Abasyn Journal Life Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2616-9754 / 2663-1040
Current Publisher: Abasyn University (10.34091)
Total articles ≅ 32
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 10-24; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.2

Abstract:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEBPA gene have been found to be associated with cancer especially Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Therefore, the identification of functional and structural polymorphisms in CEBPA is important to study and discover therapeutics targets and potential malfunctioning. For this purpose, several bioinformatics tools were used for the identification of disease-associated nsSNPs, which might be vital for the structure and function of CEBPA, making them extremely important. In silico tools used in this study included SIFT, PROVEAN, PolyPhen2, SNP&GO and PhD-SNP, followed by ConSurf and I-Mutant. Protein 3D modelling was carried out using I-TASSER and MODELLER v9.22, while GeneMANIA and string were used for the prediction of gene-gene interaction in this regard. From our study, we found that the L345P, R333C, R339Q, V328G, R327W, L317Q, N292S, E284A, R156W, Y108N and F82L mutations were the most crucial SNPs. Additionally, the gene-gene interaction showed the genes having correlation with CEBPA’s co-expressions and importance in several pathways. In future, these 11 mutations should be investigated while studying diseases related to CEBPA, especially for AML. Being the first of its kind, future perspectives are proposed in this study, which will help in precision medicine. Animal models are of great significance in finding out CEBPA effects in disease.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 66-72; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.6

Abstract:
Catalase activity in response to binary metal mixture of Zn + Ni was studied in gills, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of Catla catla. A total of 30 fish fingerlings were kept in two glass aquaria (15 in controlled condition and 15 in metal mixture containing aquarium) for the period of two weeks. After the completion of the trial period, fish were dissected for different organ collection. The extracted organs were homogenized in phosphate buffer (50 mM; pH 7.0). The activity of catalase was determined by absorption at 240 nm by using the standard methods. The inferences showed higher catalase activity in liver (223.33 ±1 UmL-1), kidney (163.33 ± 0.7 UmL-1), gills (123.33 ±0.9 UmL-1) and cardiac (120 ±3 UmL-1) tissues of Zn + Ni treated fish in comparison to controlled fish liver (116.66 ±2 UmL-1), kidney (101.66 ±1 UmL-1), gills (96.66 ±0.66 UmL-1) and cardiac tissues (70 ±0.33 UmL-1) in this study. Statistically, significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 was observed for catalase activity between Zn + Ni stressed and control fish groups. While, in different organs of both group of fishes the catalase activity order was observed as hepatic > renal > gills > heart. Findings of this study would be helpful in monitoring aquatic ecosystems using fish antioxidant system which acts as a bio-indicator of metal contamination.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 93-99; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.9

Abstract:
In Pakistan, wheat flour is mostly utilized for making flat breads locally called chapattis. Other uses of wheat flour are in bakery products manufacturing. It is an important constituent of daily diet of people. Shelf life of wheat flour is one of the most important factors for its quality determination. Wheat flour is often tainted with pathogenic fungal species and their toxic secondary metabolites called Mycotoxins. The present study was designed to make a comparative analysis of Microbiological quality (fungal load and total coliform count) and detection of aflatoxins in raw and branded whole wheat flour samples of Lahore Metropolitan city. Total 100 samples were collected for determination of fungal load, coliform and aflatoxins. The Standardized methods were applied to count the colony forming units of fungal species and total coliform bacteria respectively. The results indicated both branded and raw whole wheat flour groups were of good quality for human consumption. However, the microbiological quality of branded whole flour was better than raw whole wheat flour. There was a significant difference (P
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 100-110; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.10

Abstract:
This research was aimed to assess the physicochemical properties of seven edible oils, i.e., almond oil, castor oil, cooking oil, mustard oil, pumpkin oil, black seed oil and egg oil collected from local market, Mansehra. Their chemical and physical properties were also compared to the recommended levels set as a standard by WHO/FAO to find out whether they are suitable and safe to be used by human beings. Among the chemical characteristics, acid values, saponification values and peroxide values were determined while the physical properties that were studied included density, specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content and viscosity. All these assays were performed using standardized assays/protocols. From the results, it can be illustrated that most of the physicochemical parameters are in line with the standard values as evident from the results. However, some value shows deviation, for instance, the acid values of all studied oil samples except almond oil, cooking oil and pumpkin oil exceed the recommended value of 0.6. In addition, the saponification value of almond oil and black seed oil, while peroxide value of pumpkin oil are above the recommended range. So, it can be concluded that most of these oils whose studied parameters are according to permissible limits are safe for human consumption.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 145-155; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.14

Abstract:
Brooder pneumonia is a common respiratory problem during brooding period of poultry. It is most frequently caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Use of azole drugs for treatment and prophylaxis results in resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether the phytochemicals of Eucalyptus globulus are modulating resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Lung samples n = 50 of dead broiler chicks were collected from different farms of Lahore. Out of 50 lung samples 28 % (14) were considered positive for Aspergillus fumigatus after observing their macroscopic, microscopic characteristics and by performing PCR by amplifying ITS1-ITS4 gene (597 base pairs) and RodA gene (313 base pairs). Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test was performed 14 isolates (100 %) were resistant towards both Fluconazole and Ketoconazole whereas 11 (78.57 %) were resistant towards Itraconazole. Eucalyptus globulus leaves were collected, and these were identified. Three solvent extracts were prepared. Maximum yield was of ethanolic extract. Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Highest antifungal activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus Ethanol followed by chloroform and hexane extract showed no activity against any isolate then minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts that previously showed antifungal activity against isolates were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Modulation effect was checked by combining antifungal drug one by one with subinhibitory concentration of plant extract evaluated previously by broth microdilution method. 5 isolates were subjected into this experiment which are all sensitive towards Eucalyptus globulus ethanol and chloroform extracts tested previously in agar well diffusion test and MIC values were also evaluated. It was concluded that when Itraconazole was combined with E. globulus Ethanol extract then resistance was modified. Data of modulation was analyzed by One-way ANOVA and it reported P value of
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 129-137; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.12

Abstract:
Hepatitis A is an infectious disorder of the liver prompted by Hepatovirus A virus (HAV). It is a kind of viral hepatitis. It has naked nucleocapsid virus with a single stranded, positive polarity RNA. It is devoid of virion polymerase and has a single serotype. Transmission is via fecal–oral route. In contrast to Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus, blood borne transmission of HAV is infrequent because viremia is short-term and of low titer. Mostly instances, have few or no signs, specifically in younger ones. The virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to the liver during a short-term viremic period. HAV is not cytopathic for the hepatocyte. Hepatocellular injury is triggered by immune attack by the cytotoxic T cells. The time among the infection and signs, in patients that progress them, is among two and six weeks. When the signs occur, they commonly last 8 weeks and might encompass nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, pain in abdomen and fever. Around 10 to 15 percent of patients undergo a recurrence of signs at some stage in the six months after the preliminary infection. Acute liver failure may also seldom occur, with this being extra regular in elderly. No antiviral medication is available. The most suitable test to diagnose acute infection is IgM antibody. Isolation of the virus from clinical samples is not done. Vaccine consists of killed virus. Administration of immune globulin in the course of the incubation can alleviate the disease.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 73-81; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.7

Abstract:
Bacterial microbiota is predominantly present in all living organisms. Most of the bacteria present in the gut of the fish are contaminating the food chain. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and characterize the bacteria in the gut of Epinephelus sp. in the red sea of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Bacteria were isolated from the guts of 10 fish samples and were grown on Luria Bertani (LB) and nutrient agar media. Total thirteen bacterial colonies were screen out by morphological identification i.e., color, shape, structure, etc. which were further reduced to 7 colonies e.g., IF001, IF002, F003, IF004, F005, IF006, and IF007. The bacterial isolates were also identified through molecular identification using 16S-rDNA sequencing. The genomic DNA was isolated and was sequenced using the Sanger® sequencing method. BLAST alignment results that IF001 and IF002 were members Bacillus sp. IF003 was a strain of photobacterium damselae, IF004 and IF006 were strains of Rothia endophytica, IF005 was a strain of Acinetobacter bouvetiiand IF007 was belonged to Shewanella oneidensis. The molecular identification confirmed the identification of bacterial isolates in the Epinephelus sp. obtained from the red sea.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 156-163; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.15

Abstract:
Enteric fever is the massive bacterial disease in global and caused by Salmonella typhi. It is known that humans are the only natural host and reservoir for S. typhi. That transmits enteric fever through the fecal-oral route through the ingestion of infected water and food. The prevalence rate is high in South Central and South-East Asian countries recorded as (>100/100,000) cases per year. The aim of designing of the present study, there is no specific epidemiology report present at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Total of 500 blood samples were collected from patients showing sign and symptoms of enteric fever. Sample collected from different government and private hospitals, medical laboratories, and health organizations from November 2013 to April 2014. Immuno chromatographic technique (ICT) was used for the detection of enteric fever via typhoid test kit. Out of 500 samples, 368 (73.6 %) patients were found serologically negative while 132 (26.4%) were positive. Among the positive samples, 42 (31.8%) were adult samples that included 25 IgM, 12 IgG and 5 both IgM and IgG. Infected children of age 13-15 years were 30 (22.72%) with IgM 19, IgG 8 and both IgM and IgG 3. Thirty-one (31) samples were positive among children of age group 5-12 years with 15 IgM positive, 10 IgG positive and 3 both IgM and IgG positive. Furthermore, 29 (21.96 %) were positive among children of age group 1-4 years. This high incidence of enteric fever among susceptible outdoor patients and laboratories patient show that enteric fever is a serious health problem in Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Preventive measures such as vaccination, maintaining food hygiene and awareness campaign are required in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad for the eradication of enteric fever.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 184-192; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.18

Abstract:
This study aimed to estimate genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance for morphological characters in Brassica carinata L. A total of 22 genotypes comprised of six parental lines and their 16 bulk F2 populations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2013-14. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, primary branches plant-1, main raceme length, pods on main raceme, pod length, number of seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, and seed yield plant-1. Significant genetic differences were observed for all the traits studied. Among parental lines, C-93 performed better for primary branches plant-1 (11 branches), main raceme length (59.57 cm), pods on main raceme-1 (33 pods), and seeds pod-1 (15 seeds), C-95 for pod length (4.04 cm) and seed yield plant-1 (12.26 g). Among F2 populations, C-97 x C-88 performed better for main raceme length (73.20 cm), pods on main raceme (41 pods), C-88 x C-93 for pod length (4.95 cm), seeds pod-1 (18 seeds), and seed yield plant-1 (14.71 g). Moderate (30 < h2 ≤ 60) to high (h2 > 60) broad-sense heritability was observed for all morphological traits with maximum genetic advance, hence indicated that selection could be effective in the early generation for the improvements of these studied traits. Generally, cross combinations C-88 x C-93, C-97 x C-95, C-90 x C-93, and C-97 x C-88 performed better than their parental lines for morphological (primary branches plant-1, seeds pod-1, and seed yield plant-1) traits and could be exploited for varietal development in future brassica breeding programs.
Published: 31 December 2020
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 193-199; doi:10.34091/ajls.3.2.19

Abstract:
Pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. responsible for destroying qualitative and quantitative losses to most stored grains. Once the damage done by the beetle, the grains lose their nutritional and germination capacity and become unfit for either consumption. Seed treatment still mainly relies on heavy synthetic chemicals which cause residual effect and threaten public health. However, the natural plant products containing insecticidal activity have recently displayed a great scope as they tend to come up with low mammalian toxicity, less effect on environmental and broad public adoption. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with variable doses of Eruca sativa L. seed oil (0.5 ml, 1 ml, and 1.5 ml) against C. chinensis. The data were recorded for corrected mortality, repellent effects, and seed protectant at different intervals (24, 48, 72 hrs and 1 week). We found the higher corrected mortality (32.65%) at 1.5ml after 24 hrs. Later, the mortality percentage decreased at different intervals but remained higher at maximum dose of E. sativa. However, the overall highest mortality of C. chinensis was 50.00% at 1.5 ml and the lowest 41.00% at 0.5 ml. Meanwhile, the index showed repellent effect with R.I value
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