INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
Latest articles in this journal
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 78-80; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/4102890
Background: Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a devastating disease that is characterized by necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal region. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the key component of its treatment. However, there is paucity of data regarding the optimal empirical antibiotic therapy for FG. Materials and Methods: Data from patients who underwent surgery for FG was retrieved from a prospectively collected departmental FG database. Demographics, clinical characteristics, causative pathogens and drug susceptibility/resistance were evaluated. Outcome was also assessed in terms of mortality. Results: Fifty patients with a median age of 58.5 (40-83) years were included. The perianal region and scrotum (88%) were the most commonly affected. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was the most common comorbidity (92%). The median time to onset of symptoms was 7 (2-15) days, and the median duration of hospital stay was 22 (4-65) days. Ventilator requirement was required in 15 (30%) patients. The median UFGSI score was 9.5 (3-15). The overall mortality rate was 26%. A positive growth was found in specimen cultures of 48 (96%) patients. The median number of bacterial strains that grew in the cultures was 3 (0-10). Amikacin was the antibiotic with the highest frequency of sensitivity (74%), while the highest resistance was observed against ampicillin-sulbactam (64%). Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism (68%). Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumonia were signicantly more common in patients who required mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 26%. An Uludag Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (UFGSI) score of > 9.5 and ventilatory support requirement were factors associated with an increased rate of mortality. Acinetobacter baumannii was the only microorganism which was associated with an increased mortality rate. Conclusion: Causative pathogens in FG appeared to be shifting; thus, empirical antibiotic treatment for this disease should be modied. We recommend 3rd-generation cephalosporin, metronidazole and amikacin for empirical therapy.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 51-53; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/6313693
Since Independence, UEE has been solitary imperative goal of educational progress in India. To achieve UEE, Government of India has initiated numerous programmes but it is sad that dropout rate is not declined. A foremost percentage of the dropouts comprises of socially underprivileged children. Most of the children have to effort very hard to earn their livelihood, and reside in slums. Recent approaches in the education technology like applications of multimedia by computer technology prove to cater to the various requirements of students in the educational system. Multimedia is a sole medium with structures of quality, audio-visual recording, and sound effects. Using Multimedia Approach, in teaching-learning process, is a perceptual knowledge, and as outcome students acquires the concepts and skills effectively. The present study was carried out with the objective to study the effect of the multi-media approach in relation to traditional approach in fostering selected Mathematics Competencies among Slum Students. The sample of the study was 40 slum students of standard six. The pre-posttest experimental design was followed for the present research study. The treatment for the Experimental group was given by the investigator for 40 sessions specically to foster Mathematics Competencies using a specially designed instructional material. Analysis of the results revealed, that Multi-Media Approach was signicantly more effective than of the traditional approach in fostering selected Mathematics Competencies among Slum students. Educational implications of the study were discussed in the study
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 32-34; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/2801288
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome has been one of a major public health problem. It causes multifactorial in etiology such as menstrual dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity which increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Prolactin has been reported as a potent lipogenic and diabetogenic factor, that affecting energy balance and fuel metabolism. The present study was designed to assess serum prolactin and insulin resistance in PCOS women and to compare them with healthy women as controls. Material And Methods: A comparative study including 50 women newly diagnosed as PCOS and 50 healthy women as controls was conducted. The age group for the study was 18-35 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn to assess serum prolactin, serum insulin and fasting blood sugar. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: A signicant increase in fasting serum insulin (p<0.001) and HOMA – IR (p<0.001) were found in patients with PCOS in comparison with controls. Prolactin and FPG were found elevated in the PCOS women and were statistically signicant. Conclusions: The current study provides further evidence that signicantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA in PCOS group indicates presence of IR. IR in PCOS group may have a potential role in the prediction of dysglycemic disease in women with PCOS. This study found signicant correlation between serum prolactin and serum insulin
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 35-38; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/6501338
Introduction: The three commonest types of Meningitis are Bacterial, Viral and Tubercular; they differ in their pathophysiology and management. That is why early differentiation between them is important. Bacterial meningitis have heavy fatality rates whereas Tubercular meningitis inicts severe neurological sequalae. Aims & Objectives: To determine whether ADA and CRP can be used successfully to predict the type of Meningitis affection Methodology: This is a Hospital based cross-sectional observation study which was undertaken in Biochemistry dept. Medical College, Kolkata. Eighty cases of meningitis were taken. ADA and CRP was measured along with Protein, Sugar and Differential staining cell counting. The cases were divided into three groups (Bacterial, Viral, and Tubercular) on the basis of microscopic and Biochemical Examination. Results & Analysis: ANNOVA test was done along with Bon Ferronis Test which revealed that there was signicant difference in mean of ADA & CRP in the three different groups.ROC curve for CRP between Reactive and Non-reactive meningitis revealed that if CRP values are more than 11.0, 95% of the cases were reactive whereas ROC curve for ADA between Tubercular and Non Tubercular forms showed when the concentration was more then 9.0, 95% of the cases were of Tubercular origin. Conclusion: When taken together ADA and CRP successfully predict the type of Meningitis. It is also helpful in diagnosing those cases when the Cell count and type was equivocal.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 39-41; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/5401369
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to assess the shoulder function after antegrade interlocking humerus nailing in humerus shaft fractures, duration of union, complications (immediate and late) of this xation. METHODS: In this prospective study 40 cases with humerus shaft fractures were treated with antegrade interlocking humerus nailing and followed up for functional outcomes and complications. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 18 to 57 years. The assessment of shoulder function was made according to CONSTANT score. Out of 40 patients shoulder function was excellent in 35 cases (87.5%), very good in 3 cases (7.5%) and fair in 1 case (2.5%). Period of fracture union ranged from 12 to 18 weeks, average period being 13.7 weeks. None had iatrogenic radial nerve injury and/or infection. CONCLUSION: We concluded that Locked intramedullary nailing is a novel treatment option for diaphyseal fractures of the humerus. By making correct entry, repairing rotator cuff, placing the nail inside proximal end and proper physiotherapy; shoulder function outcome can be improved to excellent in cases of humerus diaphyseal fractures treated with antegrade interlocking humerus nailing.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 77-79; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/9602505
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 2019 stated that about 8 million healthcare workers are potentially exposed to hazardous drugs in their workplace. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), 2019 reported around 16.9% of nurses had their skin or eyes exposed to chemotherapy drugs. Widespread use of cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of cancer has led to higher health hazards among nurses who handle and administer such drugs, so nurses should know how to protect themselves from the effects of cytotoxic drugs by following safety measures during preparation, administration of cytotoxic drugs, cytotoxic waste disposal, cytotoxic spills and rationale use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) like mask, cap, two pairs of gloves, gown and shoe cover. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge regarding safe handling of cytotoxic drugs among staff nurses working in selected hospitals, Kamrup(Metro), Assam. Methods And Materials: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted on safe handling of cytotoxic drugs among staff nurses.100 staff nurses who were working in selected hospitals, Kamrup (Metro), Assam and who fullled the inclusion criteria have been selected by using convenience sampling technique. The conceptual framework used in the study was based on modied Ludwig Von Bertalanffy (1968) general system theory. The tools used for the study were structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding safe handling of cytotoxic drugs. Results: Data analysis was done by calculating mean, SD and chi-square test. It was found that majority i.e.56% of the staff nurses had moderate knowledge, 38% had adequate knowledge and 6% had inadequate knowledge. There was signicant association of knowledge with selected demographic variables like working area, physical contact towards cytotoxic drugs exposure and training attended on safe handling of cytotoxic drugs. However, there was no signicant association of knowledge with other demographic variables i.e. age, educational qualication, specialized oncology training, total years of working experience and total years of experience in specic working area. Conclusion: Through this study, the investigator concluded that staff nurses are moderately aware regarding safe handling of cytotoxic drugs. It was expected that all the staff nurses should have adequate knowledge on safe handling of cytotoxic drugs. An information booklet was provided to the staff nurses of selected hospitals and vigorous training should also be provided to the staff nurses inorder to update their body of knowledge.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 9-12; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/5803050
Introduction: Tuberculosis is a disease that affects mostly young individuals in their productive formative years. The risk is 20–37 times greater in HIV co- infected individuals than among those without HIV. Spinal tuberculosis is uncommon in the western world as compared to Asian countries. But it is e-emerging in Western Countries due to the HIV pandemic. Aim Of The Study: This study analysis the clinical presentation, neuroradiology manifestations, and treatment aspects of spinal tuberculosis. Design: Observational study. Materials And Methods: Patients admitted in government Royapettah hospital during the year July 2018- February 2020 in the general medical ward with the diagnosis of paraplegia / paraparesis and subsequently diagnosed with spinal tuberculosis were recruited for the study. 35 of them were diagnosed to have spinal tuberculosis after Inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history was taken, examination was done and appropriate imaging (MRI Spine, CT Chest) was taken. Results: 1 (2.9 %) patient had intramedullary lesion in the form of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. 34 (97.1 %) patients had extra medullary lesion. 26 (74.3 %) patients underwent medical management. All of them were started on CAT I ATT DOTS regimen along with steroids. 9 (25.7 %) of them underwent both surgical and medical management. Conclusion: The prime aim of treatment of spinal tuberculosis is prevention of deformity so that patients can have a better quality of life. Paramount to this is a high index of suspicion, early detection and initiation of treatment. A holistic treatment approach in all cases of spinal tuberculosis is needed to prevent this dreaded complication.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 42-45; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/3501466
Hypothermia is one of the main risk factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Most of the studies found that newborn babies of developing countries have a highest risk of LBW and preterm due to low socio economic condition so the neonates have a highest chance to get hypothermia. . Neonatal hypothermia is caused more due to lack of knowledge among the nurses than lack of the equipment like radiant warmer, blower, and incubator. The newborn baby has immature thermoregulatory controls during the early neonatal period. So, nursing personnel need to focus here. The aim Aim: of the study was to assess the Knowledge and practice on prevention of neonatal hypothermia among the nurses. A descriptive researc Methods and Materials: h design used to accomplish the objectives. Study was undertaken on 60 nurses working in NICU and postnatal ward in selected hospitals, Kamrup (M) Assam by using convenience sampling technique.Participents were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Structure knowledge questionnaires, observation checklist were used to assess knowledge and practice. A descri Conceptual framework: ptive research design was used in this study and convenience sampling technique for obtaining adequate sample technique for obtaining adequate sampling technique for obtaining adequate sample for the study. Study was undertaken on 60 nurses in selected hospitals of Kamrup (M), Assam with the inclusive criteria. Knowledge questionnaire and observation checklist was used to assess knowledge and practice on prevention of neonatal hypothermia among the nurses. In this study, modied Nola J Pender's health promotion model was used for conceptual framework. In knowledge, majority 57% of Results: respondents had moderate knowledge, 38% of the respondents had inadequate knowledge and 5% of the respondent had adequate knowledge on prevention of neonatal hypothermia. In practice, majority 62% of respondents had fair practice, 38% had good practice and 0% had poor practice on prevention of neonatal hypothermia. The mean score of knowledge was 15.20±3.74 and the mean score of practice was 9.20±1.31. The calculated Karl Pearson's Correlation Value of r = 0.259 shows a positive correlation between knowledge and practice scores which clearly infers that when the knowledge on prevention of neonatal hypothermia among the Nurses increases their practice level also increases. There was signicant association of knowledge and practice with demographic variable like educational qualication and working area. However there was no signicant association the knowledge score and practice score with their selected demographic like age in year,gender,work experience and training attended. Thus the study concluded that majority of the nurses had moderat Conclusion: e knowledge and practice on prevention of neonatal hypothermia. The nurses need continuous in –service and training education with continuous observation of practice on prevention of neonatal hypothermia which will help to increase their knowledge as well as their practices
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 59-63; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/1801906
The knowledge andpractice towards COVID-19 play a major role in prevention and control of COVID-19 and thus reduce disease burden in the society.Due to the high probability of infection, complications, co-morbidity and mortality in older people, it seems necessary to focus on their level of knowledge and practices towards COVID-19. The aim of the study was to Aim: assess and compare the level of knowledge and practice towards COVID-19 among elderly residing in selected area of urban and rural community,Kamrup,Assam. The research approach adopted for the study was quantitati Methods and materials: ve researchapproach. Non experimental comparative research design and interview method was used in this study.Purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples.The study was conducted in the selected area of urban and rural community,Kamrup,Assam,who fullled the inclusion criteria.The tools used for the study were structured knowledge questionnaire and practice questionnaire in the form of inventory checklist to assess the level of knowledge and practice towards COVID-19 among elderly . The study revealed that Result: in the urban community, majority i.e 88% of the elderly had adequate knowledge,12% of the elderly had moderately adequate knowledge towards COVID-19 and in terms of practice towards COVID-19,majority i.e 88% of the elderly had adequate practice,12% of the elderly had moderately adequate practice.Whereasin the rural community,majorityi.e 94% of the elderly had adequate knowledge,6% of the elderly had moderately adequate knowledge towards COVID-19 andin terms of practice towards COVID-19, majority i.e 68% of the elderly had adequate practice,32% of the elderly had moderately adequate practice .There was no signicant difference in the level of knowledge towards COVID-19 but there was signicant difference in the level of practice towards COVID-19 among elderly between urban and rural community.There was positive co-relation between the knowledge and practice towards COVID-19 among elderly residing in urban and rural community.In the urban community it was found that there was signicant association between the level of knowledge towards COVID-19 withoocupation,religion and type of family of the elderly and also there was signicant association between the level of practice towards COVID-19 with previous information regarding COVID-19 of the elderly. None of the demographic variableshad statistically signicant association with the level of knowledge and practice towards COVID-19 among elderly residing in rural community.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH pp 5-7; https://doi.org/10.36106/ijar/9300284
Background: Proximal humerus fractures are common and debilitating injuries. These fractures have a dual age distribution occurring either in young people following high energy trauma Usually high energy trauma associated with dislocation or in those older than 60 years with low-velocity injuries like simple fall, especially in elderly patients is due to osteoporosis and deforming forces of muscle attached. Wide range of treatment modalities ranging from conservative management to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The non-operative method gives good results in stable and minimally displaced fractures. Displaced humeral neck fractures used to be managed conservatively in the past, but these were complicated by loss of reduction, malunion, non-union, stiffness and ultimately poor functional outcome. We took up this study to assess the efcacy and functional outcome of P.H.I.L.O.S. plating in proximal humerus. Our objectives are to study the fracture pattern with the Neer's criteria, to reconstruct the proximal humerus fracture anatomically with Philos plate, allow early shoulder mobilization and assessing the functional outcome using Constant Murley score. It is an Materials and methods: observational study of 30 patients (18 females and 12 males) with proximal humerus fractures that attended to the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Rangaraya medical college, Kakinada from December 2018 to December 2020. The mean follow-up Results: period was 12 months. Two patients lost follow-up. Of the remaining 28 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. At the nal follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 69.2 (range 50 -100). The results were excellent in 3, good in 12, fair in 10 patients, poor in 3 patients. During the follow-up 4 cases had varus mal-union, 5 had stiffness of the shoulder, 2 had supercial infection and1 had screw penetration. No cases of hardware failure, locking screw loosening or non-union were noted. T Conclusion: he divergent and convergent orientation of the locking screws of PHILOS plate provides stable biological xation with good radiological union. It minimises the soft tissue dissection and gives both axial and angular stability hence, reducing the risk of fracture displacement.