Egyptian Liver Journal

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EISSN : 2090-6226
Total articles ≅ 117
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Published: 12 July 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00131-6

Abstract:
Background Around 25% of the world population was affected by the metabolic-related fatty liver disorder. Hepatic steatosis is frequently observed in conjunction with hypertension, obesity comorbidities, and diabetes. We evaluate the hepatic steatosis frequency found in chest CT exams of COVID-19-positive cases compared to non-infected controls and evaluate the related increased prevalence and severity of COVID. Results Our research includes 355 subjects, 158 with positive PCR for COVID-19 (case group) and 197 with negative PCR and negative CT chest (control group). The mean age in the positive group was 50.6 ± 16 years, and in the control, it was 41.3 ± 16 years (p < 0.001). Our study consists of 321 men (90.5%) and 34 women (9.5%). The number of males in both cases and control groups was greater. In the case group, 93% men vs. 6.9% women, while in controls, 88.3% men vs.11.6% women, p < 0.001. CT revealed normal results in 55.5% of individuals (i.e., CORADs 1) and abnormal findings in 45.5% of participants (i.e., CORADs 2–5). In abnormal scan, CO-RADs 2 was 13.92%, while CO-RADs 3–4 were 20.89% of cases. CO-RADs 5 comprised 65.19% of all cases. Approximately 42.6% of cases had severe disease (CT score ≥ 20), all of them were CO-RADs 5. The PCR-positive class had a greater prevalence of hepatic steatosis than controls (28.5% vs.12.2%, p < 0.001). CO-RADs 2 represented 11.1%, CO-RADs 3–4 represented 15.6%, and CO-RADs 5 represented 73.3% in the hepatic steatosis cases. The mean hepatic attenuation value in the case group was 46.79 ± 12.68 and in the control group 53.34 ± 10.28 (p < 0.001). When comparing patients with a higher severity score (CT score ≥ 20) to those with non-severe pneumonia, it was discovered that hepatic steatosis is more prevalent (73.2% vs. 26.8%). Conclusions Steatosis was shown to be substantially more prevalent in COVID-19-positive individuals. There is a relation among metabolic syndrome, steatosis of the liver, and obesity, as well as the COVID-19 severity.
Nehal Mohamed Bahgat Gamil, Sahar Mohamed El Agaty, Gehan Khalaf Megahed, Rania Salah Mansour, Marwa Saad Abdel-Latif
Published: 3 July 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00128-1

Abstract:
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health problem that accompanied the obesity epidemic and is considered as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Modification of lifestyle of MetS patients remains the focus to reverse and prevent progression of hepatic steatosis to NAFLD and its worsening to severe forms. The present study investigates the possible curability of metabolic syndrome -associated grade-1 NAFLD merely by alternate day fasting with or without reversion to regular diet in adult male rats. The present study was performed on 66 local strain male rats aged (6–10 m.) distributed randomly into C group (n = 12), on regular rat diet; and M group (n = 54) on high fructose- intake. On the 8th week, then rats were subjected to measurement of BW, BMI, WC, FBG, IPGTT, HDL-C, TGs, and liver histopathology, to include MetS rats randomly into four experimental groups for 4 weeks as follows: MS (n = 14); MSRD (n = 12); MSF (n = 13); and MSRDF (n = 12). On the 12th week, all rats were subjected to measurements of BW, BMI, WC, LW, LW/BW, VFW, VFW/BW, FBG, IPGTT, Ins., HOMA-IR, HbA1C, TGs, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, CRP, Alb., bilirubin, ALT, L-MDA, and liver histopathology. Results On the 8th week, M group developed MerS and grade-I NAFLD with score-4 hepatosteatosis (69%). On the 12th week, MS group had grade-1 NAFLD with score-4 hepatosteatosis (82%) with significantly increased Ins., HOMA-IR, HDL-C, LW, LW/BW, L-MDA, ALT, CRP, and significantly decreased Alb. than C rats. Both MSRD and MSF groups had grade-1 NAFLD with score-3 hepatosteatosis (42%) with significantly decreased Ins., HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C, LW, LW/BW, L-MDA, ALT, CRP, and significantly increased HDL-C and Alb. than MS group. MSRDF rats showed cure of grade-1 NAFLD and significantly decreased LW than other groups and normalized HOMA-IR, HbA1C TC, LDL-C, ALT, and CRP. Conclusion One month of alternate-day fasting and regular rat diet could cure grade-I NAFLD associated with Mets due to high fructose intake possibly by attenuating metabolic disorders. These two interventions might be recommended in the management of MetS patients with grade 1-NAFLD disease.
Souradeep Dutta, Ankit Jain, Reddy Abhinaya, ,
Published: 1 July 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-5; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00132-5

Abstract:
Background Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare disorder of the porto-biliary system occurring due to the defective remodeling of ductal architecture leading to progressive fibrosis of the portal tract. Though classically, CHF has been reported to be associated with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), there have been only a few reports associating CHF with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Also, there is a lack of proper sequencing panels and gene database covering CHF-related genes in the medical literature. CHF often presents with features of portal hypertension without overt signs or symptoms of liver disease. However, often due to lack of awareness among radiologists and physicians, such cases might get labeled as early stage of cryptogenic cirrhosis. Case presentation Here, we report a 17-year-old boy who presented with a portal hypertensive bleed. Though initially an early phase of cirrhosis was suspected, no identifiable cause was found. Though he had grade IV esophageal varices, the liver function was absolutely normal with no signs of liver failure. This further leads to subsequent cross-sectional imagings which lead to the diagnosis of CHF. Further genetic analysis revealed it to be a rare case of CHF associated with ADPKD, with some novel mutations in the PKD1 gene. Conclusion CHF is a rare disorder needing a high index of suspicion and awareness. The presence of classic radiological morphological features of left lobe hypertrophy and right lobe atrophy with the tell-tale histopathological findings, fibrous enlargement of the portal tract, and irregularly shaped proliferating bile ducts often clinches the diagnosis.
Manal Sabry, Tarek Youssef, Mohamed Shaker, Mohamed Magdy Salama, Nourhan Assem, Christina Alfons Anwar
Published: 30 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00130-7

Abstract:
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains asymptomatic until advanced disease, when risk factor modification and available treatment become no longer effective. Studies on hepatic vasculature can be informative about parenchymal injury and disease severity through the study of changes affecting vascular compliance. This study aimed to study portal vein and hepatic artery hemodynamic variation in non-alcoholic fatty liver and to correlate it with disease severity. Results This case control study included 80 participants; those were further divided into four groups; healthy volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients’ grade 1, 2, and 3. We did anthropometric measures, laboratory tests, transient elastography, and Doppler ultrasound for all participants, and then we collected the data and analyzed it using SPSS version 25. Doppler findings showed that peak maximum velocity, peak minimum velocity, mean flow velocity, portal vein pulsatility index of portal vein, and hepatic artery resistivity index were significantly lower in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients than in healthy people. All indices were indirectly proportionate to the grade of the disease except for peak minimum velocity which was significantly lower on comparing grade 3 patients with grades 1 and 2 patients. Conclusions Reduction of portal flow and increase in hepatic artery flow in fatty liver correlates with disease severity and can help as a non-invasive measure in diagnosis and grading of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
, Hanan Abdel Hafez, Aisha Elsharkawy, Tarek Ahmed Moneer, Suzan M. El-Sheikh, Rabab M. Maher, Sahar A. Sharaf
Published: 29 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00125-4

Abstract:
Background The heterogeneous nature of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) impedes both treatment strategies and prognostic predictions. Several markers have been proposed for the diagnosis of HCC. Cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been known as cellular integrators in neoplasm formation. Hepatic progenitor cells are thought to express alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and hematopoietic as well as biliary markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) and cytokeratin 7. The aim of this study was to verify the role of serum CK 19 alone or in combination with AFP as a diagnostic marker of HCC and to assess the changes in its levels after ablation of HCV-related HCC to evaluate its role as a predictor marker for recurrence of HCC after ablation. The study was conducted on 102 HCV-related cirrhotic patients categorized into three different groups according to the clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluation: group I—62 patients with early or intermediate HCC who underwent locoregional intervention, group II—20 patients with advanced HCC not fit for any intervention apart from best supportive treatment, and group III—20 cirrhotic patients with no evidence of HCC as proved by two imaging techniques. Results The mean serum levels of CK 19 were 6.5 ± 5.7, 10.5 ± 12.5, and 6.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml in groups I, II, and III, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of combined AFP and human CK 19 at cutoff levels of 25.5 ng/ml and 6.25 ng/ml were 93.9%, 45%, 87.5%, and 64.3%, respectively. In group I patients, CK 19 levels were comparable in patients with ablated focal lesion and those who did not at baseline; then, it was significantly higher in ablated patients than in patients with residual tumor 1 and 6 months after the intervention. Conclusions Combination of both AFP and CK 19 levels could increase the diagnostic accuracy of suspected HCCs. CK 19 levels are good predictors of ablation/recurrence in patients who underwent interventional procedures minimizing the need for follow-up imaging modalities.
Nermine Ehsan, , Maha Elsabaawy
Published: 28 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00129-0

Abstract:
Background The rapidly developing era of direct-acting antiviral regimens (DAAs) for more than one hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype had certainly alleviated HCV burden all over the world. Liver fibrosis is the major dramatic complication of HCV infection, and its progression leads to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The impact of DAAs on liver fibrosis had been debatably evaluated with undetermined resolution. Main body The aim of this review is to accurately revise the effects of DAA regimens on liver fibrosis which can either be regression, progression, or non-significant association. Liver fibrosis regression is a genuine fact assured by many retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Evaluation could be concluded early post-therapy reflecting the dynamic nature of the process. Conclusions The ideal application of DAA regimens in treating HCV has to be accomplished with efficient non-invasive markers in differentiating proper fibrosis evaluation from necroinflammation consequences. Liver biopsy is the gold standard that visualizes the dynamic of fibrosis regression.
Nagla Zaky Ibrahim El-Alfy, Samia Mohamed Sakr, Mahmoud Fathy Mahmoud, Heba Ahmed Omar
Published: 26 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-21; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00112-9

Abstract:
Background Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) and Adamine (Amantadine HCl) are antiviral drugs which are used for prevention and treatment for influenza. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Tamiflu and Adamine on the liver of adult male albino mice from the histological and ultrastructural points of views. Results Histological examination of liver sections treated with Tamiflu and Adamine included enlargement and congestion of central and hepatic veins in addition to erosion of their endothelial lining cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of their nuclei, and dilatation of hepatic sinusoid. The electron microscopic investigation illustrated mitochondrial swelling, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic vacuolation, the nuclei with irregular envelope and condensed heterochromatin, dilated microvilli in sinusoid, in addition to active Kupffer cells have many lysosomes and filopodia in its membrane. Conclusion The study suggested that both drugs induced histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in hepatic tissue. In conclusion, Tamiflu and Adamine have pathological effects on liver of albino mice (Mus musculus).
, Ashraf M. Alkabeer, Ali Sobhy Mohammed, Amira Ahmed Hussein
Published: 25 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00121-8

Abstract:
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may reactivate when treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). We aimed to investigate the risk of HBV infection and reactivation during DAA therapy by performing a prospective observational study carried on 200 patients positive for chronic HCV who were candidates for treatment by DAA therapy according to the Egyptian guidelines from February 2019 to December 2019; the patients identified to carry HBsAg at baseline or with positive HBc Abs were further assessed for other HBV markers: hepatitis B e antigen at baseline, and serum HBV DNA quantitative measurement at baseline, week 4 of treatment, end of treatment. On the other hand, recent infection by HBV among those patients was observed. Results Of all participants, 49% were males and 51% were females, aged above 18 years. There is a highly statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.05) between HCV RNA PCR (at the beginning, at the end of 4 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks) in studied patients. There was a highly statistically significant difference found between the liver function tests at the beginning, at the end of 4 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of treatment where it shows improvement except for serum albumin. At beginning of the study, there were 34 patients who are co-infected with HCV and HBV with quantitative PCR test for HBV DNA ≥ 20 IU/ml. After 1 month of DAA therapy, reactivation was detected in 6 cases (4 occult cases show reverse seroconversion (became HBs Ag positive), and 2 co-infected cases show increased HBV DNA > 1000 IU/L above the baseline level). In addition, 3 new cases acquired recent infection with the positivity of HBc IgM and detectable levels of HBV DNA. After 3 months of study, reactivation was detected in one patient with co-infection (where increased HBV DNA > 1000 IU/L above the baseline level), and 5 new cases acquired recent infection late in the study. Conclusion Screening for HBV infection prior to DAA therapy is required to detect recent infection of reactivation of previous infection during or after DAA therapy.
Elsayed Ghoneem, Ahmed Saleh, Shahira Aly El-Etreby, Metwaly Ibrahim Mortada, Mayada A. Ghannam, Shaimaa El-Ashwah, Noha Eisa
Published: 25 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00124-5

Abstract:
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality among thalassemic patients. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective and well-tolerated by chronic HCV patients. Results The mean age of our patients was 29 years. Sustained virologic response (SVR) at 12 and 24 weeks was achieved in all patients (100%). The most common side effects were fatigue (18%), anemia (13.63%), and headache (4.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in the hemoglobin level before and after treatment (p = 0.48). There was a significant improvement in serum bilirubin and mean ALT levels after treatment compared to baseline data (p < 0.0005 each). Conclusions DAAs, namely, sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir, are effective and well-tolerated regimens in thalassemic patients with chronic HCV.
Maha Salah Abu Alia, , Reda Abdelsamaie Elarabawy, Hegazy Mohamed Hegazy
Published: 14 June 2021
Egyptian Liver Journal, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s43066-021-00119-2

Abstract:
Background Despite the great advancement in therapeutic modalities for esophageal varices, early variceal rebleeding still occurs at high rates leading to an exaggeration of the morbidity and mortality for cirrhotic patients, so meticulous follow-up with optimum prediction and proper preventive measures for early variceal rebleeding are mandatory for increasing survival of those patients. In this respect, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound, and endoscopic criteria of variceal cirrhotic patients as possible risk predictors of early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic control of first variceal bleeding. All included patients were followed up blindly for 12 weeks after endoscopic control of bleeding for ascertainment of first variceal rebleeding. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic criteria were evaluated for all patients at first admission. Results By univariate regression analysis, the statistically significant predictors for early variceal rebleeding were serum albumin, serum bilirubin, prothrombin concentration, Child-Pugh score, platelet count, spleen diameter, ascites, portal vein diameter and velocity, variceal size, variceal location, and red color sign. By using multivariate regression analysis, the most independent significant predictors were Child-Pugh score (sig: 0.001 and OR: 1.661), platelets count (sig: 0.000 and OR: 0.956), portal vein velocity (sig: 0.000 and OR: 0.664), variceal grading (sig: 0.000 and OR: 3.964), and variceal red color sign (sig: 0.000 and OR: 4.964). We used the multivariate regression coefficients for the significant predictors to build up early variceal rebleeding risk (EVRR) score with a significant discriminatory performance (AUC: 0.965 and sig: 0.000). Conclusion Child-Pugh score, platelet count, portal vein velocity, variceal grading, and variceal red color sign are independent risk predictors for early variceal rebleeding after successful control of first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Our proposed EVRR score could be helpful for the prediction of early variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic control of acute variceal bleeding; however, it should be externally validated in large prospective studies.
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