaner energy sources, such as renewables or nuclear energy. Building integration systems aim to replace a building element with a solar panel array to boost the RES system's viability. Renewable energy sources can be used to lessen the use of fossil fuels when certain criteria are satisfied. The use of renewable energy sources in buildings has well-understood environmental and economic benefits in this study. By relying on sustainable sources of energy, we can save as much energy as feasible.
, Lu Lianxu, Zhihua Zhao, Nusrat Jahan
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports pp 126-142; https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217425

Abstract:
The harm of nitrogen dioxide is not limited to the great impact on the atmosphere, environmental safety and even harms human, animal, and plant life. Damage to devices and buildings can cause industrial accidents, huge property losses, and even cause casualties. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has attracted much attention as a toxic gas with high content, many sources, and greater hazards in the air. In recent years, with the development of industry and the emission of a large amount of automobile exhaust, the emission of nitrogen dioxide has been increasing every year. The air emission in the potential nitrogen dioxide emission area should be treated in time, and the emission must be carried out at a concentration that meets the standard. Only by detecting the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the emission site at all times can the gas be effectively treated. The inspection system has been designed, it is still inadequate in many aspects. For example, the system takes a bit long time to warm up, and the solder joints are prone to poor contact. In future research, there can be two main research directions: 1. Improve the writing ability of C language to improve the stability of the detection system. 2. Find and synthesize more stable gas-sensitive materials to improve the sensitivity of the signal acquisition system and the accuracy of detection. Although the system has worked accurately and met the requirements, there is still a long way to go for future research, and more in-depth research on the product is needed.
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