Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette

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EISSN : 2090-9942
Total articles ≅ 61
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, Manal M. Darwish, Ahmed M. Abdullah, Hanaa A. Mohamad
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00061-3

Background Exclusive BF till the age of 6 months is rare in developing countries and complimentary feeding (CF) are introduced at an early age which is linked to the development of chronic conditions such as childhood obesity, celiac disease, diabetes, and eczema. The aim of our work is to assess complementary feeding practices of infants under the age of 2 years and to study their impact on their growth and development. This study is a cross-sectional study that was carried out over 3 years between March 2016 and March 2019, included 1000 apparently healthy infants aged less than 2 years old who attended University Children Hospital, Egypt. Practices among mothers including timing and types of foods introduced. Semi-structured questionnaire used for data collection and anthropometric measurements analyzed following the WHO Growth Charts. Results The study found that about 80% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months of age. Also, a large number of infants were given liquids other than breast milk before completing their fourth month of age. Conclusion Despite the better mental development of the infants, there is a considerable gap between WHO Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding and the practices among mothers of infants aged less than 2 years in Egypt.
, Iman A. Ragab, Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad, Wael Ahmed Ghanem, Haytham Mohamed Nasser, Osama El-Naggar
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00062-2

Background Infantile haemangiomas (IH) represent a common benign vascular tumour affecting the paediatric population. Infantile haemangiomas are characterised by a natural history differentiating it from other vascular anomalies. After a transient proliferative phase in early infancy, the tumour passes through a plateau phase before going into spontaneous involution. In this report, we tried to share our experience over the last 5 years in managing cases presenting with IH at a specialised vascular anomaly clinic. Main body of abstract This report included cases of IH who were attending the vascular anomaly clinic during the period 2015 through 2019. Data of all patients attending the clinic were retrospectively examined. Files of 103 cases with IH were available for review. The diagnosis of IH was usually straight forward owing to the typical history and characteristic findings at clinical examination. A significant female predominance was noticed. Generally, IH were more common in the head and neck region (70%). Active intervention was necessary in specific situations (eye occlusion, airway involvement, large lesions with skin ulcerations). Whenever intervention proved to be necessary, propranolol was chosen as the first line of treatment with a favourable response detected in about 90% of cases. Surgery was still a valid option (6%) for lesions amenable to resection; however, we must put in consideration that most lesions will spontaneously regress. Conclusion Infantile haemangiomas are common benign vascular tumours of infancy with relatively few complications. Cosmesis is a major concern especially for lesions affecting the face. Propranolol can induce tumour regression in most cases, and generally, a favourable outcome can be anticipated.
Inass Hassan Ahmad, Marwa Khairy Abd Elwahab, Mervat El Shahat El Wakeel, Mohamed A. M. Kamal, Marwa Elhady
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00063-1

Background Obesity-related oxidation stress plays a key role in obesity complications; however, its relation to thyroid status is an area for further research. The study aimed to assess thyroid function in obese children and its relation to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Results Fifty obese and 40 normal weight children were included. Anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, thyroid function, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine serum level as marker of oxidative DNA damage were measured. Thirty-six percent of children with obesity have subclinical hypothyroidism. Central obesity but not oxidative DNA damage and lipid profile was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Waist circumference > 97th centile increases the risk for subclinical hypothyroidism (odd ratio 10.82; confidence interval 95% 2.75–42.409; p-value<0.001). Conclusion Central obesity represents a risk factor for subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children. Oxidation DNA damage did not show significant association with subclinical hypothyroidism.
, Magdalena Potempa-Jeziorowska, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Marek Kucharzewski
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-19; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00060-4

Background The nutrition disorders in the children’s population, in the form of malnutrition, as well as overweight and obesity constitute a significant clinical problem in the contemporary world. As a result of the improper way of children’s nutrition, their physical and mental development becomes dysfunctional, which leads in their adult life to serious health consequences, among others, complications of cardiovascular system, metabolic and endocrinological and disorders, improper development of osteoarticular system and mental diseases and social withdrawal. Results Five hundred eighty-nine parents of children aged 10–13 participated in the survey questionnaire, where 304 respondents were constituted by girls (51.61%); however, the remaining 285 people were represented by boys (48.39%). It turned out that overweight and obesity concern approximately 44% of respondents; however, approximately 22% of children have too low body weight in relation to age and sex. While analysing dietary habits, it was observed that main meals are not consumed by all children; breakfast is consumed by approximately 90% of respondents, packed lunch just by 70% and lunch and supper by 90% of respondents. In the course of subsequent analyses, it turned out that over ¾ of respondents declared that their child drinks mineral water every day, only approximately 44% of them drink milk every day; however, almost 18% of children reach for sweet drinks. Children eat sweet or salty snacks too often (over 55% every day or several times a week), resigning from consuming fruit and vegetables (just half of respondents every day), fish and brown bread (below 30% of children eat these products less than once a week); every fifth child dedicates less than 3 h to physical activity, 39% of respondents do exercise from 3 to 5 h a week, the next 25% from 5 to 10 h. Conclusions It was observed in the analysed population that over half of them struggle with the degree of nutrition disorders in the form of overweight and obesity or malnutrition. We may conclude, based on the obtained results, that children have inappropriate dietary habits, consuming too small quantities of fruit and vegetables, brown bread, fish and drinking improper quantities of water and milk. Repeatedly, they replace these full-value products by consuming sweets and salty snacks and by drinking sweet drinks, they also more and more often reach for processed food in fast food bars. What is worrying, it was also observed that in the analysed population, children dedicate too little of their free time to physical activity and additional physical activities.
Tamer A. Abdel Hamid, Zahraa Mohamed Ezz Eldin, Ranya Aly Hegazy, Reem Ibrahim Esmail, Lamis Mohsen Ahmed El-Sholkamy
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00058-y

Background Better management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of neonates (PPHN) required new markers that can predict the response of patient to treatment and thus influence the medical decision to avoid short-term and long-term adverse effects. Hence, we aimed to evaluate B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in neonates with PPHN and to correlate its levels with disease severity and response to treatment. Patients and methods The study included 60 neonates (30 PPHN patients and 30 healthy subjects). BNP was assessed, using the ELISA technique, at admission and after 4 days of treatment. Results Initial serum BNP levels were significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Patients with mild severity showed lower BNP levels compared to patients with moderate severity, while patients with moderate severity showed decreased levels in comparison to severe cases (p < 0.001). The group of patients who showed remission after 4 days of treatment had lower pre-treatment and post-treatment BNP levels, compared to patients who showed incomplete remission. Initial levels of BNP showed strong positive correlations with pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and oxygenation index (OI) before treatment (r = 0.9, p < 0.001 and r = 0.85, p = 0.001), while BNP after treatment showed moderate positive correlations with PAP before treatment (r = 0.6, p = 0.001) and OI before treatment (r = 0.6, p = 0.001). Analysis of the ROC curve revealed an AUC of 0.83with CI = 0.7–0.98 and p = 0.003. Conclusions BNP may play a role in the pathogenesis of PPHN, and BNP serum level can be used as a marker to detect disease severity and predict response to treatment.
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00056-0

Background COVID-19 is the largest outbreak to strike humanity. The wide scale of fatalities and morbidities lead to a concurrent pandemic of uncertainty in scientific evidence. Conflicting evidences are released on daily basis about the neonatal outcomes of COVID-19-positive mothers. The aim of this study was to use the relevant case reports and series to determine the percentage of newborns who test positive for COVID-19 who are born to COVID-19-positive mothers. Secondary outcomes included examining laboratory abnormalities among COVID-19-positive neonates, and any depicted placental abnormalities in COVID-19-positive mothers. For this purpose, systematic review was performed on all studies reporting primary data on fetus-mother pairs with COVID-19. Data bases were searched for studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results Final screening revealed 67 studies, from which the primary data of 1787 COVID-19 mothers were identified and had their pregnancy outcome analyzed. Only 2.8% of infants born to COVID-19-positive mothers tested positive, and this finding is identical to percentages reported in former Coronaviridae outbreaks, whereas 20% manifested with intrauterine hypoxia alongside placental abnormalities suggestive of heavy placental vaso-occlusive involvement. Conclusions These findings suggest that while vertical transmission is unlikely, there appears to be an underlying risk of placental insufficiency due to the prothrombotic tendency observed in COVID-19 infection. Guidelines for proper prophylactic anticoagulation in COVID-positive mothers need to be established.
May Abdellatif, Ismail Mohamed Elhawary, Marwa Mohamed Mahmoud, Eman R. Youness, Walaa Alsharany Abuelhamd
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00059-x

Background A few published data on maternal and cord levels of zinc and copper with conflicting results were reported. We aimed to measure zinc and copper levels in the maternal blood and cord blood of newborns and correlate their levels with the gestational age and anthropometric measurements. This cross-sectional study included 75 full-term and preterm neonates and their mothers. These neonates were divided into 2 groups according to their gestational age. Serum levels of copper and zinc were estimated for the mothers of the studied neonates as well as their cord samples. This was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The mean cord serum zinc in full term was 0.88 ± 0.18 μg/ml whereas in preterms was 0.73 ± 0.13 μg/ml. The mean cord copper in full term was 1.37 ± 0.26 μg/ml, whereas in preterms was 0.75 ± 0.28 μg/ml. Comparison between cord zinc and copper levels and maternal levels were statistically significant (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between zinc levels in neonates and their mothers (r 0.644; p < 0.000) and a similar positive correlation was found between copper levels in neonates and their mothers (r 0.625; p 0.000). A highly significant positive correlation was found between cord zinc and copper and anthropometric measurements. Conclusion The present work draws our attention to the significant correlation between trace elements in pregnant mothers and fetal development. Also, prematurity adversely influences zinc and copper levels in neonates.
Nora El Said Badawi, Mona Hafez, Heba Sharaf Eldin, Hend Mehawed Abdelatif, Shimaa Atef, Mohamed Mohamed Ismail,
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00057-z

Background The debate for the optimum sodium concentration in the rehydration solution in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) persists till the moment. The aim was to compare the outcome of 0.9% saline versus 0.45% saline in children with moderate and severe (DKA) regarding the effect on serum electrolytes, duration of DKA resolution and the incidence of hyperchloremia. Results A retrospective analysis of 121 children with moderate or severe DKA was done. After the initial 4 h in which both groups received normal saline, patients were divided into two groups continuing on 0.9% (N=72) or switched to 0.45% saline (N=49). Serum chloride and Cl/Na ratios were significantly higher in 0.9% saline group at 4 and 8 h. The 0.9% saline group had significantly higher proportion of hyperchloremia at 4 and 8 h (P value: 0.002, 0.02). The median duration of correction of DKA (14 h among 0.9% saline versus 10 h among 0.45% saline) without significant difference (P value= 0.43). The change in plasma glucose, effective osmolarity, corrected Na levels were comparable between groups. Conclusion There is an unavoidable iatrogenically induced rise in serum chloride with higher incidence of hyperchloremia with the use of normal saline in rehydration of children presenting in DKA and shock. The use of 0.45% saline as post-bolus rehydration fluid is not associated with a decline in the corrected serum sodium concentration and does not affect the rate of correction of acidosis or rate of drop in blood glucose or duration of DKA resolution when compared to normal saline.
Aliaa M. Diab, Ghada S. Abdelmotaleb, Khaled Abdel-Azim Eid, Enas Sebaey S. Mostafa, Eman Sabry Ahmed
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00052-4

Background The quality of life of B-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients has improved with the use of frequent blood transfusions. However, this leads to chronic iron overload with its sequelae, as prediabetes and diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to assess insulin resistance and glucose abnormalities in a sample of B-thalassemia major patients in Benha, Egypt. Results This case-control study included 40 B-thalassemia major patients on regular blood transfusion and iron chelation. Their ages ranged from 8 to 16 years, and 30 normal age and sex-matched controls. Thorough clinical examination was performed including weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), and liver and spleen size. Laboratory investigations were done in the form of complete blood count, liver enzymes, serum ferritin, fasting plasma insulin, and fasting, and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose. Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Insulin resistance was found in 27.5% of thalassemic patients; 18.2% of them had diabetes, 72.7% were prediabetics (with impaired fasting glycemia), and 9.1% had normal fasting and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose level. Insulin resistance increased significantly with increased blood transfusion duration, serum ferritin, liver enzymes, fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (ROC). The curve analysis showed that the duration of blood transfusion, serum ferritin, fasting plasma insulin, fasting, and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose could significantly predict insulin resistance at a certain cut-off point. Conclusion Our data show that HOMA-IR can be used to detect insulin resistance in β-TM patients on long-term blood transfusions, especially patients with high serum ferritin and impaired liver enzymes.
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, Volume 69, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s43054-021-00055-1

Background This study demonstrates the experience of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary referral center in Egypt in management of prematures with neonatal sepsis. This retrospective study included preterm neonates admitted to NICU with clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of sepsis. Blood culture was done followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing for positive cases. Neonates with sepsis were classified into early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Hematological scoring system (HSS) for detection of sepsis was calculated. Results The study included 153 cases of neonatal sepsis; 63 (41.2%) EOS and 90 (58.8%) LOS. The majority of the neonates had very low or moderately low birth weight (90.9%). All neonates received first-line antibiotics in the form of ampicillin-sulbactam, and gentamicin. Second-line antibiotics were administered to 133 neonates (86.9%) as vancomycin and imipenem-cilastatin. Mortalities were more common among EOS group (p < 0.017). Positive blood cultures were detected in 61 neonates (39.8%) with a total number of 66 cultures. The most commonly encountered organisms were Klebsiella MDR and CoNS (31.8% each). Klebsiella MDR was the most predominant organism in EOS (28.9%), while CoNS was the most predominant in LOS (39.2%) The detected organisms were divided into 3 families; Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermenters, and Gram-positive family. There 3 families were 100% resistant to ampicillin. The highest sensitivity in Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenters was for colistin and polymyxin-B. An HSS of 3–8 had a sensitivity and specificity of 62.3% and 57.6%, respectively for diagnosis of culture-proven sepsis. Conclusion Neonatal sepsis was encountered in 21.5% of admitted preterm neonates; LOS was more common (58.8%). Mortality was 51.6%. Klebsiella MDR and CoNS were the most commonly encountered organisms in both EOS and LOS. The isolated families were 100% resistant to ampicillin. The hematological scoring system (HSS) showed limited sensitivity for detection of sepsis.
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