Journal of Building Material Science

Journal Information
EISSN : 2630-5216
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 45
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Hassan Waziri, Olumide Olubajo
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4800

Abstract:
The exponential growth of agricultural wastes such as Balanite seed pod has resulted in waste management issues and finding alternatives through waste recycling is an interesting area of research. Balanite seed pods were collected in Yobe state, washed, dried, crushed. Balanite endocarp pod ash (BEPA) was calcined at 600 °C for 3 hours in a muffle furnace and the biomass was characterized with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine its chemical composition. The analysis showed that the ash composed of silica, alumina and ferric oxide (74.24 wt.%) indicated a strong pozzolan based on American Standard. The BEPA possessed a high loss on ignition of 8.24 wt.% owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the ash. The ash obtained was sieved with 75 µm sieve and cement was replaced with ash between 2.5 wt.% ~ 12.5 wt.% at interval of 2.5 wt.% to assess its impact on cement properties such as setting time, consistence, mortar strength and water absorption. Results showed that as percentage replacement increases, the water absorption increased while the mortar strength diminished whereas as the curing days progressed its strength improved despite clinker diminution due to cement hydration. 60 days strength for below 10 wt.% BEPA cement blend produced enhanced strength compared with control which is evidence of slow pozzolanic reactions. The optimum percentage replacement with BEPA was obtained at 7.5 wt.% replacement beyond which significantly affected the cement properties especially its strength. It could be agreed that BEPA has potentials to be considered and employed as a cement replacement material.
, Abdulwasiu Abdulkadir
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4780

Abstract:
In this study, the laboratory tests on the influence of pre-saturation of gravel on the mechanical properties of concrete were carried out. The study accessed the specific gravity, water absorption capacity, the impact and the crushing values of the coarse aggregates. Also, this study determined and compared the compressive strengths of concrete produced with the presaturated gravel and the dry natural gravel. The results of the compressive strength comparisons have revealed that about 10.8%, 5.6%, 9.4%, and 28.4% reductions in compressive strengths when the samples prepared with pre-saturated and natural aggregates were crushed at 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days curing periods respectively. Thus, pre-saturation of aggregate has a negative impact on the strength of the concrete. This study recommends that the pre-saturated aggregate be avoided/treated as much as possible in concrete production because it has a negative impact on the compressive strength of the concrete. That is, it reduces the compressive strength at different curing periods.
Augustine Uchechukwu Elinwa
Published: 29 December 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4476

Abstract:
This work was on non-activated and activated lateritic soil used in proportions of 0 % to 30 %, to replace fine sand by wt. %, in the production of lateritic concrete. A mix of 1: 2: 4 was used, and the cube samples were cured in four (4) curing media of water, sand, polythene, and sawdust. The aim was to evaluate the effects of these curing methods on the mechanical strengths, and other properties of lateritic concrete. The sensitivity of the generated data was characterized statistically and developing linear regression models for predictions. For the Non-Activated Laterite soil (NALS, control mix (0 %)), the design strength of 20 MPa was achieved by all the curing methods (standard and non-standard). However, for other replacement levels, water curing was adequate for 10 % and 30 %, sand at 10 %, and sawdust for 20 % and 30 %, respectively. On the other hand, for the Activated Laterite soil (ALS), the 20 MPa design strength was met only at 0 % replacement for all curing methods. Sawdust medium at 10 % also satisfied the 20 MPa strength.
Emilio Sassine, Yassine Cherif, Emmanuel Antczak, Joseph Dgheim, Joelle Al Fakhoury, Thierry Chartier
Published: 29 December 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4500

Abstract:
During both hot and cold seasons, masonry walls play an important role in the thermal performance between the interior and the exterior of occupied spaces. It is thus essential to analyze the thermal behavior at the hollow block’s level in order to better understand the temperature and heat flux distribution in its structure and potentially limit as much as possible the heat transfer through the block.In this scope, this paper offers an experimental and numerical in-depth analysis of heat transfer phenomena inside a hollow block using a dedicated experimental setup including a well-insulated reference box and several thermocouples and fluxmeters distributed at the boundaries and inside the hollow block. The block was then numerically 3D modelled and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics under the same conditions, properties, and dimensions as the experimentally tested block. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results provides very satisfactory results with relative difference of less than 4% for the computed thermal resistance.
Elinwa Augustine Uchechukwu, Johnson Olomi Olakunle, Samson Duna
Published: 29 December 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4144

Abstract:
An experimental investigation on rice husk ash (RHA) and Conplast SP 430 (CP-admixture) was carried out to evaluate their effects on the paste characteristics (soundness, consistency, initial and final setting times). The cement content used was 300g and the brand was ‘Ashaka’ Portland cement conforming to BS EN 12 1973. Various combinations of the mixtures OPC-RHA-CP-admixture were used to establish performance characteristics of the pastes. Statistical characteristics, and linear regression models (no-transformation, λ = 0.5, and Box-Cox transformation) were developed on the experimental data for decisions on their performances.
O. I. Olarinoye, M. M. Idris, M. Kure
Published: 6 December 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3, pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i2.3817

Abstract:
Radiation-shielding properties of metakaolin doped concrete samples wereinvestigated in this report. The gamma photon mass attenuation coefficientsand exposure buildup factor of the samples were determined theoreticallyusing WinXcom and EXABCal software respectively for the energyrange of 15 keV - 15 MeV and fast neutron removal cross section for theconcrete sample was evaluated. Results indicated that, oxides of silicon,aluminum, calcium and iron determined through the energy dispersiveX-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis constitute more than 85% ofthe chemical composition of the concrete samples. The oxides contribute85.46, 86.47, 87.55, 88.75, and 86.15 % of the total chemical oxides inMK00, MK05, MK10, MK15, and MK20 respectively. Densities of theprepared MK doped concrete were in the range of 2.575-2.667 g/cm3 .Compressive stress of prepared MK doped concretes increased consistentlywith the curing period for each concrete sample. CS grew from 8.71 -10.63, 8.84 - 10.83, 9.44 - 11.22, 10.89 - 11.53, and 10.76 - 11.43 MPafor MK00, MK05, MK10, MK15, and MK20 respectively as the periodextends from 7 to 28 days. Mass attenuation coefficient decrease steadilywith an increase in energy up to about 0.1 MeV and the decrease becomesmaller beyond this energy with increasing energy for all the mixtures. Fastneutron removal cross section results indicate that MK10 (0.07693 cm-1)has the highest value of ΣR followed by MK15 (0.07628 cm-1) and MK20(0.07537 cm-1) while MK00 (0.07380 cm-1) and MK05 (0.07404 cm-1)have approximately the same value. It was found that MK10 concrete hasthe best gamma radiation and fast neutron shielding ability among the MKdoped concrete under study.
, Isaac Bulus Ayuba, Sagir Samaila Danjauro
Published: 13 October 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3, pp 39-57; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i2.3735

Abstract:
The evaluation of the effect of using moringa oleifera seed powder (MOSP) to partially replace cement by wt. % has been carried out. A mix parameter of 1: 1.7: 2.5, with designed strength of 20 kN-m2 , and a cement content of 420 kg-m3 , water-cementitious ratio of 0.5, to produce concrete specimens to which percentages of MOSP by wt. % of cement were added and cured for 90 days. Basic characteristics of the MOSP material were determined (Consistency and Setting times), and the concrete parameters workability, density, water absorption and compressive strength were also determined. The analysis of the experimental data collected on MOSP and MOSP-concrete confirmed that MOSP is substantially silicate (Quartz and Cristobalite). These have greatly to a large extent imparted on the quality of MOSP-concrete produced good quality concrete. The optimum replacement was at 0.2 % wt. % of cement.
Augustine Uchechukwu Elinwa, Abdulrahaman Shehu Mohammed, Ahmed Bafeto Mohammed
Published: 8 October 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3, pp 27-38; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i2.3732

Abstract:
An evaluation of the effects of additives and firing temperatures on clay bricks characteristics was studied. The two (2) additives used were sawdust ash (SDA) and iron ore tailing wastes (IOTW), and the five (5) firing temperatures of 400o C to 1200o C at intervals of 200o C were applied. The fired bricks were tested for linear shrinkage, water absorption, density, and compressive strength. The results of the investigations showed that firing temperature improved the clay brick characteristics across all replacement levels. However, the SDA additions increased the linear shrinkage and the water absorption but decreased the density and compressive strength. On the other hand, the addition of IOTW to the clay-SDA mixture, reduced both the linear shrinkage and water absorption of the clay bricks, and increased the density and compressive strength. The statistical values and the regression models derived on the experimental data using Minitab 18 Software were significant.
Hosam M. Saleh, Abeer A. Faheim, Aida A. Salman, Abeer M. El-Sayed
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i2.3082

Abstract:
The manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement is an energy-intensive process that results in pollution and CO2 emissions, among other issues. There is a need for an environmentally friendly green concrete substitute. Waste products from a variety of sectors can be recycled and used as a green concrete substitute. This decreases the environmental effects of concrete manufacturing as well as energy consumption. The use of solid waste materials for green building is extremely important now and in the future. Green concrete is also in its infancy in terms of manufacturing and application. Academics must intervene by encouraging business implementation. The aim of this review paper is to raise awareness about the importance of repurposing recycled materials and to highlight new technologies for producing green, sustainable concrete.
Yu Zhang, Xu Zhang
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i2.3103

Abstract:
Energy consumed by buildings accounts for approximately one-third of the total energy consumption of the society. Moreover, energy systems employed in buildings emit hazardous pollutants, such as, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2, into the environment. Consequently, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings constitutes an important problem concerning the field of building-energy and environment conservation. Thermal resistance and capacitance are two important thermophysical properties of building walls significantly impacting their heat-transfer performance. Traditional theories concerning these properties, however, face certain limitations: (1) the concept of thermal resistance is only valid for one-dimensional, steady heat conduction without existence of an internal heat source; (2) thermal resistance and capacitance are relevant, and can, therefore, not be used to analyze heat-transfer and storage performance, respectively, of building walls. Based on the entransy-dissipation-based impedance theory, a new approach towards realization of heat-transfer analysis and optimization has been proposed in this study. The weightiness of thermal resistance and capacitance with regard to heat-transfer performance has been described along with deduction of the corresponding substitutional relation via illustrative examples. The proposed approach has been demonstrated to effectively overcome aforementioned limitations of building energy conservation problems.
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