International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2617-4693 / 2617-4707
Published by: Comprehensive Publications (10.33545)
Total articles ≅ 59
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Basavaraj V Savadi, Tejasvi Ht, Rashmi Bm
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 35-38; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.63

Abstract:
Background: The thyroid hormone abnormalities are closely associated with diabetes. Undetected, untreated thyroid dysfunction may impair diabetes control, its early detection. Hence, prompt treatment among diabetics would be beneficial in achieving glycemic control, minimizing cardiovascular risk and improving general well‑being. In this central Karnataka As the data on thyroid disorders in diabetics is limited region, the present study was taken up to estimate the thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients. Aim: To estimate the thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients. Material and Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted after obtaining institutional ethics committee clearance, at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chitradurga, Karnataka, among 100 diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus. Patients’ lipid, thyroid and diabetic profiles were estimated and were then divided as hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and euthyroid depending on the thyroid profiles. Results: Out of 100 diabetic patients, 71% were euthyroid, 23% hypothyroid and 6% were hyperthyroid. BMI, waist: hip ratio, TSH were significantly lower (22.3±1.8 Kg/mt2; 0.79±0.18), whereas T3 and T4 were significantly elevated among hyperthyroid patients compared to hypothyroid and euthyroid group. Levels of FBS, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and HbA1c were significantly elevated in hypothyroid patients. The mean levels of FBS, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and HbA1c were significantly elevated in hypothyroid patients compared to euthyroid group. Conclusion: Unidentified thyroid dysfunction could negatively impact diabetes and its complications and may be one of the prime causes of poor management of type 2 DM. Therefore, there is a need for routine assay of thyroid hormones in type 2 diabetic patients to improve the medical management as well as to reduce the morbidity in them.
Pravin Kumar Sonawane, Sb Gaikwad, Anshula G, Banker M
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 39-41; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.64

Abstract:
Type II diabetes formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a type of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin due to obesity, lack of exercise or genetically determined. HbA1c in diabetic patients provides valuable information about the changes occurring in the blood glucose level over last three months. SOD is considered as a first line Defense against ROS, as it is present in almost all cells and it deals with the most hazardous radicals i.e. Superoxide (O2-). Oxidative stress is in the foreground of diabetes which increases with increase in severity of diabetes, keeping these facts in mind the present study was designed to compare SOD level in type II D.M in Jalgaon district. In the present study, we got inverse correlation (non-significant correlation) in these two parameter. As the levels of HbA1c increases there is decrease in SOD levels which indicates that as the severity of diabetes increases the levels of SOD decreases.
Penugonda Anveetha, Vamsi Krishna Chittimoju
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.55

Abstract:
Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main sources of obtained visual deficiency and is a sight-undermining complexity of diabetes mellitus. There are an assortment of danger factors, for example, hypomagnesemia, length of diabetes, and weakened guideline of diabetes, connected to the turn of events and movement of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: The all out number of subjects examined was 120, comprising of 40 safe controls and 80 instances of diabetes. Out of 80 instances of diabetes 40 were patients without retinopathy and 40 were patients with retinopathy. HbA1c levels and serum magnesium levels were estimated in diabetic gatherings and the benchmark group. Term of diabetes was looked at in diabetic gatherings. Results: Mean duration of diabetes was higher in diabetic group with retinopathy when compared to the diabetic group without retinopathy. HbA1c was significantly higher in the diabetic groups when compared to the control group. Serum magnesium was significantly decreased in diabetic groups when compared to the control group. Compared to the diabetic group without retinopathy, the HbA1c was significantly higher and serum magnesium was significantly decreased in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Conclusion: Increased HbA1c is attributed to poor glycemic control. Decreased serum magnesium levels are attributed to dietary deficiency, impaired magnesium absorption, increased diabetes urination loss. Factors, for example, diabetes mellitus length, glycemic control, and hypomagnesemia influenced the force of diabetic retinopathy in the contemplated gatherings. Early conclusion and treatment in diabetic patients alongside magnesium enhancements can diminish the beginning and movement of retinopathy.
N Naveethalakshmi, K Rajachidambaram Ms
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.61

Abstract:
Introduction: Various biochemical tumour markers have been studied singly or in combination, in breast malignancies which help in diagnosing carcinoma of breast cancer.Aim: To assess the levels of enzymes Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Gamma glutamyl trans peptidase (GGT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma breast and study if there is any clinical correlation of the levels of these enzymes with the presence of early untreated breast carcinoma.Materials and Method: This is prospective study done during the period February 2018 to Jan 2019.In Government Pudukkottai medical college. It was carried out in two groups, namely apparently healthy 27 females controls and 50 females with newly diagnosed carcinoma breast.Results: The imbalance between free radicals and the anti-oxidants in the causation of breast cancer is being researched. Free radicals has been implicated in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate if the levels of biochemical markers LDH and GGT, and the level of antioxidant enzyme SOD are altered in cases with carcinoma breast, when compared to the levels in apparently normal controls.In humans, three forms of superoxide dismutase are present. SOD1 is located in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in mitochondria and SOD3 in extracellular matrix. SOD causes detoxifies super oxide to hydrogen peroxide. LDH is a glycolytic enzyme with five iso enzymes. The level of LDH is increased in various malignancies. GGT helps in transportation of amino acids in the cells.Conclusion: The levels of LDH and GGT were found to be significantly elevated in the cases, whereas the levels of SOD were found to be significantly lowered in the cases. The SOD levels were lower in cases with stage-3 carcinoma breast than in cases with stage-2 carcinoma breast.
Otobo D Daniel, Okoro I Ngozi, Meshack Daniel
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 12-13; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.58

Abstract:
Background: Thousands of Nigerians have either been displaced or killed owing to the violent conflict that has plagued the country over the years. This year alone, more than 70,000 people have been displaced from their homes from Borno and Yobe states alone. These people have medical needs. This need may be Combat or Non-combat related. However, rapid testing, early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a needed advantage they all have in common. This is where Point-of-care-testing (POCT) comes in. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of POCT in delivery of standard care in war ridden and terrorized regions in Nigeria.Discussion: POCT can be implemented to improve care of Medical, Infectious, Geriatric, Obstetric and Pediatric cases. Due to endemicity in our region, other critical tests that can be done to ensure early diagnosis and prompt treatment are Malaria, Hepatitis, HIV and Typhoid rapid diagnostic tests. Some major limitations to be faced antagonizing improved POCT in these regions are availability, Accessibility, Skilled Man power.Conclusion: Increased POCT can improve rapid testing, early diagnosis and prompt treatments in these violent conflicts ridden regions in Nigeria. However, poor availability, accessibility and man-power are a major limitation.
Basavaraj V Savadi, Gaurang K Anandpara, Bm Rashmi
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 30-33; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.62

Abstract:
Background: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder associated with substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality. Neonates born to hypertensive mothers are at increased risk of prematurity and foetal growth restriction. Timely prediction and accurate diagnosis is the key to limiting the morbidity and mortality caused by preeclampsia. Early identification of PE using inflammatory biomarkers could reduce PE related comorbidities. Aim: To compare levels inflammatory markers: hsCRP and Lipoprotein (a) levels in preeclamptic pregnant women, with the levels of inflammatory markers among women with normal pregnancy at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Material and Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study included 50 Preeclamptic women and 50 apparently healthy singleton pregnant women matched for gestational age and parity. Data was analyzed in SPSS V:16. To find association between inflammatory markers and blood pressure levels, statistical tests like chi-square, independent student t–test were applied. Results: Lp (a) and hsCRP levels were significantly higher among preeclamptic group compared to normal pregnancy group and these levels had moderate positive correlation with SBP (r=0.650) and DBP (0.627) among preeclamptic women. Conclusion: Increased levels of lipoprotein (a) and hsCRP are found in the present study, which are correlating with the progression of preeclampsia by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cascade. Also, earliest detection of Lp (a) and hsCRP in pregnancy could help to detect preeclampsia and to prevent its further complications.
Pampa Reddy, Kiran Kumar Akka
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 20-23; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.60

Abstract:
Hyperlipidemia in association with insulin resistance is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance and the ensuing hyperinsulinemia are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. The lipoprotein abnormalities are related to the severity of the insulin resistance. The venous blood was collected for both fasting and post prandial for blood sugar estimation. The fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum Total cholesterol, serum Triglycerides and serum HDL cholesterol estimation. In this study it was found that though the patients were on oral hypoglycaemic drugs and some patients were on Insulin the fasting blood sugar and post prandial blood sugar are significantly high in study groups when compared to control groups (P< 0.001).
Vittal Bg, Abhijith D
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 06-08; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.56

Abstract:
Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity predisposes to Hyperlipidaemia which is a modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease. Deranged lipid profile is also seen in patients of hypertension and diabetes mellitus which are among most common non communicable diseases seen mainly in developed and some of developing countries. Dyslipidaemia depending upon the severity will be monitored by Lipid profile usually done in fasting state and based on differential derangement of lipid levels, treated accordingly. Most of the nations have switched on to non-fasting lipid profiles owing to its convenience and feasibility of testing and also probably considering the fact that body is exposed to non-fasting lipid levels for most time in 24 hours of the day. This pilot study tried to compare and study the fasting and non-fasting lipid profile components by doing an observational cross sectional study on 50 patients attending the Haasana Institute of Medical Sciences laboratory services, Haasana for regular health checkup. There was no statistically significant difference between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in fasting and post prandial state whereas triglycerides and VLDL showed significant statistical difference with p value less than 0.05. Our study concludes that non fasting lipid profile is better both technically, operationally with better diagnostic and prognostic capability with respect to monitoring and treatment of dyslipidaemias as compared to fasting lipid profile.
Kiran Kumar Akka, Pampa Reddy
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 14-19; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.59

Abstract:
In NIDDM, studies from Steno Memorial Hospital in Denmark and the Joslin clinic in Boston have shown increased coronary heart disease(CHD) mortality compared with the non diabetic population. In the Joslin clinic study, one third of male and female patients with NIDDM died from CHD before the age of 60. Normal cases were 30 and were selected at Random from different wards of Hospital. The venous blood was collected for both fasting and post prandial for blood sugar estimation. The fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum Total cholesterol, serum Triglycerides and serum HDL cholesterol estimation.
Divya Sharma, Rati Mathur, Puneet Saxena
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, Volume 5, pp 09-11; https://doi.org/10.33545/26174693.2021.v5.i1a.57

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the usefulness of serum cystatin-C along with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an early marker of diabetic nephropathy. Method: The study includes diabetic patients visiting the Medicine OPD and was divided into groups according to duration of diabetes. Group 1 with diabetes between 5-10 years, group 2 with diabetes between 10-15 years, group 3 with diabetes more than 15 years and control group. Results: Serum cystatin-C and VEGF level raised significantly in group 2 patients (10-15 years duration) and increases further with the progression of disease. Conclusion: Both cystatin-C and vascular endothelial growth factor can be useful marker of early diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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