European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences

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EISSN : 2684-1827
Published by: Europa Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 192
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Teboho D. Manenzhe
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.343

Abstract:
This study looked at the constrains affecting competitiveness on emerging citrus household farmers using primary data collected from a convenience sample of 150 emerging farming households in Nelspruit and Onderberg citrus administration regions of Ehlanzeni District Municipality of South Africa. The results showed that tertiary education and farming models influenced farming households to produce good quality citrus fruit and access both export and local fruit markets. In addition, study results indicated that other household socioeconomic constraints such as gender, age, training, business plan, water, input costs, barriers to engaging in farming on a commercial level, food safety, and good agricultural practice standards, and lack of title deed had a negative influence on the competitiveness of emerging household farmers in the study area. Policies that encourage a regular visit to farmers to follow up on the compliance of food safety and good agricultural practice standards by CGA advisors and agricultural extensionists are recommended for increased compliance.
Mawuena G. Goka, Marie Dufrechou, Pierre Picouet, Kouassi Soncy, Yaovi Ameyapoh
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 40-45; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.358

Abstract:
Post-harvest losses have been identified as one of the main causes of food shortage problems in most developing countries and in Togo especially. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of post-harvest losses in tomato production in the Savannah region of Togo. A standardized structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 25 farmers selected through a combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the characteristics of the respondents. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of postharvest losses of tomatoes. The typical tomato farmer in the locality is 37 years, married, with a household of three people, and having attained a basic level of education. On average, farmers grow tomatoes on a farm of about 2 hectares and have about 10 years of farming experience. The study showed that 42% of tomatoes during the major season were lost and 90% during the minor season. From the farmers' point of view, the main sources of losses were rotting and bruising due to improper handling, diseases, and pest attacks. Regression analysis showed that farmer gender, household size, farm size, number of days in storage significantly influenced the level of post-harvest losses. Female gender, farm size, and the number of days in storage were positively associated with losses in tomato production. However, household size, membership in cooperatives, and growing improved varieties reduced post-harvest losses. Limited access to credit, lack of storage facilities, and lack of market access are the main constraints faced by tomato farmers. The study recommended periodic training of producers and membership in cooperatives. Education of farmers on growing improved varieties of tomatoes as well as training in proper processing of tomato fruits and derivatives to reduce post-harvest losses.
Pragya Rathore, Lubaina Kaba, Satya Tamrakar, Rounak Sinha, Shreya Singhal, Anuj Malu, Sarvesh Seth
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 60-66; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.365

Abstract:
This research deals with the characterization of dragon fruit for the purpose of consumption in different forms. Dragon fruit is supposed to be very nutritious and is rich source of several Phyto-chemicals. However, till now its utility in country like India is highly underrated. Dragon fruit has been found to be rich in antioxidants as well thus providing a wider scope for the research [1]. The fruit also contains high amount of minerals and balanced content of nutrients. High amount of dietary fiber and carotenoids make it beneficial for chronic heart disorders, cancer, and diabetes [1]. The paper highlights the nutritive attribute of fruit pulp and to increase its use as a dehydrated powder keeping the nutritive value intact. The dehydrated form increases the shelf life and is easy to use and also eases the distribution and transportation of fruit.
Isaac Newton B-Mensah, Kingsley Osei, Ruth N. A. Prempeh
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.277

Abstract:
Thirteen-tomato genotypes were assembled from the USA, Taiwan and Ghana for screening for bacterial wilt resistance in two environments: in a screen house at Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana and in the field at a bacterial wilt hot spot at Bechem in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. The bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated using the serial dilution method on Nutrient Agar (NA) and aseptically cultured for inoculation. The bacterium was implicated as the causal organism of the bacterial wilt disease of tomato. A local check, Petofake and H7996 were used as susceptible and resistant checks respectively. Three genotypes, H7996, LA0442 and LA0443 demonstrated significant resistance stability in both experimental environments by recording significantly low wilt incidence and severity. H7996 was obtained from the World Vegetable Centre (WVC), Taiwan while the other two genotypes were collected from the University of California, Davis, USA. Apart from the highest yielding genotype LA 0442 that recorded 50.67 t/h, the rest recorded very low yields. The lowest yielding genotype AVTO 1713, recorded (12.67 t/h). Thus, the highest yielding genotype, LA 0442 over-yielded the lowest AVTO1713 by approximately 300%. It is instructive to note that LA0442, which was identified as a stable resistant genotype also recorded the highest yield. This result supports the potential of developing a resistant, high yielding variety using LA0442 as a parent. The future of the tomato industry in Ghana therefore looks promising.
Işıl Var, Sibel Özçakmak, Ali Tekin, Seda Yılmaz, Behzad Heshmati, Okşan Uçkun,
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.373

Abstract:
It has recently been recognized that some commercial infant formulae have, due to spoilage and pathogen microorganisms, which are detected risks to health, been recalled and reported in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed on notification lists. The risk of microbial contamination from the environment or from the addition of ingredients to cereal-based follow-on formulae (FOF) and powdered infant foods (PIF) products could occur under poor hygienic conditions. This project was designed to evaluate the associated risks of Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella, Total Coliform, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Ochratoxin-A in PIF, FOF and rice flour products marketed in Turkey. Seventy-four baby formulae and thirteen rice flour trademarks obtained in 2018 randomly from different markets in Samsun, Kars, and Adana in Turkey. Salmonella, C. sakazakii, Coliform, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were analyzed using the ISO 6579:2002, ISO/TS 22964:2006, MPN, FDA (2001), FDA (1998) and FDA (2012) methods, respectively. C. sakazakii was isolated from 7/74 FOF products and 4/13 rice flour products, yielding 12.64% prevalence. Salmonella, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples. The FOF products, including cereals of different origins and one rice flour sample (7.69%), were found to be contaminated with B. cereus (6.76%) and B. subtilis (5.41%). OTA values were found to be above the legal limits in 4.05% (3/74) FOF products. These results suggest that routine quality controls and hazard and risk analysis for infant foods have to be much more rigorous in terms of the potential risk of microbiological contamination.
Eman Rashwan El-Sayed, Eman Yehia Abd-Elkawe
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 90-96; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.374

Abstract:
The current research was carried out to produce fine count yarns from extra-long Egyptian cotton varieties using compact and ring spinning systems.in addition, to compare between compact yarns and ring yarns in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. Three commercial extra-long staple Egyptian cottons Giza92, Giza93 and Giza 96 were used to produce four linear densities of 80, 100, 120 and 140 at 3.6 twist multiplier. Results obtained showed that Giza 92 was surpassed significantly other extra -long staple varieties. It recorded the highest mean values of yarn strength and yarn evenness While, the same variety recorded the lowest mean values of yarn hairiness and imperfections. Compact yarns were much better than yarns spun on the ring spinning in yarn strength, yarn elongation, evenness, yarn imperfections and yarn hairiness. Yarn count 80,s gave higher single yarn strength (20.89cN/tex), yarn elongation (5.03%) and yarn evenness (17.49%) and lower yarn hairiness (2.04) and imperfections than yarn count 140s. Single yarn strength, yarn elongation and yarn evenness were decreased with increasing yarn count. While the number of neps, hairiness, the number of thin and thick places were increased with increasing yarn count. Concerning, the effect of interaction between cotton varieties × yarn counts × spinning systems on yarn quality properties. Yarn count 80s recorded the highest mean values of yarn strength (23.14, 21.1 and 20.2 cN/tex) and yarn evenness (17.72, 16.53 and 16.79%) for varieties Giza92, Giza93 and Giza96, respectively for compact spinning system. Yarn strength at count 80, 100, 120 and 140 correlated negatively and highly significant with micronaire value and maturity ratio.
P.D.S.R. Kumari, R. Amarakoon
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 55-59; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.363

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the fermentation of Avocado seed flour using Lactobacillus plantarum. Proximate composition and most important mineral contents of Avocado seed flour after fermenting for 24, 48 and 72 h were compared with dry unfermented Avocado seed flour. Avocado seed flour fermented for 72 h had significant increase (p<0.05) of crude protein content from 6.42±0.08% to 9.26±0.28%. Mineral contents were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Ca, Mg, Fe contents of dry unfermented Avocado seed flour were 208.89±0.3 μg/g, 99.05±0.01 μg/g, 9.04±0.01 μg/g and fermented Avocado seed flour (72 h) were 227.06±0.050 μg/g, 189.22±0.33 μg/g, and 18.11±0.006 μg/g respectively. There is a significant increase (p<0.05) of Ca, Mg and Fe content of fermented (72 h) Avocado seed flour. Fermentation of Avocado seed flour for 72 h enhance the nutritional quality.
Mona Ahmed Babiker Ahmed, Atif Elamin Abdelgadir, Hayfa Mohammed Ismail
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.360

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation level of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) prerequisites adopted in poultry meat production and processing in Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve the goal, a cross sectional study was conducted. Data and samples were collected from January to September 2018 from 12 close system broiler slaughterhouses according to Non-Probability Multistage Cluster Sampling Method in Khartoum, Khartoum North (Bahri), and Omdurman localities (4 farms from each). A standardized questionnaire was conducted for slaughterhouses (12 for each) to investigate the current status of implemented HACCP prerequisites. One hundred and eighty swab samples were taken from different sites in the slaughterhouses’ halls (surfaces, workers’ hands, boots, water, and chillers) followed by 240 swab samples collected from broiler carcasses after 4 process steps (defeathering, evisceration, washing and chilling). After bacterial culturing, isolation, and identification, all collected Data were subjected to descriptive and analytical statistic such as Chi square and ANOVA using SPSS. Low level of good practices in slaughterhouses was shown regarding programmed documented personal hygiene staff training and qualification for responsibilities 50.0% (n=6), preventative maintenance 41.7% (n=5), and appropriate use of personal facilities 58.3% (n=7). In addition to that, 66.7% (n=8) of examined premises showed difficulty in cleaning, inadequate ventilation and 33.3% (n=4) showed lack of sanitary facilities (dispensers, personnel changing rooms, toilets, washing basins). Unhealthy practices and habits were observed in majority of workers during work such as not washing hands before entering production areas, smoking, and eating and drinking in processing areas, beside low level of medical check in two thirds of them 66.7% (n=8). Bacterial growth was shown in 60.0% (n=108) and 58.80% (n=141) of slaughterhouses’ halls samples and meat samples respectively. There was significant difference between state of growth of slaughterhouses’ halls sample and farm location (χ2=7.22 and P-value = 0. 027) while a high significant difference in association between state of growth of meat samples and slaughterhouses’ location (χ2=43.02 and P-value=0. 000) was revealed. The Gram positive and Gram negative isolates were mostly detected in workers’ hands 19.60% (n=56) and 4.36% (n=12) respectively. The difference between growth state of bacteria in slaughterhouses’ halls samples and sample sites was highly significant (χ2=30.92 and P-value=0.000) and the highest growth was shown in workers’ hands. On the other hand, most of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in processing steps were detected after defeathering 14.40% (n=41) and evisceration 2.49% (n=7) steps. However, there was no significant difference resulting from association of state of bacterial growth of poultry meat samples and different process steps (χ2=5.14 and P-value=0.162). Slaughterhouses’ halls samples and meat samples were found contaminated with harmful pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. 1.41% (n=4), Escherichia coli 9.51% )n=27(, Staphylococcus aureus 7.75% (n=22), Citrobacter frundi 1.41% (n=4), and Micrococcus kristanae 8.75% (n=24). In conclusion, effective adoption of HACCP PRPs and biosecurity measures in Khartoum State has not been given serious attention beside lack of knowledge, resources, and absence of official authority’s role. Absence of proper “Farm to Table” hygiene policy in broiler production negatively affects poultry meat hygiene and consequently threatens public health. Therefore, formulation of suitable procedures and regulations by official authorities for implementing HACCP PRPs and biosecurity measures are needed to ensure poultry meat hygiene from primary stages of production till the end product.
S. A. Baluka, L.N. Musisi, L. S. Y. Buyinza, F. Ejobi
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 67-71; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.364

Abstract:
Dairy cattle are common carriers of important foodborne pathogens. Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni are among the commonest causes of foodborne diseases. The high prevalence of microbial infections is escalating antimicrobial usage in human health and for growth promotion and prophylaxis in animal health. Overuse of antimicrobials is increasing antimicrobial residues in animal source foods and accelerating antimicrobial resistance. The study collected 184 samples from 33 dairy farms and assessed the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni and their AMR. Sample inoculation for bacterial isolation was by agar surface streaking method and broth dilution. Escherichia coli was isolated on Chromogenic Coliform agar at 37°C for 24 hour forming dark blue colonies confirmed by Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer and Citrate biochemical tests. Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by a single disc diffusion method against eight standard antibiotics. Sensitive, Intermediate and Resistant system was used for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility testing results. Escherichia coli was isolated in 21.7% samples, Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella were absent. Escherichia coli was isolated in fecal samples from 48.5% of study farms, 56.9% of fecal and 4.8% of water samples and not isolated in all milk samples tested. All Escherichia coli isolates were susceptible to gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime but 9 were resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone, produced 4 penicillinase and 1 beta-lactamase while 4 didn’t exhibit any specific resistance mechanism. Aminoglycosides, quinolones, and furans showed no resistance. When stratified by sample, 7 fecal Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance compared to 2 water isolates. All fecal and water isolates were resistant to oxacillin. The majority of Beta-lactamase and penicillinase producing isolates were from fecal samples. Oxacillin was widely resisted hence it should not be used in routine treatment of bacterial infections to avoid treatment failures. All Escherichia coli isolates were susceptible to gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime, 9 were resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone, produced 4 penicillinase and 1 beta-lactamase. Aminoglycosides, quinolones, and furans showed no resistance. There is a need to conduct continuous professional development training programmes for veterinarians and veterinary paraprofessionals to promote prudent use of antimicrobials. Access and use of gentamycin, ciproflaxacin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime by dairy farmers and unqualified people should be restricted to prevent or delay resistance to these four.
Prabin Chakma, Shaikh Shamim Hasan, S.M. Rafiquzzaman, Jahangir Alam
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 16-22; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.5.349

Abstract:
This study explores the status and potential of creek and pond as well as the attitude of the farmers towards pond and creek use. Following random sampling technique, a total of 60 fish farmers were sampled from Panchari Upazila, Khagrachari district of Bangladesh who were involved with pond and/or creek culture and they were interviewed through a predesigned questionnaire. The findings of the study indicated that most of the respondents belonged to above 50 years of age while 95% of them had small to medium (2-7 members) family size and about 72% of whom were literate either from primary to more than SSC level. Out of all the farmers, 85% of them had their own pond/creek and only 25% of them maintained communication with the fisheries related personnel (SUFO/UFO/others) to receive fish extension related information although, 36.7% of them didn’t receive any training on agriculture and aquaculture related issues. By producing different types of fishes, they earned an average BDT 35915.25 from aquaculture which helped them maintaining positive attitude towards ponds and creeks use. The respondents of the study area perceived that ponds/creeks fish culture helped to increase their family income in the hilly areas and also uplifted their self-employment. Out of all the farmers, 65% had moderately to highly favorable attitude towards ponds and creeks use. Linear regression analysis indicated that age, level of education, income from aquaculture, agricultural training received, and aquaculture training received of the farmers had significant contribution on their attitude. The respondents of the study area perceived that ponds/creeks fish culture helped to increase family income in the hilly areas and also uplifted their self-employment.
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