Two centuries of the Russian classics

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EISSN : 2686-7494
Total articles ≅ 114
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Igor A. Vinogradov
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-6-57

Abstract:
The creative history of N. V. Gogol’s article “What is Finally the Essence of Russian Poetry and Its Peculiarity,” the most voluminous chapter of his book “Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends” (1847), and its relation to the poem “Dead Souls” are studied. Three long stages of Gogol’s work on the article, which ended with the burning of manuscripts, and the fourth, which ended with its publication, reveal a close connection with the content of the poem. Evidence of simultaneous maturation of the ideas of the article and the poem in the 1830s is summarized. It is proved that the article was prepared by Gogol for P. A. Pletnev’s journal “Sovremennik.” Unknown data on the second stage of work on the article in 1841–1842 are introduced into scientific circulation, the expansion of concept of the article at the third stage in 1843–1845, which led to its inclusion in the book of letters to friends in 1846, is traced. It is emphasized that, created over more than ten years, the article contains the final reflections of the writer on the importance of literature in the public and state life of Russia and is an irreplaceable auto-commentary to “Dead Souls.”
Valeria G. Andreeva
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-118-165

Abstract:
The article raises the issue of L. N. Tolstoy’s creative assimilation of the themes, discoveries and artistic images of N. V. Gogol. Referring mainly to the late period of the writers’ work, the author indicates the parallelism of their path. Tolstoy felt the similarity of philosophical and artistic complexities that confronted him and his predecessor, at a certain moment he admitted that he was following Gogol, “our Pascal.” It is noted that Tolstoy’s great interest in “Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends” in the late 1880s forced him to rethink Gogol’s work, and turn to the poem “Dead Souls” to find a harmonious pairing of denunciation of modern vices with the thought of the timeliness of repentance and the joy of the coming Resurrection. The article makes a significant comparison of the landlords from Gogol’s poem “Dead Souls” and the officials from Tolstoy’s novel “Resurrection,” it is noted that against the background of the general satirical manner of narration in the poem and the epic novel, the writers turned to the difficult conditions for the survival of the Russian people, from the position of which everything that happens in their artistic worlds is estimated.
Nikolay A. Degterev
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-178-191

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the analysis of relationship between the categories of sacred and profane in “Essays of Bursa” by N. G. Pomyalovsky. The author examines various concepts of the sacred. There are two main concepts among them. The first one is the conventionally “institutional” sacred, correlated with the social sphere of religion. The second one is conventionally “ontological” sacred, associated with the “fullness of life, existence.” The author analyzes specific fragments of the text and comes to the conclusion that each of these concepts is reflected in the work. However, the author’s main idea is that the “institutional” sacred, represented by the phenomena of church (liturgical, educational) life, is profaned in “Essays of Bursa.” On the contrary, the phenomena of the profane life of students (games, relationships), which can be correlated with the “carnival, festive” attitude, are sacralized.
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-192-201

Abstract:
The article establishes and clarifies the sources of N.V. Gogol’s notes “Yegory in Spring,” “Nikola in Spring,” “Yuri in Autumn,” “Nikola in Winter.” G. P. Georgievsky was the first who drew attention to these sources, pointing out that Gogol’s notes are extracts from the “People’s Diary” of the doctor, ethnographer, archaeologist, paleographer and writer Ivan Petrovich Sakharov (1807–1863) in his book “Tales of the Russian People.” “People’s Diary” is combined by I. P. Sakharov with “Folk Holidays and Customs” in “Russian Folk Anniversary,” which is a part of his book “Tales of the Russian People.” The work emphasizes that, along with the complete coincidence of a number of texts of Gogol’s notes with the texts of the source, there are some discrepancies. As a result of a comparative study of the texts, it was established that Gogol’s texts are extracts not only from the “People’s Diary,” but also from “Folk Holidays and Customs,” combined with the “People’s Diary” in the “Russian Folk Anniversary” in the book by I. P. Sakharov “Tales of the Russian People.”
Olga N. Smyslova
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-166-177

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the peculiarity of artistic expression of the theme of money in “A Writer’s Diary” by F. M. Dostoevsky. The article indicates that Dostoevsky’s journalistic style is characterized by the use of metaphor as an artistic term that can accurately designate the phenomena of current reality and give them a social, cultural or philosophical interpretation. Such metaphorical concepts (“soil,” “earth,” “roots,” “golden age,” “golden bag,” etc.) in the writer’s journalism usually grow out of stable ideologemes, idioms or mythologemes universal for Russian culture, but acquire new meanings. The author of the article determines that the metaphor “golden bag” is used in those essays of “A Writer’s Diary” which discuss the problem of the cult of material goods, which penetrated all strata of Russian society of the 1870s. Dostoevsky, appealing to the well-known idiom “golden bag,” starts from its fixed definition of a “very rich man,” creates a metaphorical image of money, profit and greed, gaining power over modern man, then synonymously brings us closer to the idiom of the “golden calf,” which is not represented in “A Writer’s Diary.”
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-228-241

Abstract:
The article discusses the ways and methods of implementing the plan of St. Theophan to compose the Gospel story according to the four canonical books of the evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The creative history of the book is restored on the basis of St. Theophan’s letters to the Athos monk Arseny (Minin) and N. V. Elagin, as well as the bishop’s articles “Lessons from the deeds and words of the Lord and God and our Savior Jesus Christ” and “Instructions according to which everyone can compose a consistent Gospel story from the four Gospels by himself.” An analysis of the four-part structure of the book is undertaken. As an example of St. Theophan’s deep reading of the gospel text, the stories about the calling of fishermen by the Lord, about His visit to the house of Martha and Mary and the farewell conversation with the disciples are considered. A kind of inserted episode of creative history was revealed — St. Theophan’s editing of the famous three-volume work of the same name by Archpriest Pavel Matveevsky. The main feature of St. Theophan’s work, in comparison with the other Gospel stories, consists in the distribution of events into periods and departments, not so much by the time of their accomplishment, but by place.
Symeon (Vladislav V.) Tomachinskiy
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-58-67

Abstract:
N. V. Gogol loved Italy, was fluent in Italian and created “Dead Souls” mainly in Rome. The article notes that Chichikov’s journey in the poem “Dead Souls” partly echoes the journey presented by Dante in “The Divine Comedy.” The poems of Dante and Gogol begin with the image of road, each of the works has its own guide and direction of movement. But if in Dante’s work the movement is vertical, in “Dead Souls” it is horizontal. The article proves that Dante’s journey, although an incredibly difficult and dangerous test, appears to be a meaningful, logical, elegantly constructed way. This is the path through Hell and Purgatory to Paradise, to God, in which the whole Roman soul of the poet is expressed with his love for order, harmony, justice, legal and moral explanation of each step. Chichikov’s journey is a dangerous illegal adventure, his movement is chaotic, random, dictated by momentary circumstances. His trio of horses is rushing at full gallop in an unknown direction and with an unknown purpose. The article also proposes a version of the origin of the protagonist’s surname — Chichikov, associated with the Italian word “chichirone,” which means “guide, conductor.”
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-242-271

Abstract:
The article is an analytical review of the two-volume special issue of Turkey’s largest monthly literary journal “HECE” dedicated to the 200th anniversary of F. M. Dostoevsky. More than 80 scientists from Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran and America took part in the anniversary collective work. The problematic and thematic diversity of the prepared issue reflects relevance and enduring significance of the great Russian writer’s key ideas for the modern world. Works in the issue, emphasizing the depth and indissoluble unity of Dostoevsky’s moral and ethical concepts, and the artistic and aesthetic systems created by him, also convince readers of the inexhaustible potential inherent in the literary heritage of the brilliant thinker and artist. Studies of Dostoevsky’s novels, short stories and journalistic works, collected under the same cover of the journal, are considered in the context of the writer’s entire literary work and in connection with the main vectors of the world literary process. The publication brilliantly implementes the idea of the head of the “HECE” publishing company Mr Omer Faruk Ergezen, and is carried out with high professionalism of the editor, Professor of Ankara University Birsen Karaca.
, Anastasia V. Sin
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-202-227

Abstract:
The article deals with the issue of correct pronunciation of the surname of Konstantin Levin — a character from L. N. Tolstoy’s novel Anna Karenina. According to the writer’s youngest daughter A. L. Tolstaya and his great grandson I. V. Tolstoy, the author of the novel and all his family pronounced it like “Lévin.” This tradition is currently preserved in the L. N. Tolstoy State Museum in Moscow and in L. N. Tolstoy Museum-Estate ‘Yasnaya Polyana’. Apart from the spoken tradition there is also a written tradition originated from L. N. Tolstoy himself. Manuscripts of Anna Karenina attest to the fact that L. N. Tolstoy, S. A. Tolstaya and all other copyists always wrote “Levin,” letter “ё” (“yo”) being used in necessary cases. N. N. Strakhov who helped L. N. Tolstoy prepare the first separate edition of Anna Karenina (1878) wrote in the same manner. The tradition of spelling the surname of the character as “Levin” is registered in all lifetime and posthumous editions of Anna Karenina as well as in translations into foreign languages. However there is a contradiction in spelling “Lyovin” in two private letters of L. N. Tolstoy’s contemporaries (I. S. Aksakov and K. N. Leontiev), who were not in his inner circle, and a viewpoint of V. V. Nabokov claiming that L. N. Tolstoy derived the character’s surname from his own name Lyov used at home.
Two centuries of the Russian classics, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.22455/2686-7494-2022-4-1-68-117

Abstract:
“Dead Souls” by N. V. Gogol, the novel trilogy by I. A. Goncharov, “The Brothers Karamazov” by F. M. Dostoevsky form the line of “Dante’s epic” in Russian literature. Solving the problems of historical mission of Russia in the modern world and the fate of modern Russian man in a purely theological key, all three authors deeply and creatively comprehended the question of three-part structure of “The Divine Comedy.” Within the framework of “national utopia” (Gogol), the historically defined image of Russia’s movement from “sleep” to “awakening” (Goncharov), the ideal of “Christian socialism” (Dostoevsky), Russian writers raised the question of fundamental possibility of spiritual transformation for an individual and a nation, indicated for a modern man, infected with apostasy and selfishness, the way from the “hell” of modern life to the religious ideal, to the “paradise,” which all three considered achievable even in earthly life, although they understood it differently. The appearance of the “Dante’s epic” in Russian literature is predetermined, in particular, by its organic attraction to the Orthodox worldview, which determined the centuries-old productivity in art of such an archetype of human behavior as “sin — repentance — resurrection.”
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