Volume 4 Issue 1

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2616-9754 / 2663-1040
Published by: Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (10.34091)
Total articles ≅ 67
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

, M.S. Al- Ghamdi
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.19

Abstract:
Photorhabdus is lives in a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Bacteria of the Photorhabdus can survive independently and cause toxicity in a larger variety of insects. In the present study, insecticidal activity of non-portentous heat-stable metabolites of Photorhabdus luminescens was evaluated against Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, the culture extract of P. luminescens was injected into the G. mellonella larvae, which killed almost 90% of larvae within 48 h. The extract showed 100% insecticidal activity after heat treatment of 70 C for 30 min and even 60% and 40% activity lasted at 80 C and 90 C respectively. The extract also showed a high degree of thermal stability and was 100% actives after 60 min at 70 C. In addition, insecticidal activity was preserved up to 100% after all proteinase-K treatments (0 ?g/mL to 50 ?g/mL). The results revealed that the extracts were non-portentous and showed high thermal resistance and stability. Keywords: Photorhabdus, insecticidal activity, toxins, heat stable non-proteinaceous
Naila Gandahi, , Mir Yar Muhammad Khan Talpur, Nasreen Fatima, Tanweer Fatah Abro, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Asadullah Mari, Liaquat Ali Bhutto, Rong Shu Zhang
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 119-126; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.14

Abstract:
The present study was designed to assess genetic divergence between commercial bread wheat genotypes based on yield and its related traits and to carry out phenotypic correlation. Twenty bread hexaploid wheat varieties were assessed for mean performance, correlation analysis and genetic distance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications during growing season, 2018-2019 at Wheat and Barley Research Institute, Tandojam. The mean squares depicted significant differences (P<0.01) for all the investigated traits among the tested genotypes, proving that used genetic resources possess a great potential for further breeding experiments. Regarding mean performance, the genotypes Sassui and TD-1 displayed desirable performance for a variety of traits, unveiling their importance in wheat breeding programs. The results also showed that tillers plant-1, grains spike-1 and seed index developed significantly positive (P<0.05) interrelationship with grain yield plant-1. This demonstrates that genotypes possessing higher extent of these traits may be chosen in selection for developing high yielding bread wheat genotypes. The larger genetic distance was witnessed between Johar-78 and TD-1, followed by SKD-1 and TJ-83, SKD-1 and Mehran-89, SKD-1 and Johar-78, TD-1 and Khirman, TJ-83 and Imdad-05, Mehran-89 and TD-1 and Johar-78 and TJ-83. These paired showed wide genetic distances, which may also be preferred in wheat hybridization program. Keywords: Genetic distance, hexaploid wheat, morphological traits, trait
, Rabea Ejaz, Asma Ul Husna, Asima Azam, Syeda Laila Rubab, Ghulam Nabi, , Shamim Akhter
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 80-85; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.4.10

Abstract:
The current study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidative effect of L-Carnitine at post thawing following cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo sperm. For this purpose, semen from three buffalo bulls were collected for 3 weeks using an artificial vagina (N=18; replicates). The qualified ejaculates were diluted employing tris-citric acid extender i.e., control did not receive any L-Carnitine and experimental groups having 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ng/mL of L-carnitine at 37 C with approximately 50 x 106 sperm/mL. The semen was cooled at 4 C and then equilibrated (4 hours), filled in straws (0.5 mL) at4 C, placed on LN2 vapours for 10 min, and kept into an LN2 container. The thawed semen was evaluated for post-thaw quality. The integrity of the sperm plasma membrane and motility (P?0.05) was highest in the extenders having 1.0 ng/mL of L-carnitine as compared to the control(received no L-Carnitine). However, sperm chromatin integrity and viability(live sperm with intact acrosome) remained similar. It was concluded that supplementing 1.0 ng/mL L-Carnitine of extender can improve the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved sperm. Based on the results of the current experiments it is recommended to include L-carnitine extender to improve post-thaw quality of buffalo sperm in terms of its motility and integrity ofits plasma membrane. Keywords: Buffalo, Sperm, Cryopreservation, Extender, L-Carnitine, Artificial insemination.
Amrah Inam, Zia Alam, Obaid Ullah Shah, Misbah, Fanxiong Shi
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 95-111; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.12

Abstract:
Stem cell technology is demonstrating promising advancements in cure of diseases due its differentiation ability. Type 1 diabetes is mainly caused by autoimmune ? cells destruction. In this review, we focus on treatment procedures of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) with numerous stem cells (SCs) i.e hPSCs, MSCs, hESCs, BMSCs, AFSCs, HSCs and islet cells (that are not stem cells but they are approved worldwide and are being successfully used to permanently reverse T1D). A brief overview of this disease along with the advancements in treatment of T1D with stem cells is discussed. Biomaterial encapsulation to avoid immune rejection and improved immunomodulation and immune tolerance via drugs /bioengineering techniques makes the outcomes of SC therapies more efficient and productive, hence, proving to be another future milestone of completely reversing type 1 diabetes especially in those patients who got clinically diagnosed at an early stage and then received prompt treatment of either restoration of already available ? cells functionality or transplantation of purified and functional SCs differentiated insulin producing cells to normalize the glycemic control and homeostasis. Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes, ?-cells, Stem cells, Biomaterial
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 61-64; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.7

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the effects of COVID-19 on macro-plastic pollution and to consider short-term and long-term scenarios for its possible environmental and human health consequences and to discuss possible strategies to address and overcome key challenges. It was emphasized that, whether or not they are involved in a healthy health crisis, future actions should reflect the balance between public health and environmental protection, as there is no doubt that they are interrelated with bioremediation and microbial metabolism in the presence of optimal environmental conditions. Bioremediation uses natural and psychological microorganisms to break down toxic and harmful substances aerobically and anaerobically. It can be handled by a mixed microbial consortium or pure microbial strains on site (in situ) or off site (in the case of case) Phyto therapy or even natural care. Nutrients suitable for impurities, especially petroleum hydrocarbons are researched technologies for us, for this a biotechnological approach designed for bioremediation and observation. COVID 19 Pandemic pushed the world into a new challenge of waste management. In general, physicochemical technologies are used, which allow for proper ecological biomedical processes. Some bacteria are mobile, feel the contamination, and move towards it to neutralize it. This review emphasizes on current pollution, which is result of COVID 19 pandemic, as people follow use and discard strategies for different things which is a threat to our environment. Keywords: Environment, waste management, COVID 19.
, Haseeb Ullah, Farooq Hussain, Muhsin Jamal, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Shah, Ayaz Ahmad, Jawad Khan, Faheem Anwar, Nabila
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.8

Abstract:
The disease tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) is most common infectious disease in developing countries. The disease is fatal if not treated during the early stages of infection, thereby early and precise detection is a decisive step in curing the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of tuberculosis in patients reporting to Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), located in the district Mardan, KPK, Pakistan. The sputum of patients was analysed by Ziehl-Nilsen (ZN) staining technique followed by light microscopy called Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining. The sputum samples were collected from the patients and analysed by special PCR method called GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, for genomic detection and resistance assay for rifampicin antibiotic were used, are the commonly used medicine for the treatment of MTB infection. Total 121 patients reported to MMC, represented 74 % patients from Mardan, 12% from Nowshera and 14% from Swabi. These patients were screened for the aim to evaluate the techniques for the detection of MTB. The light microscopy method confirmed 66 (55%) of the patients positive for MTB, whereas the same samples reported 78 (68%) patients positive for MTB through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, The Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) found for light microscopy were 99% and 78.1% respectively. The most used drug rifampicin was found ineffective in 9 patients (7%). Additionally, 83% of the patients when interviewed had a folk history of tuberculosis. Keywords: Microscopy, PCR, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rifampicin.
Fiza Mohsin, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Waqas Ashraf, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Rizwan Mahmood, Muhammad Muntazir, Mehdi Khan
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 86-94; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.11

Abstract:
Helminthosporium oryzae, the causal organism of bacterial leaf spot (BLS) has brought a tremendous loss of rice crop in the field. Rice seedlings of four commercial varieties (Nayab basmati, Kiran 434, Super basmati, and Pak 386) were screened against BLS in the field by using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The present experiment was encompassed the evaluation of fermented farmyard manure, leaf manure, Boron, and NPK solution against BLS. The effect of different fungicides (Score, Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram) was also checked on the mycelial growth of Helminthosporium oryzae in-vitro and in-vivo. The results showed that Pak 386 was highly resistant with 17.22% disease severity and Super Basmati was found moderately resistant with 22.31% disease severity; variety Kisan 434 was found moderately susceptible (24.15%) and Nayab Basmati (24.82%) was susceptible. Among all NPK solutions showed the best results in growth enhancement, plant vigor as well as reduction in disease severity followed by FFYM, boron and leaf manure. Under in-vitro conditions, all the fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes. The fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes. Keywords: HBV, HCV, ICT, PCR, Risk factors, Mansehra
Muhammad Ashraf, Sajjad-Ur- Rahman, , Rizwan Aslam, Sultan Ali, Abdul Jabbar
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 145-151; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.17

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide issue and becoming more problematic due to extensive misuse of antibiotics. The present study was aimed to analyze role of Lactobacillus in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (tetM, ermB, sul2) to Salmonella and verification of these genes by real time polymerase chain reaction. A total of thirty fecal samples (15 were indigenous and 15 were broilers) were collected and analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that there was high expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Lactobacillus in case of broiler chicken than indigenous ones indicating Lactobacillus as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes but found to be non-significant in transferring these genes to Salmonella. In conclusion, the excessive use of animal growth promoters in poultry assists in acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes by normal micro-biota. Keywords: Broiler, Non-significant, Antibiotic resistance, Real time polymerase chain
Hafiz Umair Hassan, , Hafiz Muhammad Usman Siddiq, Fahad Ahmed, Hafiz Hanan Taj, Muhammad Farhan Rashid, Sami Ullah
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 28-39; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.4

Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial illness triggered by a complicated interplay of various genetic variants with various environmental variables. The quantity of replicated common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly with the recent genome-wide association (GWA) research. Major health issue in the public are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common throughout the world. Diabetes mellitus incidence is growing and is anticipated to affect 300 million individuals by 2025. Diabetes has been suggested to alter patterns of cytokine expression as an immune-dependent illness. Insulin resistance (IR) is a disease that results in less than anticipated biological impact of a specified insulin concentration. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion decreased are both defined pathophysiology of T2DM. One of the most alarming health issues of the 21st century is the spread of diabetes around the globe. Our goal in this study was to identify the role of IL-10 polymorphism in T2DM patients. The average age of 60 median patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (31 males and 29 females) +-SD (45.91667 +-16.08799), fasting blood sugar (FBS) is +-SD (184.25 +-57.76387), hypertension (35 positive/25 negative) and 60 non-diabetic controls (32 males and 28 females) is +- SD (47.31667 +-15.13722). The group (T2DM patients and their control) had not a substantial distinction (P=0.33) and in each group (CC, TT, CT) there was a comparison between IL-10 gene polymorphism. T2DM patients and healthy individuals are not associated with the polymorphism of the gene IL-10 (SNP rs 3021097 (C/T). Keywords: Insulin, Diabetes Mellitis Type 2, Polymorphism, Interleukin-10, Genotype frequencies.
, Hayat Ullah, Khaliq Noor, Maliha Sarfraz, Misbah Ullah Khan, Uzma Bibi, Ghulam Nabi, Maheen Kanwal, Kainat Ramzan, Ahmed M. Metwaly
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 40-50; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.5

Abstract:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of disease and death particularly in cystic fibrosis patients and also considered resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, it is very difficult to remove the Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the hospital environment by using simple techniques. In the contemporary study, biofilm mediated mechanism of various antimicrobial responses were analyzed. For this purpose, different Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected from Pakistan medical institute Islamabad (PIMS) hospital and were investigated for pellicle formation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were studied for different groups of antibiotics including imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, tobramycin, gentamicin, piperacillin, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. The goal was to check antimicrobial susceptibility of pseudomonas aeruginosa which shows resistant to tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefoperazone. Additionally, in this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were also investigated for pellicle formation. In conclusion, this research work wills highlights the useful mechanism of antibiotics resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in clinical practice. Keywords: Antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotics, Biofilm, Peliclle.
Back to Top Top