Food Production, Processing and Nutrition

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EISSN : 2661-8974
Total articles ≅ 59
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Alejandro Heres, , Fidel Toldrá
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00058-w

High cholesterolemia is a key risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of mortality in developed countries. Most therapies are focused on the modulation of its biosynthesis through 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) inhibitors. In this sense, food-derived bioactive peptides might act as promising health alternatives through their ability to interact with crucial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, avoiding the adverse effects of synthetic drugs. Dry-cured ham has been widely described as an important source of naturally-generated bioactive peptides exerting ACEI-inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory activity between others. Based on these findings, the aim of this work was to assess, for the first time, the in vitro inhibitory activity of HMG-CoAR exerted by dipeptides generated during the manufacturing of dry-cured ham, previously described with relevant roles on other bioactivities. The in vitro inhibitory activity of the dipeptides was assessed by measuring the substrate consumption rate of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase in their presence, with the following pertinent calculations. Further research was carried out to estimate the possible interactions of the most bioactive dipeptides with the enzyme by performing in silico analysis consisting of molecular docking approaches. Main findings showed DA, DD, EE, ES, and LL dipeptides as main HMG-CoAR inhibitors. Additionally, computational analysis indicated statin-like interactions of the dipeptides with HMG-CoAR. This study reveals, for the first time, the hypocholesterolemic potential of dry-cured ham-derived dipeptides and, at the same time, converges in the same vein as many reports that experimentally argue the cardiovascular benefits of dry-cured ham consumption due to its bioactive peptide content.
Adeola M. Alashi, Hongyi Wu,
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00061-1

Cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was subjected to various dry and wet heat pretreatments followed by sequential digestion with pepsin and pancreatin; the undigested residues were isolated as the indigestible cowpea proteins (ICPs). All the ICPs exhibited in vitro bile acid-binding capacity but ICP from the slow cooling-induced gelation had the highest yield (68%) and was used for rat feeding experiments to determine effect on plasma total cholesterol (TC). Groups consisting of 3 male and 3 female Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed hypercholesterolemic diets that contained casein only or casein that was partially substituted with ICP of CPI for 6 weeks. Results showed diet that contained 5% (w/w) ICP was more effective in preventing TC increase (1.8 mmol/L) when compared to increases of 9.34 and 4.15 mmol/L for CPI and casein only diets, respectively. Graphical abstract
Siying Qi, Jiping Han, Camel Lagnika, Ning Jiang, Chunlu Qian, Chunquan Liu, Dajing Li, Yang Tao, Zhifang Yu, Libin Wang, et al.
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00060-2

Edible fungi are rich in nutrition, but they are susceptible to spoilage, and often prolonged by drying. RF and microwave energy drying have the advantages of short drying time, high energy efficiency and good process control. However, to develop an effective dielectric drying method, it is important to understand dielectric properties, the major factor characterizing the interaction between the electromagnetic energy and the food. At present, there is a lack of research on dielectric properties of edible fungi. In this study, a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe were employed to measure the dielectric parameters. The dielectric parameters were observed at different temperatures (25–85 °C) for edible fungi powder with moisture content ranging from 5 to 30% wet basis over a frequency range of 1–3000 MHz. The relationship between the dielectric properties and frequency, temperature, and moisture content were obtained via regression analysis. Further, the dielectric penetration depth was calculated, and the effects of frequency, moisture content, and temperature on the penetration depth were also analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric properties of edible fungi powder increased with an increase in moisture content and temperature, while they decreased with increasing frequency. At high moisture content and temperature, the increase in dielectric properties was slightly larger than that at low moisture content and temperature. The dielectric properties changed more evidently at lower radio frequencies than at higher radio frequencies. The penetration depth decreased with an increase in temperature, moisture content, and frequency. It can be concluded that a large penetration depth at radio frequencies below 100 MHz could be used to dry edible fungi on a large scale, whereas microwave energy could be employed for drying edible fungi on a small scale.
Anastasia Amaka Nnamezie, , Saka Olasunkanmi Gbadamosi
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00059-9

The need to feed the increasing world population with high quality protein and the enormous post-harvest losses of okra fruits necessitated the research on okra seeds in this study. Whole flour (WF) of matured okra seed was processed to obtain defatted flour (DF), protein concentrate (PC) and protein isolate (PI), followed by hydrolysis of the protein isolate by three different proteases; pepsin (PHp), pancreatin (PHc) and trypsin (PHT) to produce hydrolysates. The okra seed flours, proteins and the hydrolysates were analyzed for changes in the functional groups using Fourier, Transform Infrared (FTIR), amino acid composition, solubility profile and some functional properties. The FTIR results showed the presence of N-H stretching, C=O stretching, C=N stretching N-H bending and C-N stretching in the samples. Protein hydrolysate had higher essential amino acids (51.32–53.01%) than unhydrolysed samples (36.31–37.99%). PI and WF had the highest water absorption and swelling capacities respectively. The solubility profiles of the samples were minimal at pH 2–4 and then increased after the isoelectric point. The PC was more soluble than PI between pH 2–8. The foaming properties of the samples was least in the absence of salt but high in the presence of 0.5 M sodium chloride. The emulsion capacity of the samples was least in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl. The in-vitro protein digestibility results showed that okra seed protein hydrolysates were more digestible (83.26–86.08%) than unhydrolyzed proteins (36.48–80.90%). The results of the antioxidant properties showed that PHp and PHT exhibited better radical scavenging and metal chelating activities respectively than the other samples. The study concluded that okra seed proteins and hydrolysates demonstrated potentials as ingredients in functional food preparation and this may be considered as a strategy to reducing the post-harvest losses of okra fruit and subsequently feeding the world with quality proteins. Graphical abstract
Jenny Ann John, Bikash C. Ghosh
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00055-z

Whey proteins provide an excellent source of low-molecular-weight bioactive peptides with important functional properties and bioactivities like antihypertensive, opioid, and antimicrobial effects. Presence of peptide molecules with lower molecular weight has a great role in food for health promotion. In this investigation, the release of low-molecular-weight peptides from whey protein concentrate was attempted by using enzymatic digestion. The hydrolyzate was then incorporated into milk to obtain enriched milk (EM) with low-molecular-weight peptides. Based on sensory analysis of EM, electrophoretic and RP-HPLC studies, hydrolyzates of 10% protein (degree of hydrolysis 5%; enzyme/ substrate E/S, 1:50) were finally incorporated into milk at 20% (v/v) to develop an acceptable product enriched with low-molecular-weight peptides. EM had higher protein content, viscosity and emulsifying properties than control milk with 3% fat. It is recommended that EM should not be sterilized as it results in coagulation, but can be safely pasteurized and spray dried without any undesirable effects. Maximum ACE-inhibition activity was obtained in hydrolyzate, followed by EM. This study is expected to boost the opportunity for the dairy industry to venture further into the nutraceutical dairy market. Graphical abstract
J. Undhad Trupti, Sujit Das, Divyang Solanki, Dhvany Kinariwala,
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00056-y

This study was designed to evaluate the bioactivities such as β-glucosidase activity, α-galactosidase activity, and the growth behavior of the Lactobacillus cultures in soy milk medium. Ten Lactobacillus cultures were considered in this study. L. fermentum (M2) and L. casei (NK9) were selected due to their better α-galactosidase, β-glucosidase activity and growth behavior in soy milk medium during fermentation. Further, soy milk fermented with M2 showed higher proteolytic activity (0.67 OD) and ACE-inhibitory (48.44%) than NK9 (proteolytic activity: 0.48 OD and ACE-inhibitory activity: 41.33%). Bioactive peptides produced during the fermentation of soy milk using the selected Lactobacillus cultures were also identified with potent ACE-inhibitory activity by MALDI-TOF spectrometry, and the identified ACE inhibitory peptide sequences from fermented soy milk were characterized using Biopep database. Graphical abstract
, Kenneth Chigozie Asadu, Cynthia Chioma Anyiam, Linda Obianuju Ojokoh, Titilope Modupe Olagunju, Judith Uchenna Chima, Kingsley Osita Okpara
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00057-x

Flake is consumed in many parts of the world. Flakes are majorly prepared from cereals. However, most flakes are deficient in protein and some other healthful substances. High-protein soymeal is rich in protein, mineral, amino acids, antioxidants, and other healthful substances. Formulating flakes with high-protein soymeal would improve the health status of consumers. This work investigated consumer-ready flake from amaranth, high-protein soymeal, and modified corn starch produced under the optimized condition and characterized with the aim to develop models that would give a healthful consumer-ready flake. Amaranthus viridis, corn, and soybean grains were sorted, wet-cleaned, and dried. Soybean grains were processed into high-protein soymeal, starch was extracted from corn grains while A. viridis grains were processed into flour. Formulated flour mixtures were developed into flakes using three-level factorial categoric factor design of response surface methodology. The flakes were analyzed using standard procedures. Optimal flour mixtures of high-protein soymeal (34.78 g/100 g), amaranth (56.52 g/100 g), and modified corn starch (8.70 g/100 g) were established. Results showed the optimized flakes contained per 100 g: 29.05 g protein, 6.00 g fat, 4.10 g fibre, 3.84 g ash, 8.96 g moisture, 249.74 mg calcium, 272.35 mg magnesium, 12.08 mg iron, 618.42 mg phosphorus, 6.41 mg niacin, 4.85 mg pyridoxine, 0.21 g tannin, 1.85 mg phytate, 2.96 mg alkaloids, 908.24GAE total phenolics and 12.75mgRE flavonoids with good quality characteristics in amino acids. The study illustrated the feasibility of formulating quality consumer-ready flakes from amaranth, high-protein soymeal, and modified corn starch. The production process is scalable and could be employed for both domestic and industrial purposes. Graphical abstract
Yiqiang Dai, Jianzhong Zhou, Lixia Wang, Mingsheng Dong,
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00054-0

Soy whey, a liquid nutritional by-product of soybean manufacture, is rich in proteins, oligosaccharides and isoflavones. Soy whey can be used to produce functional beverages, instead of discarding it as a waste. In this study, unfermented soy whey (USW) and Cordyceps militaris SN-18-fermented soy whey (FSW) were investigated and compared for their physicochemical and functional properties by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA damage assay. Results show that C. militaris SN-18 fermentation could increase the contents of essential amino acids, total phenolic and flavonoid and isoflavone aglycones and eliminate the oligosaccharides in soy whey. Furthermore, C. militaris SN-18 could significantly enhance the ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power and ferric reducing power of soy whey, and its fermented products could prominently attenuate Fenton reaction-induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that soy whey can potentially be converted into a novel soy functional beverage by C. militaris SN-18 fermentation. Graphical abstract
Hisham R. Ibrahim, Fukiko Nanbu, Takeshi Miyata
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00052-2

Honey is known for its medicinal benefits and receiving renewed attention as natural medicine. Studies on health benefits of honey attributed its antioxidant activity to phenolic compounds, but the contribution of proteins and peptides to the antioxidant activity of honey is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of proteins and peptides to the antioxidant activity of honey, which remained obscure for decades. Total honey proteins (THP) were isolated by dialysis method and hydrolyzed through simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The hydrolysates were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. The antioxidant activity was determined by using superoxide radical-scavenging, DPPH reduction and intracellular ROS assays. THP was shown to exhibit superoxide-scavenging activity but its pepsin-hydrolysate (HP-p) showed superior scavenging activity. The HP-p produced five peptide fractions (P1~P5) when fractionated on Sephacryl S-100 size-exclusion column. The five fractions showed superoxide-scavenging activities and DPPH reducing activities, whereas the slow-eluting peptide fractions (P3 and P4) were the most potent. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified a pentapeptide (TSNTF) as the dominant peptide in the active fractions P3 and P4. Human colonic epithelial cells treated with P3 and P4 peptides exhibited lower intracellular ROS, when oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 or diethyl maleate (DEM), indicating strong tolerance to oxidative stress. The viabilities of human cells or yeast cells were largely decreases under oxidative stress, but treated cells with P3 and P4 showed higher viability compared with the untreated cells. The results are the first to describe a novel antioxidant peptide from honey that confer ex vivo anti-oxidative function within a complicated milieu of eukaryotic cells and pave the way for its potential as nutraceutical or therapeutic peptide for risk-reduction of oxidative-stress and related diseases. Graphical abstract
Kai Guo, Guangchi An, Ning Wang, Bingdong Pang, Zhiqi Shi, Hongwu Bai, Li Zhang, , Weimin Xu
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, Volume 3, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s43014-021-00053-1

Background Ammonium is an indispensable nutrient for crop growth, but anoxic conditions or inappropriate fertilizer usage result in the increase in ammonium content in soil. Excessive ammonium causes phytotoxicity. Thymol is a kind of natural phenolic compound with anti-microbial properties. However, little is known about the role of thymol in modulating plant physiology. Here we find the novel role of thymol in protecting rice from ammonium toxicity. Results Thymol remarkably rescued rice seedlings growth from ammonium stress, which may resulted from the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, oxidative injury, and cell death in both shoots and roots. Polyamine oxidase (PAO) metabolizes polyamines to produce ROS in plants in response to stress conditions. Thymol blocked ammonium-induced upregulation of a set of rice PAOs, which contributed to the decrease in ROS content. In rice seedlings upon ammonium stress, thymol downregulate the expression of ammonium transporters (AMT1;1 and AMT1;2); thymol upregulated the expression of calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase 23 (CIPK23) and calcineurin B-like binding protein 1 (CBL1), two negative regulators of AMTs. This may help rice avoid ammonium overload in excessive ammonium environment. Correlation analysis indicated that PAOs, AMTs, and CBL1 were the targets of thymol in the detoxification of excessive ammonium. Conclusion Thymol facilitates rice tolerance against ammonium toxicity by decreasing PAO-derived ROS and modulating ammonium transporters. Such findings may be applicable in the modulation of nutrient acquisition during crop production. Graphical abstract
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