International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2664-4436 / 2664-4444
Published by: Comprehensive Publications (10.33545)
Total articles ≅ 223
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Vadana Balamuralikrishna, Bhuvanagiri Jagadeesh Kumar, Kondragunta Chandrasekhara Rao, Thota Chandana, Dasari Pravallika
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.211

Abstract:
Background: Imaging is an important step after the clinical evaluation in the workup of patients with facial trauma .It helps to define the extent of injury and to plan the surgical, interventional, or conservative therapy. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the imaging technique of choice to detect and characterize the number of fractures, fragments, the degree of dislocation, and the involvement of anatomical structures. It provides a three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the smallest fractures and abnormalities in a short period of time in trauma and emergency setting.Results: The study included 30 patients with mean age of 41.07± 13.92 years with age range of 21 – 68 years. In most of the cases the mode of injury was road traffic accidents among 23(76.7%). Fracture maxilla in 63.3% followed by mandible in 56.7% was the most common bone involved in facial fractures. Hemosinus (56.7%) was the most common associated finding in the patients who presented with facial trauma. Brain contusions were the next common finding seen in 30% patients. Medial wall of the orbit was the most common wall involved in orbital fractures. The mandibular injuries were most common in the condyle and the body of the mandible. Le Fort fracture lines were identified in 17 patients with the most common Le Fort line being the Le Fort II & Le Fort III which was seen 7 patients (23.3%) each.Conclusion: The complex anatomy of the facial bones requires multiplanar imaging techniques for a proper evaluation. The main purpose of diagnostic imaging is to detect and localize the exact number, site of facial fractures and soft tissue injuries. 3D images are useful, although variable for different bones, in the assessment of complex fractures involving the face. Coronal images are useful adjunct in detection of facial fractures. MDCT offers excellent spatial resolution, which in turn enables exquisite multiplanar reformations, and 3-D reconstructions, allowing enhanced diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning.
Reena Gujjula, Harika Reddy Tula, Swadeep Raj, Suma Bhargavi Amdipuram
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 108-117; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3b.226

Abstract:
Stroke is classically characterized as a neurological deficit attributed to a vascular cause causing an acute focal injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Stroke is one the leading causes of disability, dementia and death worldwide. The aim of our study is to evaluate carotid arteries of stroke patients with colour doppler ultrasonography and comparison of the results of study with available literature. Material and Methods: This prospective study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and was carried out on 80 patients who presented with complaints of cerebrovascular accident to the Department of Radiodiagnosis at Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences between June 2019 to February 2020. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients and their family members. Following a detail history and physical examination, a CT scan of the head was performed on a Toshiba Asterion 16-slice CT Imager. Patients then underwent Colour Doppler ultrasonography of bilateral extracranial vessels and all the findings were documented. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke, established carotid artery stenosis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency and those with multiple complicated carotid artery plaques were excluded. Results: 80 patients were included in the study with 61- 70 years being the most commonly affected age group. Many of the patients had varying degrees of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic carotid disease. 70% of the patients showed unilateral carotid plaque disease whilst 30% accounting to bilateral disease. A total of 83 plaques were evaluated for location, morphology and degree of stenosis with the most common location of the plaque was at carotid bulb in ~47% followed by 31% in CCA, 20% in ICA and 1.2% in ECA. Based on morphology, plaques were divided into 5 types. Of these Type I and Type II were the most predominant accounting to 30% and 26.5% respectively. Majority of the patients had a stenosis of
Satthu Sri Sravya, Chandra Sekhara Rao Kondragunta, Kanneganti Dharma Teja, Sai Keerthana Mikkilineni, Gudavalli Priyanka, Sai Siva Nageswara Rao Movva
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 09-16; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.214

Abstract:
Background: Para nasal sinuses are air-filled cavities present in facial bones. Sinusitis is a common medical problem affecting millions of people annually. CT screening of paranasal sinuses has the advantages of showing bony details and good soft tissue outlines. CT is valuable in the identification of variations in pneumatisation of sphenoid sinuses and characterization of sphenoid variations prior to FESS and trans-sphenoidal surgeries. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Dr. PSIMS & RF, Chinnavutapalli. This study was done on SIEMENS SOMATOM EMOTION 16 slice spiral CT machine. We included a total of 100 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic sinusitis, who were referred for CT scan of PNS in our hospital. Results: Out of 100 patients, 52 males and 48 females. Most of the patients were in the 20-30 years age group comprising 55% of the study population. Presellar type of pneumatisation found in (83%), Postsellar type of pneumatisation (11%). Pneumatisation of pterygoid process (42%), anterior clinoid process (28%), greater wing of sphenoid (22%). Bilateral protrusion of internal carotid artery (19 cases), right side (5 cases) and on left side (3 cases). Protrusion of optic nerve noted in 21 cases, among these 14 bilaterally, (4) right N and (3) left side, maxillary nerve protrusion (16 cases), among these 8 (bilaterally), (5) right and (3) left side, Vidian nerve protrusion (20 cases), among these (8) bilaterally, (7) right and (5) left side. Conclusion: Computed Tomography plays an important role in visualization of variation in sphenoid sinus and its pneumatisation patterns and has re-emphasized the concept that variations especially in the sphenoid sinus region is the key factor in the causation of accidental damage to vital structures like ICA, Optic nerve, Maxillary nerve and Vidian nerve.
Suma Bhargavi Amdipuram, Shravan Kumar Vollala, Sri Vaishnavi P, Harika Reddy Tula
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 101-107; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3b.225

Abstract:
AIM: Our study aims to identify the role of glycemic control in predicting the CT severity in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Materials and Methods: Our study is a single-centre, retrospective, observational study of 60 patients with RT-PCR proven COVID-19 Pneumonia admitted to Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally from June 2020 to September 2020. 30 patients with diabetes were taken as cases and 30 patients who were non-diabetic were taken as controls. Patient’s age, sex, baseline HbA1c levels and CT severity scores were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 22.0. The Chi-square test was used to analyse qualitative data and p-value significant at level
Vandana S, Kamal Kumar Sen, Rudresh Hiremath, Vikram Patil, Sudha Kiran Das, Nagaraj Murthy
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.219

Abstract:
Purpose: Pancreatitis is associated with a broad spectrum of findings causing significant morbidity and mortality and substantial use of health care resources. Optimal management of pancreatitis requires meticulous imaging protocol. Ultrasonography (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) has afforded rapid, accurate and non-invasive evaluation of pancreatitis & complications. Both of these offer modalities offer advantages of their own at different stages.Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients referred with clinical suspicion of pancreatitis were subjected to USG and contrast enhanced CT scan. The findings of acute and chronic pancreatitis and their complications’ on both the modalities were tabulated and correlated. Results: CT had overall excellent visualisation of pancreas in all the cases and better delineation of per pancreatic inflammatory changes. Extrapancreatic and vascular complications were readily identifiable on CT. Ultrasound had better visualisation of pancreas as compared to the previous studies. However, the gland was not completely visualised in all the cases due to interference from the bowel gas. Ultrasound also proved to be more effective in the evaluation of gall stones, in the characterisation of contents within the per pancreatic collections & guiding interventions. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is non-invasive, quick, inexpensive widely available screening tool in the early diagnosis and follow up of pancreatitis. It has certain limitation due to bowel gas which may hinder the visualization of Pancreas. CT has a role in firmly establishing the diagnosis of pancreatitis and its complications. Thus it is seen that both USG and CT have complementary roles to play in the early diagnosis and follow up of patients of pancreatitis.
Dwara Manojna Devi, Rapelli Ramakrishna
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.215

Abstract:
Background: For Imaging neurological parts, like the spinal cord, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been the gold standard. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute management of patients with spinal cord injuries has risen dramatically. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance imaging in management of acute spinal trauma and to assess the extent of neurological deficit. Material and Methods: Thirty patients of spinal trauma. The patients undergoing MR imaging, magnetic resonance images were analysed and skeletal injuries, signal changes in vertebrae, ligaments, soft tissues were noted. Associated spinal cord injury findings were also noted, which helped in assessing the initial neurological deficit and compared with (ASIA) impairment scale. Results: Out of 30 patients of spinal trauma. 53.3 % injuries were in cervical region and 46.6% in thoracolumbar region. Most of the traumatic spinal injuries in cervical spine were unstable. (68.75%) and thoracolumbar spine were stable injuries (42.85%). Unstable spinal injuries (56.66%) in cervical and thoracolumbar were operated and stabilised. Cord oedema (36.6%) and next cord compression (33.3%) were common presentations of cord injuries; cord transection and compression have worse neurological deficit and presented with ASIA score A/B at the time of admission. Conclusion: CT provides superior depiction of bony anatomy but important limitation of this technique is inability to provide screening for ligamentous injury and spinal cord lesions. MRI is superior in this regard. Because of its high contrast resolution, absence of bony artifacts, multiplanar ability, and variety of pulse sequences, MRI allows for a more precise diagnosis of spinal trauma.
Rajnikant Narsinhbhai Chauhan
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 98-100; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3b.224

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Assessment of hemodynamic stability is the most important initial concern in the evaluation of a patient with blunt abdominal trauma. Computed tomography is also the modality of choice for diagnosing injuries to the diaphragm, which may result in major morbidity and mortality if undetected and may not present until many years after the event. Hence, the present study was conducted to study computed tomography evaluation of blunt abdominal injury.Material and Methods: abdomen CT scan reports of 80 patients with BAT, who were stable enough to undergo radiological investigation were used for this study. All CT scans were obtained with a 16 slice MDCT Scanner (Siemens). All patients received intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agents. Individual organ injuries were graded according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST-OIS) injury scoring scale. The overall imaging findings were analyzed for their role in guiding the therapeutic options, whether conservative or surgical.Results: The mean age of patients was 42.05 years. Number of male patients was 55 and number of female patients was 25. It was observed that OIS grade II patients were 14, OIS grade III patients were 24, OIS grade IV patients were 7 and OIS grade V patients were 5. The highest proportions of conservatively managed patients were seen in OIS grade II patients. However, highest proportion of operated patients was seen in OIS grade III patients. Conclusion: CT scan for blunt abdominal injury is a reliable and accurate method for diagnosis. It has all the qualities to make it a gold standard for initial investigation of choice for blunt abdominal injury patients.
P Sri Vaishnavi, Amdipuram Suma Bhargavi, Pvn Murthy
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 61-66; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.222

Abstract:
AIM: To evaluate the role of CECT in diagnosis of common and rare complications of pancreatitis.Materials and Methods: Type of study: Retrospective study.Place of study: Dept. of Radio Diagnosis, KIMS, NARKETPALLY. Sample size: 129Duration of study: 1st October 2019-30th September 2020 (12 months).Inclusion criteria: Patients with clinical features and/or laboratory findings and/or ultrasonography findings of acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis.Results: 129 subjects were included in the study, among which 88.3% were males. Most of them belonged to the 31-40years age group. On CECT, Acute peri-pancreatic fluid collection was seen in 43.4%, acute necrotic collection in 5.4%, Pseudocysts in 16.2% including rare locations like renal subcapsular, hepatic subcapsular, splenic subcapsular, perinephric and retrovesical sites and walled-off necrosis in 4.6%. Vascular complications were seen in 24.8%, among which, thrombosis was seen in 20%, pseudo-aneurysm in 0.7%, hemorrhage in 3.1% and collaterals in 10% of the cases. Pancreatico-pleural fistula was seen in 2.3%, Traumatic pancreatitis in 1.5%, groove pancreatitis in 0.7%, ascites in 72.8% and Pleural effusion was seen in 43.4% of the cases. Conclusion: Pancreatitis is associated with a wide variety of complications. Some complications of pancreatitis have atypical presentations. CECT plays an important role in diagnosing these complications, guiding management and reducing morbidity
Adjadohoun Sonia Bmg, Kpossou Aboudou Raïmi, Gninkoun Jules, Karène Auriane Alanmanou, Kabaya K Jean Guy, Yekpe A Patricia, Sehonou Jean, Biaou Olivier, Boko Vicencia
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 52-56; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.220

Abstract:
Introduction: Hepatic steatosis can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the ultrasound prevalence and factors associated with metabolic hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetics at the CNHU-HKM of Cotonou. Patients and Method: Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study carried out over 4 months in the medical imaging department of the CNHU-HKM of Cotonou on type 2 diabetic patients. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasound (hyperechogenicity of the liver in relation to the renal cortex) and classified into mild, moderate and severe stages using a visual scale. Only moderate and severe forms were retained in order to limit bias.Results: 139 patients were included (mean age 57.46 years, sex ratio 0.6;). The prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 38%. It was moderate in 79.25% and severe in 20.75% of patients. Body mass index, abdominal obesity, hepatomegaly, metabolic syndrome, and long-standing diabetes were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic hepatic steatosis is high among type 2 diabetics at the CNHU-HKM. Several factors, some of which are modifiable, are associated with it.
Javaji Ravi Prasad, Priyadarshini R, Sanket Vinubhai Davra
International Journal of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Volume 4, pp 29-33; https://doi.org/10.33545/26644436.2021.v4.i3a.216

Abstract:
Background: Injury of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently encountered knee and ligamentous injuries. MR imaging is an excellent modality for detecting ACL tears. There are several primary and secondary signs of ACL tear. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively collected data of cases with ACL tear in the Department of Radio-Diagnosis in Rajrajeswari Medical College, Bangalore and studied the primary and secondary signs of ACL tear. Results: A total of 50 cases were analyzed. The most common primary sign was focal abnormal T2 high signal intensity of the ACL. The most common secondary sign was anterior tibial translation of tibia >7mm. Conclusion: It was concluded that the diagnosis of ACL tear can be made on the basis of primary signs alone, but the secondary signs corroborates the diagnosis. The anterior tibial translation and positive PCL line have higher sensitivity than other secondary signs.
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