International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2394-0522 / 2347-2677
Published by: AkiNik Publications (10.22271)
Total articles ≅ 111
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Dwi Ariani Yulihastuti, Gusti Ayu Mayani Kristina Dewi, I Gede Mahardika, I Gusti Nyoman Gde Bidura
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i5a.928

Abstract:
Azadirachta indica A. Juss or neem is herbal that contains antioxidants and bioactive compounds of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins that can play a role in various biological activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water extract of neem leaves mixed in drinking water on the liver health performance of KUB chickens. The observed variables were serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels and liver histopathology. The experimental animals used were KUB chickens (Kampung Unggul Balitbangtan), using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatment group consisted of P0 (control or 0%), neem leaf water extract 1% (P1), 3% (P2) and 5% (P3) administered during the starter phase (42 days). The experimental animals used were 200 tails. Preparation of liver histology preparations by paraffin method. SGPT levels were tested by the IFCC2 Enzymatic Kinetic method (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine). The results showed that KUB chicken SGPT levels were not significantly different between control and treatment. Liver histology data showed inflammatory cell infiltration damage, degeneration, necrosis, and vessel congestion but there was no significant difference between control and treatment chicken livers. Water extract supplementation of neem leaf has no negative effect on liver performance and SGPT levels
Ni Made Suartini, Ni Wayan Sudatri
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 19-22; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i5a.927

Abstract:
In the rice fields can be found several species of snails. One of them is Pila scutata which can be used as a source of protein. There is not much research on the snails, especially in rice fields in Bali. Research was conducted to determine the density, egg number, and nutritional content of the snail in rice fields of the subak Uma Desa, Duda Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali. Snail were collected from three plots of rice fields which already planted with rice plant. At each rice field plots are placed a quadrate made of pipes measuring 1 x 1 m, then the snails with all the sizes contained in the quadrate are taken. Sampling of snail eggs was also carried out in three rice fields where the snail samples were collected, namely by searching the entire area. Measurement of environmental factors were carried out every sampling. The samples of snails and their eggs were brought to the laboratory to be counted, observed for morphology and morphometry and counted the eggs in a eggs group. Furthermore, the snail samples were analyzed for their nutritional content. The results showed that the density of the snails was 4.67 ind/m2, frequency of presence was absolute, and distribution pattern was regular. The snails was mostly found in sheltered places. Egg groups are white, found in sheltered areas and above the waterline. The protein content of the snails was 52.57%.
David Giraud Akélé, Eugène Dessouassi, Imaculé Schadrac Baglo, Flavien Judicaël Aboto, Elie Montchowui, Philippe Lalèyè
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i5a.926

Abstract:
In order to domesticate the freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica, a 42-day freshwater pond rearing trial was conducted in two ponds of equal size (12 m2 x 1.10 m deep), one of which was fertilized with poultry droppings and the other one was a control (unfertilized). Three depths (30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm from the bottom of the pond) were tested with one repetition. For each depth, 02 sieves (40 cm diameter and 15 cm depth) were used. A total of 180 oysters with an average size of 37.56±1.95 mm and an initial average weight of 30.35±0.72 g were used with a density of 15 oysters per colander. pH, temperature, transparency, and phytoplankton density were measured daily between 7:00 am and 8:00 am in June-July 2018. Each week, the colanders were checked. Oysters were counted, measured and weighed. The physico-chemical parameters measured in the ponds were consistent with the requirements of tropical water oysters. At the end of the experiments, the survival rate (50±35.36%) was identical for all depths in both ponds. The best growth in size was recorded in the fertilized pond. The sizes increased 2.06 mm and 3.8 mm at 90 cm and 30 cm depth respectively). In contrast, the smallest increases were obtained in the control pond, 0.93 mm and 1 mm at 90 cm and 30 cm depth respectively. In the fertilized pond, the average daily gain ranged from 0.017 g/d (at 90 cm depth) to 0.027 g/d (at 30 cm) while it was between 0.005 g/d (90 cm) and 0.017 g/d (30 cm) in the control pond. As for the specific growth rate, it varied from 0.014%.d-1 (90 cm) to 0.047%.d-1 (30 cm) in the control pond while it was between 0.047%.d-1 (90 cm) and 0.078%.d-1 (30 cm) in the fertilized pond. The best zootechnical performance was recorded between 30 cm and 60 cm in both ponds. Therefore, depths between 30 cm and 60 cm seem to be suitable for rearing Etheria elliptica in ponds. Also, fertilization of the rearing ponds with poultry droppings would improve the growth of the reared oysters.
Andreia Garcês, Isabel Pires
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.911

Abstract:
The world is still facing the first pandemic of the century, SARS-CoV-2, and another virus that appears to have been spreading silently the Monkeypox, and has the potential to become public health. Although is not very yet a serious problem, due to their zoonotic potential veterinarians should be informed regarding this disease not only to identify the symptoms in animals but also to clarify the owners regarding the care that they should have with their pets.
Majid Hassan Bhat, Rajendra Chauhan, Pradeep Shrivastava
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 44-47; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.922

Abstract:
The fungal flora of two water bodies Upper Lake and Hathaikheda Reservoir of Bhopal Madhya Pradesh were isolated during the course of study from January 2017 to December 2018. During the present study, total 600 isolates, comprising of 17 genera and 24 species of aquatic and terrestrial fungi were recorded from two water bodies. These fungi belonged to various orders of the group Oomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota. Members of Saprolegniales were dominant over the rest of the orders of fungi at both the water bodies. Upper Lake showed a great fungal diversity compared to that of Hataikheda Reservoir as total 332 isolated of fungi were isolated from Upper Lake, while as only 268 isolated of fungi were isolated from Hathaikheda Reservoir. Majority of the fungal species were common at both the water bodies, but Aphanomyces laevis, Aphanomyces invades, Saprolegnia hypogyanna, Pythium undulatum and Aspergillus terrus were only specific to Upper Lake.
Syeda Gulrez, Shivaji Chavan
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 04-07; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.912

Abstract:
Ants are an impressive, dominant, and successful component of the ecosystem and they are strong indicators of ecosystem. The study of ant population, species richness and relative abundance as well as their worldwide dispersion are critical because they are economically significant. Ants are unique amongst the arthropod fauna in terms of behavior, species richness, social tendencies and large densities all of which contribute to the study of ecology. The survey was conducted during the year- 2021, from Nanded district, Maharashtra state, India to assess the diversity and distribution of the ant species on soybean crop fields, Nanded. The study reveals that 17 species of ants from 15 genera and 6 subfamilies have been identified from Nanded region prior to this investigation. Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicidae and Pseudomyrmicinae are the six subfamilies of ants. Most of the genera from tropical, warm, and temperate region are belongs to the subfamily Ponerinae, is described in the Nanded district (MS) region. Crematogaster and Monomorium are the most commonly seen genera, followed by Solenopsis and Pheidole.
Gajanan M Deshmukh
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 19-21; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.915

Abstract:
The objective of present study is to determine seasonal changes in biochemical content of freshwater bivalve, Parreysia cylindrica in relation to heavy metal pollution of Jayakwadi reservoir. Heavy metal concentrations were determined seasonally from surface water, soil sediment and soft body tissues of freshwater bivalve, Parreysia cylindrica. The heavy metal concentrations in surface water, soil sediment and soft body tissues of Parreysia cylindrica were highest during summer season than winter and monsoon season. The Protein, DNA, RNA and Ascorbic acid content were estimated during summer, monsoon and winter season from mantle, gills, digestive glands and whole soft body tissues. In the present study Protein, DNA, RNA and Ascorbic acid content were highest during monsoon than summer and winter season.
Sd Prajapati, Nc Ujjania
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 15-18; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.914

Abstract:
Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) cultured worldwide with developments and revolutions in culture ponds like spread polyethylene liner over earthen ponds. The length-weight relationships in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated cultured in polyethylene (PE) lined ponds from Bhimpore village of Surat district (Gujarat). For this purpose, 500 specimens from pond were collected during 2021 and their length and weight were recorded as per the standard methods. The length and weight were noted 11.488-15.581 (13.393±0.035) cm and 12.26-31.22 (19.613±0.162) gm during study. The noted length frequency distribution for length group A-23, for B-377 and for C-100. The recorded correlation coefficient (r2) of the shrimp were 0.633 (A), 0.780 (B), 0.809 (C) and 0.906 (pooled) noted. The growth constant or regression coefficient (b) was observed 2.541, 2.812, 3.531 and 2.997 for length group A, B, C and pooled population. The growth constant depicted that growth of shrimp was isometric (b=3.0) and normal. A mean Fulton's condition factor value noted 0.808 (±0.002). These findings are clearly indicating that the growth of studied shrimp was normal and good in the polyethylene (PE) lined pond.
Vicente De Paulo Correia, Graciano Soares Gomes, Carlito De Araújo Mali Code, Agostinho Da Cunha Moniz, Oscar da Silva
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.920

Abstract:
The study aims to characterize agricultural productivity factors, such as production support factors and the main agricultural productivity factors. This study was carried out in the municipalities of Aileu, Ainaro and Covalima and lasted for 3 months, from August to October 2021 and used the survey method and the intentional sampling method to determine the research sites. To determine the sample size, the Slovin method was used and the interviews were based on elaborate questionnaires. The variables observed are the production support factors and the main agricultural productivity factors. The results revealed that the average age of respondents was between 42.12 and 48.06 years, with experience ranging from 15.65 to 24.18 years. The level of schooling of respondents varies between the three municipalities and minimum total agricultural areas of 0.20 ha and maximum of 11 ha, with average operational areas between 0.75 and 1.98 ha, and abandoned areas between 0.81 and 1.97 ha per respondent. The largest production of rice and corn occurs in the municipality of Covalima and the smallest in the municipality of Aileu. About 65 to 85% of farmers finance their productive activities on their own, and the workforce of 3 to 6 people per family. The frequency of agricultural productivity varies among the three municipalities. In the municipality of Covalima, production takes place twice a year, and in the municipalities of Aileu and Ainaro, once a year. The most used production systems are conventional systems in rice and maize production and extensive systems in animal production. The result also showed that there is less interest from parents in encouraging young people to continue to cultivate in the future. The sales regime for agricultural products varies according to market access and the arrival of the buyer at the place of production.
Rekha Salvi, Shashi Parmar
International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, Volume 9, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.22271/23940522.2022.v9.i4a.921

Abstract:
Bats are the second most species of mammals after rodents. In this paper we reported diversity and roosting site of bats in the Girwa tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan recorded from November 2007 to February 2009. Various surveys were performed in the tehsil to identify roosting sites of bats. After identification of the site, bat species were identified and numbers were counted each month. A total of six Micro chiropteran bat species belonging to five families were recorded in Girwa tehsil during the study period. The highest number of individuals of Rhinopoma microphyllum was recorded in Girwa tehsil. Variety of habitats and availability of surface water in good quantity throughout year may be a key factor for such good number of bat species in this tehsil.
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