Journal of Asian Rural Studies

Journal Information
EISSN : 2548-3269
Published by: Hasanuddin University, Faculty of Law (10.20956)
Total articles ≅ 77
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Ji Li, Masaya Nakatsuka
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 98-110; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2670

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to clarify the barriers and the process of supports obtained in starting the farm-stay businesses with inbound tourism from the perspective of migrants. In- depth interviews on entrepreneurship of farm-stay businesses among local vitalization cooperators (LVC) were conducted, and the following results were found. First, there are two main types of barriers when starting farm-stay businesses namely barriers caused by new businesses start-up and barriers caused by local life. The barriers caused by local life have three aspects: an inadequate understanding of the ways to interact with local residents, insufficient information on community rules, and insufficient agricultural knowledge. The barriers to receiving foreigners include lack of understanding by neighbors, publicity, service and activities supplied, and matching facilities. Second, supports can also be divided into two categories: supports in local life and those in business start-up. The network and trust relationship established with local residents during the first stage of overcoming local life barriers can help overcome the barriers faced when starting businesses. Meanwhile, supports in business start-up deepen the relationship between migrants and local residents, thus playing a supportive role in life stabilization. Third, by analyzing the LVC cases, we conclude that ordinary migrants need ample time to undergo the process of accommodating to local life, thereby building a network and trust with local regions before starting new businesses. This research provides references on the study of starting new businesses in rural areas from the migrants’ views and issues to farm-stay businesses and inbound tourism at the starting phase.
Sérgio Jordão Augusto Ponguane, Bento Mussumbuluco, Nézia Mucavele
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 135-142; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2782

Abstract:
Demand for agricultural land by foreign investors has been increasing in Mozambique over the last years and the Wanbao project is an example. The implementation of this project in Gaza has divided opinions between the government, civil society and academia. This study aims to contribute to the debate on whether Wanbao project can be considered as land grabbing and the extent to which the project contributes to the development of small-scale agriculture in Gaza Province. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire in December 2019 and January 2020, covering a total of 66 household affected by the Wanbao project. The data were analyzed by a descriptive statistic and a cross-check of the Mozambican land law, the available literature on land grabbing and the information collected on the ground from the farmers affected by the project. The results show that the land concession to Wanbao was made without any consideration of customary rights, however, it was found that the contract farming program can increase rice productivity in the short term, but its sustainability remains questionable. Thus, if the Mozambican government intends to transform agriculture through large investments, it must ensure that the concession of land respects customary rights and the companies involved ensure the transfer of technologies in an effective and sustainable manner.
Kazuko Tatsumi
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 111-125; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2969

Abstract:
Rural communities have long endured poverty, and they continue to tackle the problems of depopulation, a declining birth rate, and an aging population in Japan. Some rural communities face a crisis of survival. The question of this study are how sustainable communities in rural areas are being created. This study examine the process by which rural women have transformed the Livelihood Improvement Program (LIP) into a movement. The process was to expand rural women’s activities to enable them to play an active role in their family, women’s groups, and their community. This expansion reflects the effects of the LIP in rural areas. The LIP was started by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Japan in 1948 to develop self- reliant farmers. The women tried to find solutions to their problems using LIP approaches including problem-solving and the three-by-five cognitive method in group discussions. The LIP was a long-term program and officially ended in 2004. However, the LIP has been continued as a movement for the sustainable development of their community by the women. This study focuses on a case study at the community level involving an update of the LIP program in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The analysis is based on a literature review, secondary and historical data, and fieldwork carried out between 2004 and 2020. From a medium- to long-term viewpoint, their self-confidence improved and they became self-reliant famers. Now women in the older generations are creating employment opportunities through community businesses so that the younger generations may choose to remain in the rural areas in the future. There has been an increasing tendency for young people who moved to the cities to study or work to return to their hometowns. This study found that the most important aspects in susutainable community development are people’s initiative, identity, and pride.
Chrysl Avegeil Vallejo, Cleofe Torres, Ma. Theresa Velasco, Benjamina Paula Flor, Josefina Dizon
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 143-149; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2972

Abstract:
This paper aimed to explain how rice farmers in Sto. Domingo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines managed to properly appropriate flatbed dryers. It also sought to describe the modes of appropriation offlatbed dryers: adoption, adaptation, and peer/group learning. Data were gathered through a survey among 131 rice farmers and key informant interviews. Findings revealed that the rice farmers experimented and modified the features of flatbed dryers to better adapt the technology to their needs. The rice farmers have encountered problems in using the technology but have managed to employ adaptation strategies to address these problems which resulted to peer/group learning among them.
Rizzi Angelica Ternida Dagos
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2943

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in alleviating poverty among households of San Jose, Occidental Mindoro. Particularly, this study aimed to: (1) characterize microfinance household clients in San Jose, Occidental Mindoro, in terms of: socio- demographic, economic and communication; (2) determine the driving forces of clients to avail microfinance services; (3) identify the household-clients’ frequently availed/accessed/paid microfinance services; and (4) determine the household clients’ perceived effect of microfinance services in terms of: economic, social and personal. A total of 200 randomly selected household MFI clients, both from rural and urban barangays of San Jose, Occidental Mindoro were interviewed for this study. Descriptive statistics such as mean, weighted mean, frequency and percentage distribution were used in analysing and presenting the data. The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents are female, married and literate. They have other sources of income. Among the most common driving forces of household clients in availing microfinance services are financial security, health-related concerns and education. The frequently availed services of household clients are savings, insurance and loans and their most common microfinance service provider is the Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Incorporated (CARD Bank). The household clients experienced reduced poverty and increased acquisition of assets as economic effect of microfinance services, while they had improved lifestyle and improved relationships with other people as social effects and increased self-confidence and fulfillment as personal effects of microfinance services.
Iboh Andrew Okidim, Lynda Ogechi Egwue, Data Irene Ekine, Eleoke Chikwe Chukuigwe
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 126-134; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i2.2778

Abstract:
Food insecurity is a challenge in developing countries, especially in the rural areas of Nigeria. It remains a global challenge and continues to be a major public policy in Nigeria and other developing nations. Despite these, COVID-19 set in and posed a serious threat to food system and security globally. This study, therefore, assessed the level of food security among the rural farming households and how they cope with the situation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for the study were collected primarily from 200 farming households with the use of questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, food security index and Likert scale. The findings showed that the level of food insecurity was very high during the pandemic as 69.5% were food insecure with a high concentration among those with large household size. The widely adopted coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic among the rural farming households were eating less expensive food (=2.7), reducing rational consumption (=2.68), allowing children to eat first (=2.56), engaging in additional small scale productivity activities (=2.27), skipping meal within a day (=2.26), buying food on credit (=2.05) and borrowing money to buy food (=2.01). The study recommends effective and urgent policy measures which will support rural households’ food availability to boost their food security status. Also, enlightenment of the rural households on the important of modern family planning on their food security status is needed.
Ilker Fatih Ozorhon, Guliz Ozorhon
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 30-47; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i1.2492

Abstract:
Traditional rural living environments have the potential to be instructive in numerous ways. Rural settlements, which are often created with a minimum of effort and have been around for thousands of years, can be a template for living environments of tomorrow. Starting off with that proposition, this paper goes on to emphasize the importance of examining the characteristics of traditional rural settlements in the context of sustainability. The article aims to analyze and thus improve our understanding of rural settlements, and in the process of doing so, it produces and reproduces knowledge within the field of sustainability. A model consisting of multiple layers was applied through the sampling of a particular rural-traditional settlement (Taraklı), thereby shedding light on the relationship between the settlement and the parameters of environmental sustainability. In that model, three main methods of learning from traditional architecture were proposed: (1) Learning From Vernacular Architecture (LF-VA) through existing settlements; (2) Learning From Experience (LF-E) through those who have learned from vernacular approaches; and, (3) Learning from Research (LF-R). Through the use of that model, the data obtained constitutes a holistic pool of information. The basic facts articulated in this pool are models, concepts and theories, and the prominent concepts include documentation, conservation, adaptation and innovation. As a result of the analysis based on the model, the relationship of the physical characteristics of the rural-traditional settlement exemplified in the article with the environmental sustainability parameters has been illustrated systematically. In the literature, the products of rural architecture generally exist with identification and documentation studies. In this article, the relationship between rural architecture and sustainability is discussed in the context of learning from the past and it is shown through an existing settlement.
Gene Ammarell, Muslimin Muslimin, Sukur Oda, Ahmad Faisal R
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i1.2485

Abstract:
Beginning around 2014, some significant changes in the livelihoods among many younger men from the Island of Balobaloang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, emerged. This study describes and explains how it is that approximately 50 working-age adult men (out of a total population of about 900) have turned away from interisland shipping and trade and artisanal fishing and toward wage employment aboard tourist ships, working out of distant ports in Indonesia. This case study uses a qualitative approach to explore and describe the socio-economic life of community members on the island village of Greater Balobaloang as they continue to be affected by economic and environmental changes. Field data collection was carried out through observation, government documents, and in-depth interviews with respondents. In particular, this study focuses on the adaptive strategies of younger men as opportunities for making a living have shifted in recent years away from artisanal fishing and interisland shipping and trade to adventure travel aboard modified traditional sailing ships. It contributes to discussions of internal skilled migration, social mobility and adaptation to the domestic and international tourist industry.
Mary Yole Apple Declaro Ruedas, Mary Joy Guico
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i1.2707

Abstract:
The study aims to assess the saving and investment pattern of women rice farmers in San Jose, Occidental Mindoro. The study was conducted in the rice-producing barangays of San Jose, Occidental Mindoro, namely: Mabini, Mapaya, and Mangarin from February to July 2017. The study population included all women farmers who were involved in different rice farming activities from production to marketing. The 48 respondents were randomly selected. Informed consent was sought before the conduct of the study. Descriptive statistics like mean, percentages, and frequency distribution were used to assess the women farmers' profile. While Pearson Moment Correlation was used to test the relationship between the variables. The result shows that the small-scale women farmers have a small household size and small farm sizes with an income above the poverty threshold. They "sometimes" save through cash and "frequently" save through non-cash. They "frequently" encountered problems in saving capacity. Further, farm size is significantly related to the savings pattern of women rice farmers. Socio-economic characteristics have no relationship with constraints to saving capacity. The study suggests using other variables to further determine the saving pattern and saving capacity of the women rice farmers.
Rashid Solagberu Adisa, Ifabiyi John Oluwaseun, Opeyemi Gbenga
Journal of Asian Rural Studies, Volume 5, pp 78-89; https://doi.org/10.20956/jars.v5i1.2706

Abstract:
Nigerians are high fish consumers as the per capita consumption is 14.9 kg per year and has the largest market for fish and fishery products in Africa. Artisanal fishers provide fish for large proportion of fish consumed by our teeming population. These set of fishers depend on crude gears and technology and small vessels in capturing multiple fish species. This study examined the determinants of the capacity building needs of artisanal fishers in Kogi State, Nigeria. The study used primary data. The primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was use to select the respondents. A total number of 292 respondents were selected for the study. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and Binary Logistic Regression. The results showed that more than half (71.6%) of the respondents had low knowledge level and majority (87.0%) of the respondents had high capacity building needs. The educational status (p<0.10), years of experience in fishing activities (p<0.10), contacts with extension services (p<0.01) and craft type (p<0.05) are the determinants factors of capacity building needs of the artisanal fishers. The study concluded that the majority of the fisher folks had low knowledge level on fishing practices. Majority of the fisher folks had high capacity building needs. The study therefore recommends the provision of training in the areas of high capacity building needs and that there should be consideration of factors influencing the capacity building needs of artisanal fisher folks during the planning and implementation of any training programme on artisanal fisheries.
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