European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences

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EISSN : 2684-1827
Total articles ≅ 146
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Kakon Chakma, Umama Begum Ruba
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-5; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.284

Abstract:
Bangladeshi women are traditionally involved in various agricultural activities but most of their efforts remain unnoticed. To emphasize the significance of women's role in agricultural production, this paper highlights the major activities performed by Bangladeshi women in diverse agricultural production based on published literature. It was observed that Bangladeshi women are subjected to face social restrictions, but despite this, they are active participants in field and homestead crops production, poultry and livestock rearing, and fisheries management. They are predominantly involved in post-harvesting activities of field crops production. They retain control over all activities of homestead crops production. Management activities of poultry and livestock rearing, and fish culture are mostly performed by women. Women's involvement in such activities improves socioeconomic conditions by increasing household food security, family nutrition, and employment opportunities, all of which contribute to a more stable lifestyle. Bangladeshi women's contributions to agricultural production are noteworthy which should be recognized, appreciated, and valued.
Shaikh Shamim Hasan, Sidhyartha Roy, Soumitra Saha, Muhammad Ziaul Hoque
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 14-20; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.287

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the farmers’ perception on vermicompost as waste management practice and economic return at the Baliadangi and Sadar upazila of Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Utilizing the survey method and pretested interview schedule, data were collected by face-to-face interview from proportionate randomly selected 115 respondents. The findings of the study exhibited that on an average the respondents were 40 years of age with 4 members in their family and about 90% of them were educated either primary, secondary, or tertiary level. The respondents’ average family annual income was about 2870 USD and they earned an additional income of about 115 USD annually from vermicompost. Out of all the respondents 70% and 86% of them participated agricultural and vermicompost related training, respectively. Participation of different training programs helped the respondents to improve their knowledge on vermicomposting and vermiculture which was exhibited by their 88% moderate to better knowledge. Furthermore, 79% respondents exhibited moderately to highly favorable perception towards vermicompost as waste management practice and economic contribution. In addition, out of the selected attributes, five attributes, namely, respondents’ family size, family annual income, income from vermicompost, training received on vermicompost and knowledge of the respondents on vermicompost had significant contribution on the perception of vermicompost. As a whole, the findings of the study offer new empirical evidence on the farmers level perception to vermicompost as waste management practice which may be utilized by the policy makers to develop future policy to adopt and disseminate of the vermiculture technique to the general farmers of the country.
V. Ayodele Ijaware
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 7-13; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.282

Abstract:
Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) over the years play great role when integrated in the right way to study changes taken place on the planet. Most times, these changes are natural and beyond human interaction but often times too, the changes are occasioned by human factor in the search for development and daily survival. In achieving this, the forest is made to suffer unnecessarily thereby reducing its health status through excessive forest resources depletion. This study focusses on the monitoring of forest resource health in Akure forest reserve between 1972 and 2013 using Landsat MSS of 11/11/1972, Landsat TM of 17/12/1986, Landsat ETM+ of 03/01/2002, and Landsat ETM+ of 02/02/2013 downloaded from USGS website. Minimum Mahalanobis distance supervised classification was used to categorize land use pattern in the study area while ILWIS 3.2 Academic GIS was deployed to perform NDVI image classification analysis with a precision of 0.01m to determine the health status of the forest reserve. The analysis revealed that the total annual rate of depletion for 41 years stood at 2.46% while forest health status diminished during the study period as NDVI value ranged between -0.04to +0.44 (1972) to -1.0to +1.0 in 2013. The study recommends that open areas which are not homogeneous forest (shrub/grass land) detected in this study should be re-planted with varieties of tree species without delay to allow carbon sequestration for overall human benefits.
Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh, Pavel Rony Mbou Tadzo, Placide Deurnaye, Gabriel Djongnang, Zachee Ambang
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.231

Abstract:
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) trees are threatened by my many fungal diseases, among which pestaliotiopsis occupies an important place in terms of damage created in Cameroon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of neem seed (AENS) on the development of Pestalotia heterocornis, the causative agent of pestalotiopsis of cashew. Isolates of P. heterocornis were obtained from diseased cashew leaves collected in the orchads. The concentrations of AENS were C1 = 500 μg/ml, C2 = 50 μg/ml and C3 = 5 μg/ml. Mancozeb 80 WP (Mz) was used as positive control. Effect of Mancobeb 80WP on the growth and spore germination of isolates were performed. The effect of AENS on the plants was evaluated in vivo. Four (4) isolates of P. heterocornis were used. AENS C1 concentration reduced the growth of all isolates. The percentage of inhibition was ranged from 45 to 90 % with the other concentrations. AENS did not inhibited spore germination (0.0 %). But Mz totally inhibited conidia germination of all isolates. In vivo, AENS protected plants against P. heterocornis. AENS can be integrated in management of cashew plants against P. heterocornis.
Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo, Adrian E. Iglesias Reyes, Gustavo Ruiz Lang, Jorge Saltijeral Oaxaca, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Edmundo Abel Villa Mancera, Ma De Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Armando Gómez Vázquez, Pedro Sánchez Aparicio, Carlos J. Bedolla Cedeño, et al.
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 21-33; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.3.184

Abstract:
At the beginning of the 1980s, a series of very profound changes were initiated in the milk cow nutrition approaches, as a consequence of the highest levels of production per cow that were reached by the productive systems of the northern hemisphere. Nutrition is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions. When we consider the aspects that touch the field of nutrition of ruminants, we understand the importance of this group of animals of zootechnical interest, which are able to process plant components that are not consumed by other mammals, the structural carbohydrates (fiber). Ruminant comes from the word "rumen", which is the largest of the compartments in the stomach of four compartments of a bovine, sheep or goat. This structure is where microbial fermentation takes place. The ruminants, through evolutionary processes, developed life relationships with microorganisms which enabled them to use fiber as food, that is, they developed in some way their "food factory". They eat the forage to be transformed by the rumen's microbiota into substances that are the source of energy for the animal and for the microbial synthesis, the microbial cells are an excellent source of proteins for the animal. However, the processes that make the ruminal microbiota are, in a certain way, inefficient. Grass degradation produces volatile fatty acids, microbial protein and gases. Within these gases, some are environmental pollutants such as CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Millions of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi live in the rumen and degrade parts of the plant rich in energy, making them digestible to the animal host. After the forage has been digested in the rumen and degraded to smaller parts, it can pass through the reticulum and omasum, which function as colanders that trap large pieces of material preventing them from reaching the abomasum, or "true stomach", where digestion continues. The nutritional concern for ruminants focuses on energy (ie, carbohydrates), protein, minerals, vitamins, and water. The energy (carbohydrates) is responsible for the functions of growth and maintenance of the animal, and the generation of heat. The protein makes the tissue grow and performs other vital functions. Other nutrients and minerals such as vitamin A and E, calcium, phosphorus, and selenium can be fed to "free choice" as a mineral supplement. Dairy cows of high productive potential (9000-12000 / liters / lactation) currently represent a real challenge for nutrition. For many years, there has been evidence of the impact of nutrition on the reproductive behavior of the bovine female. The main factor that affects reproduction is the undernourishment due to the scarcity and quality of the food. Subsequent research has shown that nutritional effects are exerted through complex interrelations between various aspects such as: content and use of body reserves, distribution of nutrients between different systems and organs and prioritization of the use of nutrients for various functions in addition to reproduction.
Soshe Ahmed, Maksuda Begum, Afia Khatun, R Gofur, Ta Azad, Aurangazeb Kabir, Tasmin S. Haque
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 37-44; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.2.251

Abstract:
The study assessed the integrated gender issues of family poultry production in developing countries with evidence in Bangladesh. The result draws attention to the widespread acknowledgment of the critical roles of gender in family poultry production system. The results show that women hold the maximum of the ownership (90.58%, p=0.0001) and responsible for the caring of (93.94%, p=0.0001) family poultry in Bangladesh, likewise other developing countries. The result reveals that women control over the decision-making for the selling of eggs and birds in Bangladesh. Women mostly (94.58%) hold the knowledge useful in the prevention and treatment of poultry illness; however, their role was found low (3.46%) in buying medicine and vaccines for poultry as compared to men (96.54%) in Bangladesh. The findings show that women were nearly two times more willing than men to adopt improved rearing technologies related to family poultry production. Both women and men are impacted indifferently by lower adoption of scientific poultry-keeping technologies. Women are independently facing more problems in access to knowledge, training, services, marketing systems, and financial services related to family poultry production. Despite having many limitations, it is clear that family poultry empowers women through asset accumulation and increasing their decision-making ability in the families and the broader community. The study also highlights the necessity of considering an engendered approach in policy and operational level for the family poultry development.
Fadhili S. Guni, Said H. Mbaga, Andalwisye M. Katule
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 53-59; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.2.254

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of management, breed, and their interaction on growth performance, egg production, and survivability under on-station and on-farm management conditions in Tanzania. A total of 1200 chicks, 600 for each breed, Kuroiler, and Sasso of mixed sexes were used. Birds under on-station management were confined and fed commercial ration throughout the experiment while those under on-farm management were allowed to semi-scavenge and supplemented with available feeds in the household. Brooding was carried out on-station for six weeks. Thereafter, birds were sub-divided for on-station and on-farm evaluation where data on body weight, egg production traits, and survival rate were taken at different ages from week 6 up to 52. The General Linear Models procedure fitting management, breed, and interaction between management and breed was used to analyze the data. Results show that management conditions had a significant influence on the performance of the breeds. Birds reared on-station performed better in all traits measured than those reared on-farm. The general effect of the breed was significant only for hen-day egg production (HDEP %) and hen-housed egg production (HHEP) in favour of Sasso chickens. Similarly, Sasso was more efficient at converting feed to live body weight. Interactions between management and breed were observed for all traits except peak egg production rate and mortality rate. While Sasso performance was better than that of Kuroiler on body weight, age at first egg, HDEP, age at peak egg production, and HHEP under the on-station management system, their performance in these traits were similar under the on-farm management except for body weight and age at first egg where Kuroiler was superior to Sasso. The survivability was also higher for Kuroiler than for Sasso under both management systems. It is concluded that genotype by environment (GxE) interaction had significant effects on the performance of the two breeds thus, a need to consider such effect when promoting them for either on-station or on-farm rearing.
Paddy Ainebyona, Julia Kigozi, Ivan M. Mukisa
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 60-68; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.2.246

Abstract:
Bananas continue to experience high post-harvest losses of up to 45% due to limited value addition. The limiting factor being lack of key nutrients in the fruit hence the need to supplement banana with different ingredients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing ingredient type and concentration on functional properties and analyze the potential of developing an acceptable soup for children between 6 to 59 months using banana flour. Using Nutri-survey, grain amaranth, pumpkins, tomatoes, mushrooms and carrots were the selected ingredients. Design Expert was used to perform Response surface methodology (RSM) using a mixture design to establish the optimal ingredient concentrations. The optimal formulation constituted banana, grain amaranth, pumpkins, carrots and mushrooms at 41%, 41%, 9%, 5% and 4% respectively. Tomatoes were eliminated for its insignificant effect (p<0.05) to functional properties of the soup flour. The product had an energy composition of 409.39 kCal/100 g, peak viscosity of 2631.41 Cp while the holding viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, peak time, carbohydrates, proteins and zinc contents were 1430.11 Cp, 1209.57 Cp, 2495.29 Cp, 4.9 minutes, 65.38%, 14.86% and 13.50 g/100 g respectively. Mathematical models predicting variation of gross energy, protein content, fiber content and ash content were significant at p<0.05. The results suggest that a nutritious soup can be obtained from banana flour.
Evelyn Mnguchivir Tersoo-Abiem, Stephen Sule, Izuchukwu Iwuamadi, Esther Obiye Awulu
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 63-67; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.2.261

Abstract:
The study was carried out in order to establish the suitability of fermented soybean condiment as an alternative to fermented locust bean condiment in meal preparations. The dried fermented condiments were subjected to chemical, microbial and sensory evaluation using standard methods. Results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (54.06%), ash (6.21%), crude fat (14.15%) and pH (8.90) content in fermented soybean condiment. Higher values of 44.72 mg/100 g, 20.06 mg/100 g, 612.40 mg/100 g and 164.34 mg / 100 g were also observed in fermented soybean condiment with respect to iron, magnesium, potassium, and calcium respectively. Furthermore, fermented soybean condiment revealed significantly (p0.05) between the condiments in terms of their sensory attributes. Sensory scores for fermented soybean condiment were however higher than that of fermented African locust bean. From this study, soybean condiment may be a suitable substitute to locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) condiment, following the gradual extinction of the plant.
D. S. Honcharov, N. A. Tkachenko, V. G. Nikolaieva
European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Volume 3, pp 45-48; doi:10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.2.252

Abstract:
Pure phytosterols that are sparingly soluble in oils were subjected to a transesterification reaction using the catalyst sodium methylate in a mixture of palm stearin: palm oil: sunflower oil. As a comparison, transesterification was performed under the same conditions without the addition of phytosterols. To determine the qualitative composition of the mixture transesterified with phytosterols, analyzes were performed on the fatty acid composition, sterol composition, and melting point. The resulting product differed from the control by the presence of a characteristic odor, sterol composition, melting point.
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