Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry

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EISSN : 2582-0516
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 167
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Francis Ugochukwu Madu, Emmanuel Iroha Akubugwo, Friday Obinwa Uhegbu, Miracle Chinwenmeri Madu
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230197

Abstract:
Aim: Growth and fertility hormones of albino rats exposed to quarry dust were evaluated to determine if the inhaled quarry dust and heavy metals contained in it have any effect on the fertility and growth of the rats. Methods: Sixty (30 in each of wet and dry seasons) male albino rats were used in this study and were housed in six (6) sterilized plastic cages with five (5) rats in each cage at Ugwuele quarry industry Uturu. The control (group 1) was housed at a distance of 7.2km from the quarry site. Group 2 was housed at the administration block of the quarry industry while groups 3,4,5,6 were housed at the gate, plant house, drilling pit and crusher positions of the quarry industry respectively. Heavy metals; lead, chromium, cobalt, arsenic, zinc and cadmium from dust samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer while assay for hormones was also carried out using standard analytical methods. Results: All the analyzed heavy metals were present in the dust. Concentrations of heavy metals in the quarry dust were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control and higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Concentrations of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in the test samples were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control while the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the test samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the control. Results also show that the concentrations of prolactin, FSH, LH and GH were lower in the dry season than in the wet season whereas, the concentrations of TSH in the exposed rats were higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Conclusion: Growth rate and fertility of the albino rats may have been compromised by the exposure to the quarry dust, since the growth and fertility hormones were all reduced.
, Francis C. Ezeonu, Charles C. Dike, Charles G. Ikimi
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230195

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Living organisms are exposed to oxidant agents constantly from both endogenous and exogenous sources. One of such oxidant agent is Bisphenol A (BPA) and its exposure is capable to modify biomolecules and induce damages. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure. It exerts toxic effects on cells. This study investigates the possibility of BPA exposure on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) perturbations at prevailing low exposure doses in female albino Wistar rats, following exposure for the period of three (3) month. Materials and Methods: Total 12 groups were formed; out of which 11 experimental groups, each containing 10non-pregnant female rats were administered; 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1 mg of BPA/kgbw/day. To the 12th control group was given water. Blood was collected from animals at the end of every week of the study and serum sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for oxidized LDL such as malondialdehyde modified- LDL (MDA-LDL), oxidized phospholipids LDL (OX-PL LDL), N (epsilon) (carboxymethyl) lysine-modified-LDL (CML LDL) and 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL (HNE-LDL) using Autochemical Analyzer. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL were observed at all concentrations of BPA exposure. Conclusion: Bisphenol A alters oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL balance and causes disturbance of internal oxidative statues.
P. N. Okoroh, , A. A. Uwakwe, C. Y. Ukegbu
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230196

Abstract:
The effect of ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus on serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices of high sucrose high fat diet streptozotocin (HS-HFD-STZ) induced diabetic rats was determined by standard methods. All the groups were fed high sucrose-high fat diet except the normal group. The Metformin HCl and ethanol extract was given once daily by gavage to the reference and experimental groups respectively at doses of 150mg/Kg b.w., 50mg/Kg b.w, 150mg/Kg b.w. and 300mg/Kg b.w. respectively while the normal control received saline solution. The HDL-cholesterol level was higher than the value of the disease group after 6 weeks of administration of extract at 300mg/kg and after 9 weeks administration of extract at 150mg/kg. HDL cholesterol concentration increased by 22.2% after 6 weeks of extract administration at 300mg/kg and by 16.7% and 28.3% respectively after 9 weeks of extract administration at 150mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively, indicating that the POE extract has the capacity to reduce cardiovascular diseases. At all the doses of extract administered for treatment at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks intervals, there was dose and time dependent lowering of LDL: HDL ratio even below the recommended risk limit of ≤ 2.5 compared to the test control with value above 2.5. After 3 weeks of treatment with extract at administration concentration level of 150mg/kg, atherogenic indices were lowered and extract levels of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg reduced atherogenic index value after 6 weeks of administration while after 9 weeks of treatment, extract at 150mg/kg concentration reduced atherogenic indices. The atherogenic indices of the diabetic animals under treatment were dose-and time dependently reduced by POE treatment as observed in this study.These results suggest a possible use of the extracts in the management of hyperlipidemic conditions, hypertension and associated complications.
Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Abdullahi Alausa, Adewale Adetutu, Akinade William Owoade, Olufemi Alamu Alamu, Olatundun Oludairo
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 34-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130194

Abstract:
This study evaluated the in- vitro antioxidant, phytochemical constituents and hepato-renal protective efficacy of Senna siamea methanolic extract in arsenic-induced oxidative stress. The results of this study show that S. siamea has strong antioxidant potentials against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’azinobis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acids) (ABTS) radicals. The extract scavenges nitric oxide radicals and has strong ferric reducing power. It also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of arsenic to rats induced a significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and triglycerides in the plasma, while it decreased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase activities in the liver and kidney. It also significantly reduced the levels of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelet and lymphocytes in the blood. However, rats pretreated with S. siamea extract before arsenic administration significantly reversed all these arsenic-induced changes. Histological observations showed varying degrees of liver damage in the arsenic group that was un­treated, while the pre-treatment with S. siamea extract significantly improved the general histoarchitecture of the liver. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were determined, the gas-chromatography analysis revealed the possible presence of oxalic acid, barakol, kaempferol, betulin while total phenolics content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre are in considerable amount in the plant This study demonstrated that S. siamea extract has antioxidant potentials and ameliorates arsenic-induced hepato-renal toxicity, the effectiveness of S. siamea as a medicinal plant could be due to the presence of various phenolics and antioxidant compounds in the plant.
, R. Yila, M. P. Ibrahim, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130193

Abstract:
Aim: To investigate the proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of matured Carica papaya seed. Study Design: Proximate composition was determined on Carica papaya seed powder while extracts for phytochemical analysis were obtained, in turn using five different solvents of varying polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The study was carried out between March- April, 2019. Results: The proximate composition of matured Carica papaya seed showed it contained crude fat (27.72%), carbohydrate (23.34%), crude fibre (21.25%), ash (10.25%), crude protein (9.65%) and moisture (7.34%). Qualitative phytochemical screening of Carica papaya seed extracts detected major phytochemicals except anthraquinones and quantitative analyses of these phytochemicals in all the five extracts showed that flavonoids was the most abundant phytochemical with 38.68%, 35.85%, 36.76%, 34.04% and 23.50% for methanol, aqueous, chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions respectively while tannins was the least abundant phytochemical with 0.03% for methanol extract, 0.04% for n-hexane extract, 0.09% for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, and 0.14% for the chloroform extract. Conclusion: Seeds of matured Carica papaya contain major nutrients that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins in considerable quantities explained the medicinal activity of the plant material as encountered in its therapeutic uses.
, Suleiman A. Itopa, Jwan’An L. Emmanuel, Abdulsalaam O. Abdulazeez, Sambo Ponfa
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130192

Abstract:
Introduction: Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the lead wood tree family, combretacea. This plant is regarded as a medicinal plant and can be used in the treatment of cough, syphilis, hydropsy, rheumatism, and other infections. Aim: This study assessed the nutritional value of Terminalia catappa and the composition of elements present in the plant fruit. Methods: Proximate analysis was carried out according to food chemistry analytical methods and elements were estimated by atomic absorption and flame spectroscopy respectively. Results: Proximate analysis showed that the fruits contained 81.96% moisture content, 1.47% ash, 0.04% crude fat, 1.11% crude protein, 14.05% carbohydrate, and 1.41% crude fibre. The fruits were found to be good sources of minerals. Sodium (2.1±0.01 mg/100 g), potassium (72.5±1.03 mg/100 g), calcium (320±2.00mg/100g), magnesium (20±2.65 mg/100 g), iron (20±3.0 mg/100 g), manganese (2±0.36 mg/100 g), and zinc (8±1.25 mg/100 g). Conclusion: The results revealed the presence of nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, crude fats, crude fibre, moisture, and ash in small amounts. And elements analysis shows that sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and zinc are in appreciable amount. These constituents are therefore responsible for the biochemical values of Terminalia catappa fruits.
Ibrahim Sani, Angela Nnenna Ukwuani-Kwaja,
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130190

Abstract:
Background: Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder in which an individual inherits the sickle cell allele from both parents. The modern disease modifying therapies are quite expensive and often come with side effects, hence, there is need to search for natural alternatives from medicinal plants. This research was aimed at evaluating the antisickling effects of some selected medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the medicinal plants used in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria for the treatment/management of sickle cell disease. Five (5) most cited plants; Carica papaya leaf, Prosopis africana stem-bark, Guiera senegalensis leaf, Syzygium aromaticum seed and Boswellia dalzielli stem bark were selected and their methanol extracts were subjected to in vitro antisickling activity using sodium metabisulphite. Phytochemical screening on the most active plant extracts was conducted using standard methods. Results: The plant extracts and their combinations exhibited antisickling activities with varying degrees of efficacy. C. papaya leaf extract, P. africana stem bark extract and G. senegalensis leaf extract were the most potent that caused reduction in the percentage sickling to 3.87±2.73, 8.38±1.06 and 28.35±2.07% respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and Tannins in all the three (3) plant extracts. Anthraquinones and glycosides were present only C. papaya and G. senegalensis leaf extracts, while Flavonoids and Saponins were only present in G. senegalensis leaf extract and P. africana stem bark extracts. Phenols were present in C. papaya leaf extract and P. africana stem bark extracts, while phlobatannins was only in C. papaya leaf extract. Conclusion: The medicinal plant extracts were able to reduce the percentage of sickled cells. This may be due to the presence of some of the phytochemicals. Hence, these medicinal plants may be used as alternative to hydroxyurea in ameliorating the sickling in human HbS containing RBCs.
Azeemat T. Abdulazeez, Kehinde H. Bello, , Fatai A. Kareem, Janet F. Adeegbe
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 15-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130191

Abstract:
Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the preventive/curative effect of aqueous seed extract Syzygium aromaticum in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Study Design: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as a control (received 1 ml of normal saline). The second group served as Diabetic control (received 1 ml of normal saline). The third group served as test 1 (pre-treated with 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of aqueous Syzygium aromaticum seeds extract for seven days prior to diabetic induction and post-treated with aqueous seeds extract of Syzygium aromaticum after diabetic induction) and the fourth group served as test 2 (post-treated with 500 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous seed extract of Syzygium aromaticum after diabetic induction) in a daily oral dose for 14 days. Results: Treatment of rats with aqueous seed extract of Syzygium aromaticum in a daily dose of 500 mg/kg significantly mitigates the induced changes in the glucose and lipid profile parameters. Histopathological examination of the pancreas showed the destruction of β-cells in the diabetic control group and recovery of damaged tissues when treated with 500 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous seeds extract of Syzygium aromaticum. Conclusion: The present study suggests that aqueous seed extract S. aromaticum seeds extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about regeneration of the B-cells of the pancreas and significant beneficial effects in various physiological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes.
Asiat Na’Allah, , Fatai A. Kareem, Ayodeji O. Obatoye, Shukuriyya Attahir, Rahma Umar
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 40-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430189

Abstract:
Aim: This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Carrot fruit juice (CFJ) and its hepatoprotective property in CCl4-induced liver cirrhotic rats. Study Design: Sixty male rats of weight ranging from 150-180 g were completely randomized into six groups. All rats were administered 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 subcutaneously thrice weekly except groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 while rats in groups 3 and 6 and groups 4 and 5 orally received 2.5 and 5.0 ml/kg of CFJ on daily basis for 12 weeks. Results: The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, saponin, phenolic compound and tannins. The extract treated groups significantly revealed an increase in liver cirrhotic emaciated body weight and reduction in the liver index, a reversal of liver marker enzymes activities, an increase in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants with a decrease in malondialdehyde level reduction in C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, alpha-fetoprotein, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Exposure of animal to CCl4 induces oxidative stress, increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces cell viability but was reversed by the CFJ. Conclusion: The result showed that CFJ is a promising therapeutic option for treating liver failure.
, S. O. Ayodele, O. P. A. Olowu, A. B. Falowo, S. A. Adeyeye, I. S. Omoniyi, C. O. Osowe
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430188

Abstract:
Aim: This study aims to evaluate and characterise the Momordica charantia and Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder. Methodology: The quantitative analyses for proximate, phytochemicals, minerals, and antioxidant activities of Momordica charantia and Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder were carried out using standard procedures. Results: The result of the proximate analysis showed that both plants contain an appreciable amount of moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein and nitrogen-free extract content, with M. charantia leaf powder having higher moisture (5.49 ± 0.03%) content than O. gratissimum leaf powder (5.02 ± 0.01%) (P < 0.05). Ocimum gratissimum had higher crude fibre content (25.03 ± 0.25%) than M. charantia leaf powder (20.86 ± 0.12%) (P < 0.05). The protein, ash, crude fat and nitrogen-free extract contents were not significantly different (p> 0.05) between the two leaf powders. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, phenol, alkaloids, saponin and phytate. Except for alkaloid content, M. charantia leaf powder had higher tannins (1.20±0.02 mg/g), flavonoids (225.64±14.61 mg/g), phenol (21.04±0.57 mg/g), saponins (57.36±0.08 mg/g) and phytate (7.79±0.25 mg/g) content compared to O. gratissimum leaf powder. The antioxidant activity of the plants showed that M. charantia leaf powder possessed higher DPPH scavenging free radical activity than that of O. gratissimum leaf powder. The mineral constituents revealed that both plants contain a significant amount of zinc, calcium, iron and phosphorus, with M. charantia leaf powder having higher zinc and calcium concentration than O. gratissimum leaf powder (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the leaf of M. charantia and O. gratissimum plants are rich sources of nutrients and phytochemicals and can be used as natural feed additives in animal nutrition.
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