Neurology and Neurobiology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2613-7828 / 2613-7828
Published by: Science Repository OU (10.31487)
Total articles ≅ 46
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Jason C. O’Connor, Grace A. Porter
Published: 25 September 2021
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.03.03

Abstract:
Chronic stress is a well-known risk factor in major depressive disorder and disrupts the kynurenine and serotonin pathways of tryptophan metabolism. Here, we characterize the temporal central and peripheral changes in tryptophan metabolism and concomitant depressive-like behavioural phenotype induced during the progression of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Mice were exposed to 0, 10, 20, or 30 days of CUS followed by a panel of behavioural assays to determine depressive-like phenotypes. Immediately after behavioural testing, plasma and brain tissue were collected for metabolic analysis. While anhedonia-like and anxiety-like behaviours were unaffected by stress, nesting behaviour and cognitive deficits became apparent in response to CUS exposure. While CUS caused a transient reduction in circulating quinolinic acid, no other tryptophan metabolites significantly changed in response to CUS. In the brain, tryptophan, kynurenine, picolinic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations were significantly elevated in CUS-exposed mice compared with non-stress control animals, while kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and serotonin decreased in CUS-exposed mice. Metabolic turnover of serotonin to the major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was markedly increased in response to CUS. These results suggest that CUS impairs hippocampal-dependent working memory and enhances nascent nesting behaviour in C57BL/6J male mice, and these behaviours are associated with increased brain kynurenine pathway metabolism leading to accumulation of picolinic acid and a significant reduction in serotonin levels.
Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sarita Agrawal, Sushila Jaiswal, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sanjay Behari, Swasti Tewari, Madam Mohan Godbole, Prabhakar Misra
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.03.02

Abstract:
Background: Development of different molecular markers has given a new insight in the glioma management. KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion has a diagnostic and prognostic significance. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion in glioma and their correlation with various clinical parameters. Material and Methods: Forty cases of glioma were studied for KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results: Overall, KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion was found in 22% (9/40) cases of glioma. Children had higher KIAA1549-BRAF fusion (72%; 8/11) as compared to adults (10%; 3/29) and this difference was statistically significant. Cerebellar location of tumor was significantly associated with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion was highest in pilocytic astrocytoma (89%), and this difference was statistically significant. Statistically significant difference was noted between KIAA1549-BRAF fusion expression and WHO grade I glioma. Conclusion: Overall, KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion was found in 22% (9/40) cases of glioma. Childhood age, pilocytic astrocytoma histology, cerebellar location and WHO grade I tumor were significantly associated with KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion.
Sharron Dolan, Nasser M Alorfi
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.03.01

Abstract:
Obesity is associated with several co-morbidities including chronic pain. Systemic low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been proposed to underlie these phenomena. This study characterized pain and inflammation, and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine visfatin, in a rodent model of obesity, and investigated whether treatment with the visfatin inhibitor, FK866, has anti-inflammatory and/or analgesic effects in normal and obese rats. The effects of pre-administration of FK866 (3, 10 mg/kg; i.p.) on carrageenan (3%; i.d. into the left paw)-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity and paw oedema was measured in adult male Wistar rats fed a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. HFD-fed rats displayed an increased sensitivity to acute mechanical nociceptive stimulation, and potentiated mechanical hyperalgesia and peripheral inflammation to carrageenan. Levels of circulating visfatin were increased in HFD-fed rats. Treatment with FK866, a visfatin inhibitor, was effective in reducing carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and paw oedema in both ND-fed and HFD-fed rats. These data show that FK866 has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The potentiated response to pain and inflammation, and elevated visfatin levels in HFD-fed rats supports the hypothesis that obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Reversal of this co-morbidity by blocking visfatin may be a novel therapeutic strategy for managing pain with obesity.
Nagy Mekhail, Youssef Saweris, Lou-Anne Acevedo-Moreno
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.02.04

Abstract:
Objective: To explore whether saline is a real sham/placebo agent, or it has potential therapeutic effects when used as control treatment in randomized controlled trials for the management of discogenic low back pain. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted investigating the effects of saline as a placebo in the treatment of chronic pain when administered into the intervertebral disc. Following stepwise filtering, selected articles were assessed for their levels of evidence, followed by a discussion of their contribution to the understanding of the role of saline in chronic pain management. Results: Out of 95 articles that described the administration of intradiscal saline solution used as a placebo for chronic pain management, 8 articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Their levels of evidence ranged from 1a to 4 (Oxford Centre CEBM). Intradiscal administration of saline solution was found to have measurable therapeutic benefits. In some studies, the pain relief was similar to that provided by local anaesthetics and steroids. Conclusion: Although the exact mechanism of the analgesic effects of saline is not clear, yet the use of intradiscal saline appears to have some analgesic benefits like local anaesthetics and steroids when used individually. Researchers should practice caution when designing RCTs using intradiscal saline injection as a sham/placebo treatment for the control arm or maybe, when possible, avoid the use of intradiscal saline injection as a sham treatment.
Merrill Singer
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.02.03

Abstract:
Children born into and raised in disadvantaged families tend to experience poorer health and more developmental delays, lower achievement, and a greater number of behavioural and emotional problems than children from wealthier homes. There is growing evidence that poverty and social inequality leave their imprint on brain structure as well. The brain exhibits considerable plasticity, one expression of which is shaped by the biology of inequality. A specific consequence is cognitive deficit found among children raised in poverty and subject to social discrimination. This paper argues that several pathways impacted by poverty, including chronic stress, malnutrition, exposure to heightened levels of air pollution, and other toxin exposures, syndemically link social inequality to underlying neural mechanisms and to suboptimal brain development and structure. These deficits need not be permanent and are reversible through urgently needed structural, socio-economic intervention.
Sidra Batool, Muhammad Sibte Hasan Mahmood, Tiyyaba Furqan, Muaaz Karim
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.02.02

Abstract:
Alzheimer’s is a progressive mental deterioration associated with the degeneration of the cognition activities and memory loss. It is considered to be a multifactorial disease. One of the causes of the Alzheimer’s disease is the low concentration of the neurotransmitter named acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic cleft. Thus, inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme whose function is to degrade the acetylcholine, is proved to be a promising candidate to treat this disease. Among the inhibitors are the natural alkaloids that also have an inhibitory effect on the AChE. In this study we have focused on the simple derivates of beta carbolime (a group of alkaloids) and studied their interaction with AChE via rigid protein-ligand docking approach.
James Holt, Selina Robertson, Simon McCrory
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.02.01

Abstract:
Background: We present two patients with the Lewis-Sumner variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), charting the diagnostic challenge posed by their clinical presentation and electrodiagnostic findings. The learning points center on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing a definitive diagnosis when clinical and neurophysiology data do not otherwise add up. Cases: The first patient presented with slowly progressive asymmetric distal weakness of the lower limbs with wasting, weakness, areflexia and numbness on examination. The second patient experienced stepwise asymmetric hand/forearm weakness with deformity and areflexia, plus mild distal sensory impairment. Neurophysiological studies for both patients were initially most suggestive of mononeuritis multiplex, with no evidence of demyelination. Conclusion: The possibility of asymmetric or multifocal CIDP, the Lewis-Sumner variant, should not be forgotten in suspected mononeuritis multiplex and the value of MRI in such cases is discussed.
Catarina Cunha, German Todorov, David Ashurov
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.01.02

Abstract:
Mental health disorders are manifested in families yet cannot be fully explained by classical Mendelian genetics. Changes in gene expression via epigenetics present a plausible mechanism. Anxiety often leads to avoidant behaviours, which upon repetition may become habitual, maladaptive, and resistant to extinction as observed in obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Psychophysical models of OCD propose that anxiety (amygdala) and habits (dorsolateral striatum, DLS) may be causally linked. The amygdala activates spiny projection neurons in the DLS. Repetitive amygdala terminal stimulation in the DLS elicits long-term OCD-like behaviour in mice associated with circuitry changes and gene methylation-mediated decrease in protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Treatment of OCD-like grooming behaviour in Slitrk5, SAPAP3, and laser-stimulated mice with one dose of RG108 (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor), leads to marked symptom improvement lasting for at least one week as well as a complete reversal of abnormal changes in the circuitry and PP1 activity.
Athanasios Drigas, Georgia Kokkalia, Alexandra Economou
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2021.01.01

Abstract:
In recent years, more and more researchers have been investigating cognitive and metacognitive skills that seem to be related to the improvement of the performance of kindergarten children. In this paper, we present the cognitive processes that are related to it, such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive function, and processing speed. In addition, we refer to metacognitive skills and their role in controlling and regulating cognitive processes in order to improve children’s performance. Finally, we present a new taxonomy of skills, the pyramid of 8 levels, as well as their gradual development through the appropriate cognitive and metacognitive mechanisms. In this study, a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach is attempted by collecting and utilizing data from sciences such as cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and philosophy. The research has led us to the 8 layers that underpin metacognition in preschoolers following the model of the hierarchical organization of knowledge.
Weidong Yang, Cong Fu, Yiyao Cao, Zhijuan Chen, Qing Yu
Published: 31 December 2020
Neurology and Neurobiology, Volume 2020, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.nnb.2020.04.03

Abstract:
The diffuse midline glioma, H3K27M-mutant subtype, occurs mainly in children as a result of mutations in the histone H3 (H3F3A) and HIST1H3B (K27M) genes and is characterized by diffuse tumor growth in central nervous system (CNS) midline structures. Due to its nonspecific clinical manifestations, viral encephalitis is often confused with other central nervous system diseases. In this case, we reported a young male patient who was admitted to the hospital chiefly complaining of “diplopia for more than two months and aggravated walking instability for more than 10 days”. After admission, relevant patient blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests were completed, and no obvious abnormalities were found. Chest CT suggested pulmonary infection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced CT, PET-CT and other imaging examinations of the head all indicated a high possibility of viral encephalitis. Symptoms of fever were improved in the patient after treatment with antiviral therapy and anti-infection therapy. However, symptoms of neurological function loss, such as double vision and adverse right limb movement, persisted. Finally, stereotactic biopsies of deep brain lesions were carried out and sent to the pathology department, which led to a diagnosis of diffuse midline glioma, H3K27M-mutant subtype (WHO IV). His family chose to perform conservative treatment in another hospital, and the patient died four months later. To conclude, when clinical symptoms of suspected viral encephalitis appear in the course of diffuse midline glioma, it can result in confusion regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians should ensure proper early recognition and identification of the disease.
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