International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics

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ISSN / EISSN : 0360-3016 / 1879-355X
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 71,769
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, Diego A.S. Toesca, J. Richelcyn M. Baclay, Lucas K. Vitzthum, Piotr Dubrowski, Erqi L. Pollom, Daniel T. Chang
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1698

Leslie A. Parsels, Qiang Zhang, David Karnak, Joshua D. Parsels, Kwok Lam, Henning Willers, Michael D. Green, Alnawaz Rehemtulla, Theodore S. Lawrence, Meredith A. Morgan
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1708

J. Khalifa, P. Sargos
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 916-917; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.058

Michael J. Zelefsky, Carlo Greco, Yoshiya Yamada, Simon N. Powell, Zvi Fuks
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 911-912; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.040

Siamak Sabour
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 914-915; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.041

Csaba Polgár, Vratislav Strnad, Jean-Michel Hannoun-Levi, Tibor Major, Zoltán Takácsi-Nagy, János Fodor
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 907-908; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.023

We read with interest the comments of Vaidya et al1Vaidya JS. Bulsara M. Sperk E. et al.In Regard to Polgar et al.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021; 110: 907-908Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF Google Scholar on our recent article about the 20-year updated results of the Budapest phase 3 accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) trial.2Polgár C. Major T. Takácsi-Nagy Z. et al.Breast-conserving surgery followed by partial or whole breast irradiation: Twenty-year results of a phase 3 clinical study.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021; 109: 998-1006Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (4) Google Scholar
Jia-Hua Yu, Qing-Ya Zhao, Yuan Liu, Xue-Ru Zhu, Zhang-Ru Yang, Xiao-Long Fu,
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 757-765; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.018

Purpose Our previous findings have identified vitronectin (VTN) as a potential biomarker for radiation pneumonitis (RP) through proteomics and molecular mechanism studies. In a recent study, we further explored associations of plasma level and single nucleotide polymorphisms of VTN with the risk of RP in patients with lung cancer receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials A total of 165 patients with lung cancer were prospectively enrolled with detection of VTN concentration before radiation therapy. VTN reference single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs704 and rs2227721, were genotyped by Taqman probe method. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to identify clinical variables and genotypes associated with the risk of RP on univariate and multivariate analyses, and t tests and analysis of variance were conducted to evaluate the expression level of VTN. Results The baseline secretion level of VTN in patients with grade ≥3 RP was significantly higher than that in grade <3 RP patients (P< .0001), and elevated levels were observed in patients having the AA genotype compared with GA/GG genotypes of rs704. The VTN rs704 GA/GG and rs2227721 AA/AC genotypes had a significantly lower risk of RP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.448, P = .005; HR, 0.419, P = .008, respectively). In addition, combining cut-off values of mean lung dose (MLD) and VTN plasma level, grade ≥3 RP risk groupings were as follows: high risk: MLD ≥12 Gy and VTN level ≥132 μg/mL (RP rate, 10 of 16 patients, 62.5%); intermediate risk: MLD ≥12 Gy and VTN level <132 μg/mL or MLD <12 Gy and VTN level ≥132 μg/mL (8 of 70 patients, 11.4%); and low risk: MLD <12 Gy and VTN level <132 μg/mL (1 of 79 patients, 1.3%) (P< .0001). Conclusions Among patients receiving radiation therapy, relatively high plasma levels of VTN before radiation therapy were associated with the higher incidence of RP, and VTN rs704 and rs2227721 each had a significant effect on predicting RP risk. Combining VTN concentration with MLD appeared to facilitate stratification of patients with lung cancer who received radiation therapy into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk RP groups. This study indicated that VTN may serve as a blood biomarker for susceptibility to RP in patients with lung cancer.
Marina Moskalenko, Jennifer Zaccone, Cheryl A. Fiscelli, Jennifer Wieworka, Roberta Anderson, Amanda Choflet, Shanel Martens, Karyn A. Goodman, Daniel W. Golden,
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 667-671; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.031

Purpose Nurses in the radiation oncology (RO) clinic have a critical role in the management of patients receiving radiation therapy. However, limited data exist regarding the exposure of nurses to RO during training and the current educational needs of practicing RO nurses. This study assesses nurses' prior RO education, participation in national training efforts, and perceived educational needs. Methods and Materials A web-based survey using a 5-point Likert-type scale was distributed to RO nurses at 3 academic medical centers. Questions focused on prior education experiences, clinical areas of strength/weakness, and perceived value of future educational interventions. Likert-type scores are reported as median (interquartile range), and a Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to assess for significant differences in responses. Results The survey response rate was 39 of 54 (72%). Respondents were 90% female and trained at 30 nursing schools in 17 states. Only 5% of nurses reported a curriculum in nursing school with RO content, and nearly all (97%) received their RO education on the job. Forty-one percent of nurses completed the Oncology Nursing Society radiation therapy certificate course, and only 5% completed the American Society for Radiation Oncology nursing module. Nurses felt most confident in the overall management of patients with breast (4 [3-4]), prostate (4 [3-5]), and central nervous system (4 [3-4]) cancers and least confident for lymphoma (3 [2-4]), gynecologic (3 [2-4]), and head and neck cancers (3 [2-4]; P< .01). Nurses rated didactic lectures from physicians (5 [3-5]), shadowing RO residents (4 [3-5]), and working with simulation therapists (4 [3-5]) as valuable components to include in a training curriculum (P = .08). Conclusions Nursing school exposure to RO is limited, and only a minority of RO nurses complete RO-specific training or certification available from national organizations. This study identifies several areas of perceived clinical nursing strengths and weaknesses that can be used to inform the design of future RO nursing educational programs.
, Taylor Allenby, John Lin, Jennifer Rosenberg, Nicole L. Simone, Kathryn H. Schmitz
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 973-983; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.024

Purpose Exercise therapy (ET) is shown to improve toxicity and surrogates of survival for patients receiving chemotherapy. Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines lack recommendations for concurrent radiation therapy (RT) and ET. The main objective was to determine the impact of concurrent ET + RT with respect to (1) acceptability, feasibility, safety; and (2) to demonstrate how incorporating ET in cancer treatment can enhance patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and physical function—defined as strength or exercise capacity. Methods and Materials A PICOS/PRISMA selection protocol was used to search PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Review for prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating concurrent ET + RT, including >10 patients and with 1 or more study arms. Acceptability, feasibility, and safety rates were calculated. PROs were assessed with study-specific metrics. Physical function was defined as improvements in strength or range of motion. Statistically significant improvement was defined by P<.05. Results Twenty-six of 693 screened studies including 1563 patients (831 receiving exercise, 732 controls) with localized breast cancer (67.1% of patients), prostate cancer (27.4%), head and neck cancers (2.8%), and spinal metastases (2.8%) were assessed. Objective 1: Among 3385 patients approached for ET, 1864 (55.1%) accepted the treatment; of those, 1563 patients (83.9%) completed the trials. Objective 2: Statistical improvements were noted in these PROs: quality of life (14 of 15 studies), fatigue (12 of 16 studies), mood/depression (9 of 13), and anxiety (6 of 7). Physical function improved statically in 16 of 16 studies. Conclusions Combination ET + RT is safe and well-tolerated with improvements in PROs and physical function. Additional studies are needed in patients with metastatic cancers to assess survival and to compare effectiveness of different exercise regimens.
Caroline Chau, Frcr Yvonne Rimmer, Ananya Choudhury, Frcr Darren Leaning, Alastair Law, Deborah Enting, Jun Hao Lim, Shaista Hafeez, Vincent Khoo, Robert Huddart, et al.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 110, pp 1143-1150; doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.003

Purpose Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. It is aggressive, and outcomes are poor as a result of its early metastatic spread. Owing to its rarity, there are limitations on data to propose standardized management pathways. Methods and Materials We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients presenting with pure or predominant-histology SCCB to 26 institutions in the United Kingdom between 2006 and 2016. The data cutoff date was February 1, 2018. We report patient characteristics, treatment received, and subsequent clinical outcomes. Results A total of 409 eligible patients were included. Among these, 306 (74.8%) were male, the median age was 71 years (range, 35-96 years), and 189 patients (46.2%) had pure-histology SCCB. At data cutoff, 301 patients (73.6%) had died. The median overall survival (OS) was 15.9 months (95% CI, 13.2-18.7 months). Two hundred patients (48.9%) were confirmed to have bladder-confined disease (N0, M0), with a median OS of 28.3 months (95% CI, 20.9-35.8 months), versus a median OS of 12.7 months (95% CI, 10.9-14.6 months) for the 172 patients (42.1%) with confirmed N1-3 and/or M1 disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; 95% CI, 1.58-2.60; P< .001). A total of 247 patients (61.5%) received primary chemotherapy, with a median OS of 21.6 months (95% CI, 15.5-27.6 months), versus a median OS of 9.1 months (95% CI, 5.4-12.8 months) in patients who did not receive primary chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.37-0.59; P< .001). Choice of chemotherapy agent did not alter outcomes. For those with bladder-confined disease, 61 (30.5%) underwent cystectomy, and 104 (52.0%) received radiation therapy. Survival outcomes were similar for both cystectomy and radiation therapy. Only 6 patients (1.5%) were identified as having brain metastases at any time point. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest retrospective study of all-stage SCCB to date. Patients have a poor prognosis overall, but survival is improved in those able to receive chemotherapy and with organ-confined disease. Brain metastases are rare.
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