Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics

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EISSN : 2090-2441
Total articles ≅ 168
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Hanan M. Bedair, Mohamed H. Attia, , Fatma M. Khalaf, Sahar Badr El-Din, Hatem Rabie
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00183-8

Abstract:
Background There are several genetic mutations that carry prognostic and predictive values in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They are also implicated in disease pathogenesis and patient outcome. They can be a target of novel therapies for AML. The aim of the current study was to investigate prognostic value of Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) genotypes and human myeloid inhibitory C-type lectin-like (hMICL) receptor expression in normal-cytogenetic group of patients with AML. Genotyping of WT1 mutations was done by Rotor Gene real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while hMICL expression was detected using phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated mouse monoclonal anti-human (MoAbs) by flow cytometry. Results Sixty-three patients with cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) were included in the study. The alternate allele of WT1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16754 was found in 26.89%. At day 28 of therapy, complete remission was achieved in 100% of cases harboring mutant AG plus GG genotypes but only in 6.38% of cases harboring wild genotype (AA). After 6 months, 88.23% of patients harboring WT1 mutant genotype maintained complete remission, while only 23.40% of patients with wild type showed complete remission. The overall survival in patients harboring mutant WT1 genotypes was significantly longer than in those who carried the wild type gene (P-value, 0.001). Additionally, hMICL was overexpressed in approximately 87.3% of AML cases and inversely related to complete response. Similarly, overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with positive hMICL (P-value, 0.001). Conclusion Mutant WT1 genotypes (SNP rs16754) were conversely, associated with complete response, and hMICL overexpression had poor prognostic value in AML.
Riyan Al Islam Reshad, Sayka Alam, Humaira Binte Raihan, Kamrun Nahar Meem, Fatima Rahman, Fardin Zahid, Ikram Rafid, S. M. Obaydur Rahman, Sadman Omit, Hazrat Ali
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00182-9

Abstract:
Background Curcuma longa (Turmeric) is a traditionally used herb in wound healing. The efficacy of fresh turmeric paste to heal wounds has already been investigated in multiple ethnobotanical studies. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in wound healing and injury repair processes which has been evident in different in vitro studies. This study aims to analyze the potentiality of curcuminoids (curcumin I, curcumin II and curcumin III) from Curcuma longa to bind and enhance the activity of two intracellular signaling proteins- casein kinase-1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3B) involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study is largely based on a computer-based molecular docking program which mimics the in vivo condition and works on a specific algorithm to interpret the binding affinity and poses of a ligand molecule to a receptor. Subsequently, drug likeness property, ADME/Toxicity profile, pharmacological activity, and site of metabolism of the curcuminoids were also analyzed. Results Curcumin I showed better affinity of binding with CK1 (− 10.31 Kcal/mol binding energy) and curcumin II showed better binding affinity (− 7.55 Kcal/mol binding energy) for GSK3B. All of the ligand molecules showed quite similar pharmacological properties. Conclusion Curcumin has anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant, and anti-infective properties. Curcumin has also anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. It hastens wound healing by acting on different stages of the natural wound healing process. In this study, three curcumins from Curcuma longa were utilized in this experiment in a search for a drug to be used in wound healing and injury repair processes. Hopefully, this study will raise research interest among researchers.
, Ayat Allah Farouk Hussein, Mahmoud Abdel Moety Monzer, Saida Ali Hammad
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00184-7

Abstract:
Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most widely recognized type of dementia. It is associated with cell cycle abnormalities including genomic instability and increased micronuclei (MNi) which usually evolve many years before the appearance of the clinical manifestations. Digital electroencephalogram (EEG) has a role in perceiving brain changes in dementia and in early detection of cognitive decline. This study aimed to assess the competency of using neurophysiological markers including absolute power of alpha waves and a cytogenetic marker which comprises scoring of MNi as a step toward early and preclinical diagnosis of AD. The study was conducted on 27 subjects; they were 15 patients diagnosed as sporadic AD and a group of 12 age and sex-matched controls. All subjects were subjected to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), conventional EEG, digital EEG, and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Conventional EEG showed a normal background activity with no abnormal epileptogenic discharges in both groups. Digital EEG showed significant reduction of the absolute power of alpha waves for AD patients as compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). Score of MNi showed statistical significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). By linking scores of both cognitive state using MMSE and MNi among the group of patients, a significant negative correlation was detected (r = −0.6066). The correlations between cognitive state and the absolute power of alpha wave among the patients revealed a positive correlation (r = 0.2235). Conclusions The combination of both cytogenetic and neurophysiological markers can be beneficial for early detection of cognitive decline and may lead to preclinical identification of individuals at increased risk for AD, where at this stage treatment is constructive. The negative correlation between the scores of MNi and MMSE is suggestive for the impact of genomic instability on the cognitive state.
Muhammad Tukur Ibrahim, Adamu Uzairu, Gideon Adamu Shallangwa, Sani Uba
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00181-w

Abstract:
Background The treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-muted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains among the utmost important unachieved therapeutic need worldwide. Development of EGFR inhibitors to treat NSCLC mutations has been among the difficult tasks faced by researchers in this area. As such, there is a need to discover more EGFR inhibitors. The purpose of this work is to perform computer-aided/structure-based design of novel EGFR inhibitors, elucidate their nature of interactions with their target, and also assess their ADMET properties as well as their drug-likeness, respectively. Compound 17 with a highest binding affinity of −9.5kcal/mol was identified as the template hit compound using molecular docking virtual screening in our previous work. The compound interacted with the active site of the EGFR receptor via hydrogen bond with the following amino acid residues MET793, MET793, THR854, and ASP855 with bond distances of 2.61394 (Å), 2.18464 (Å), 2.57601 (Å), and 2.68794 (Å), respectively. It also interacted with the active site of the EGFR receptor via halogen bond (GLN791), hydrophobic bond (LEU718, CYS797, LYS745, ALA743, ALA743, and VAL726), electrostatic bond (LYS745), and others (MET766), respectively. Furthermore, from our previous study, the following descriptors (ATSC6m, ATSC8e, MATS7m, SpMax3_Bhp, SpMax5_Bhs, and MaxHBint10) contained in the reported model were found to be responsible for the inhibitory activities of the studied compounds. In this research, the template (compound 17) was modified manually by attaching halo-phenyl and halo-phenyl-amino rings on the para position of the flouro-nitro-benzamide moiety of the template compound, respectively. Results A computer-aided design/structure-based approach was used to design six new EGFR inhibitors using molecule 17 as the template compound for the design identified in our previously reported work. Molecular docking investigation was performed to elucidate the binding mode of these newly designed EGFR inhibitors with the binding pose of EGFR receptor (pdb code 4ZAU) and found to have better affinities which range from −9.5 to −10.4 kcal/mol than the template compound and gefitinib, the control, respectively. The ADMET property assessment of these newly designed EGFR inhibitors indicated that they were orally bioavailable with good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretory properties with no toxicity. And for their drug-likeness, they were seen to have a higher molecular weight which might be as a result of halo-phenyl-amino ring attachments. Based on this finding, halo-phenyl-amino rings might be responsible for the inhibitory activities of these newly designed compounds. Conclusion The six newly designed EGFR inhibitors were found to have higher binding affinities toward their target EGFR receptor than the template compound and gefitinib which was used as the control in this research. They were seen to have good ADMET and drug-like properties which indicate that they might be orally bioavailable. Furthermore, according to their synthetic accessibility score, they can be easily synthesized in the laboratory because the values were found to be less than five which fall within the easy portion of the scale. Therefore, this research recommends that these newly designed EGFR inhibitors should be synthesized most especially those with higher binding affinities, good ADMET, and drug-likeness properties than the template compound.
Mona Salah, Hamdy Zawam, Neven Bahaa Fouad, Nohair Soliman, Fatma Abdel Wahab Abdel Maksoud
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00180-x

Abstract:
Background Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have recently been considered promising biomarkers for oncogenesis due to their epigenetic regulatory effects. HOTAIR is one of the oncogenic LncRNAs that was previously studied in different non-hematological malignancies. The current study set out to detect the expression level of HOTAIR LncRNA in AML patients concerning their clinical characteristics, laboratory data, FLT3-ITD, and NPM1 mutations, as well as treatment outcome. This study included quantitative detection of HOTAIR gene expression in 47 cases of AML using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, as well as NPM1 and FLT3-ITD genotyping. Results The HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in AML patients 6.87 (0.001) than in normal controls 1.66 (0.004–6.82) (p 0.007). The HOTAIR expression level was affected by chemotherapy, and it was correlated to hemoglobin level (p 0.001), age, total leukocytic count (p 0.022), and NPM1 mutation (p 0.017). HOTAIR gene expression level showed a correlation to relapse-free survival in the study group (p 0.04). Conclusion HOTAIR is overexpressed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). HOTAIR pre-treatment and post-chemotherapy gene expression levels can predict chemosensitivity and relapse.
, Tolulope Peter Saliu, Sunday Solomon Josiah, Adeola Ajayi, Jamilu Bala Danjuma
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00175-8

Abstract:
Background It is a known fact that arginine is a common substrate for arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, an imbalance between both enzymes could lead to a change in airway responses. Reports suggest that increased activities of both enzymes could lead to airway hyper-responsiveness. Thus, the requests for NOS inhibitors that can also inhibit arginase as the elevated activities of both enzymes have detrimental consequence on airways in asthma. Bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica, Crinum glaucum, and Mangifera indica are documented for anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-histaminic, smooth-muscle relaxants, and anti-allergic potentials. However, the mechanisms of action of these bioactive compounds in conferring the aforementioned protections are not well characterized. The objective of this present study is to assess in silico inhibitory potentials of these bioactive compounds against NOS and arginase via binding at their active sites. The crystal structures of NOS and arginase were retrieved from the protein database, while the bioactive compounds were retrieved from PubChem. Drug-likeness of the selected bioactive compounds was assessed using DruLiTo software. The successful compounds were docked with active sites of enzymes using AutoDock Vina docking software, and the docked complexes were analyzed using LigPlot and protein-ligand profiler web server. Results The findings of the study revealed that the bioactive compounds from A. indica, C. glaucum, and M. indica were able to interact with the active sites of NOS and arginase with the exception of gallic acid (from M. indica) and nimbandiol (from A. indica); these compounds showed differential binding energies (kcal/mol) and a number of them had higher binding energies than l-arginine when docked with NOS. Conclusion Conclusively, the in silico analysis proposes that these compounds could prove to be probable anti-asthmatic drugs.
Raghad Al-Baba, Almoutassem Billah Zetoune
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00178-5

Abstract:
Background Although there is relatively much information about the status of cystic fibrosis disease in different countries of the world, limited data are available on this disease among Syrian children. Therefore, we did a retrospective study that included 173 children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis according to the diagnostic criteria. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of patients with cystic fibrosis in Syria and to assess the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype of disease in these patients. Results As a result of the early classical manifestations, CF diagnosis was established in the present study by the age of 1 year in 78.6%; the mortality rate was 23.1% (82.5% of them were in the first year of life). The prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms was 81.5% and 78.6%, respectively with an average age of 7.8 and 3.4 months. Consanguinity was reported in 75.7% of the families. The most common pathogenic variant in the sample was F508del (36%) followed by W1282X (17%). There was a statistical correlation between incidence of steatorrhea and the presence of class I pathogenic variants. A relationship between the mortality rate and the presence of class II pathogenic variants (pathogenic deletion variants) was also observed. There was no statistical relationship between other clinical manifestation and pathogenic variant classes. However, the incidence of most CF-related conditions was a little higher in the presence of classes I, II, and III pathogenic variants compared to their incidence in the presence of classes IV and V pathogenic variants. Conclusions The number of cases diagnosed with cystic fibrosis in Syria is less than the number of real cases, and there is a need to perform CFTR gene sequencing on large sample sizes, to determine all CFTR pathogenic variants that could exist in Syrian patients and to make a better evaluation of the relationship between genotype and phenotype of the disease.
Fadwa Said, Roxan E. Shafik, Naglaa M. Hassan
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00179-4

Abstract:
Background Acute myeloid leukemia represents the highest percentage of all adult acute leukemia variants. Runt-related transcription factor1 (RUNX1), a transcription factor with a known tumor suppressor function, was recently reported as a tumor promoter in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the role of RUNX1 gene expression level in Egyptian AML patients and delineated its clinical significance. Results We measured RUNX1 gene expression level using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that the RUNX1 gene expression level was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.001). Patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations had a higher expression level of RUNX1 (p = 0.023). The male patients expressed a significantly higher level of RUNX1 (p = 0.046). Conclusions The RUNX1 gene is highly expressed in Egyptian AML patients. It has a relation to FLT3-ITD, which may give a clue that patients carrying this mutation may benefit from new treatments that target RUNX1 in the future. Further studies on a larger number of patients with different ethnic groups may give a clearer vision of the therapeutic implications of a new molecular target.
Nataliya N. Timoshkina, , Ekaterina P. Omelchuk, Larisa N. Vashhenko, Tatjana V. Ausheva, Emma E. Kechedzhieva, Oleg I. Kit
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 22, pp 1-5; doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00176-7

Abstract:
Background Genetic predisposition is one of the risk factors for the development of multiple primary cancers (MPCs), the frequency of which increases and ranges from 2 to 17%. This study describes a combination of rare mutations, rs746551843 in the NOTCH2 gene and rs144933006 in the SDK2 gene, in a woman with breast cancer and leiomyosarcoma without a clearly burdened family history. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian woman received complex treatment on the basis of the National Medical Research Centre for Oncology for left breast cancer and leiomyosarcoma of soft tissues of the left thigh. The patient was referred for consultation with a geneticist. Among direct relatives, a maternal aunt with a history of kidney cancer was not a carrier of the studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The healthy son of the patient inherited both mutations. Conclusion Thus, perhaps in the described case, there is a synergistic effect of two alleles of moderate and low penetrance, which led to the phenotype of multiple primary cancers.
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