Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry

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EISSN : 2582-0516
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 197
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V. Amarachukwu Arazu, , Uzoeto O. Henrietta, Ayodele Akinwonmi, A. Solomon Ochepo, Cosmas Samuel
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i130234

Abstract:
Objective:Plasmodium parasites are the cause of malaria. Malaria victims get infected upon being bitten by female anopheles mosquito; which transmits the parasite to the victim. The P. falciparum and P. vivax are the most active disease-causing agents of all five malaria-causing species of Plasmodium. The anti-folate drugs which were the first class of clinical antimetabolites act by disrupting metabolic pathways in which the one-carbon moiety supplied by the B9 folate vitamins is a major requirement. Methods: Chemical structures of the anti-folate drugs which served as the experimental control ligands were downloaded from the PubChem database and saved as PDB files while the gedunin modification was achieved using the Marvin-Sketch software. Results: Molecular visualization of the polar interactions with amino acid residues of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate-reductase showed that all the control ligands interacted with similar residues contrary to the interaction of the gedunin modified ligand in the same binding pocket. Conclusion: Results from the molecular docking study showed that gedunin and its C=O of gedunin might be better antimalarial agents; having exhibited the best binding energies with a score of -9.5 and -9.0 Kcal/mol respectively.
, Sabiha Tümay Akgün, Selma Sinan, Yusuf Turan
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 38-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430233

Abstract:
Aims: Determination of the biochemical properties of β-glucosidase in peppermint, which is rich in aromatic compounds. Study Design: β-glucosidase was purified from mint, and biochemical characterization of the purified enzyme was performed. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences Biochemistry laboratory. Methodology: Enzyme purification was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine gel. Optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme were determined. The effects of glucose, δ-gluconolactone and some heavy metals on the enzyme activity were investigated. Results: The enzyme was purified with 8-fold and 28% yield. The purified protein from mint was visualized at 65 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity of the purified β-glucosidase from mint was determined against para- and ortho-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (p/o-NPG) substrates. The Km values were 0.4 and 0.9 mM, and the Vmax values were 102.2 EU and 96.6 EU, respectively. While the optimum pH for the purified enzyme was 6, the optimum temperature was 35°C. Effects of heavy metals Ag+2, Fe+3, Zn+2, Cu+2, and Pb+2 on the purified enzyme activity were investigated. Relative activities of heavy metals were introduced into the reaction medium as 0.75 mM samples without any known inhibitors in the environment. Fe+3 increased the enzyme activity, and Ag+2, Pb+2, Cu+2, and Zn+2 inhibited the enzyme, and their relative activities were 78, 76, 22, and 31%, respectively. Glucose and δ-gluconolactone competitively inhibited the enzyme activity when p-NPG was the substrate. Ki values of glucose and δ-gluconolactone were determined as 0.034±0.001 and 0.038±0.002 mM, respectively. Conclusion: Determination of the biochemical properties of β-glucosidase from mint, which has commercial and pharmacological importance due to the phenolic substances it contains, will contribute to studies on improving food quality.
Dumitru Petru I. Iga
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 22-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430232

Abstract:
At most four types (groups) of isomers have been revealed, in natural things or as envisaged structures: meso, C2 symmetrical, irrechi, constitutional. In vertebrate almost exclusively constitutional isomers have been found. On the other hand, all fundamental natural combinations, found as constitutional isomers in vertebrates, are able to form symmetric isomers. (Hence, they keep symmetry as a possibility and not as a reality). Symmetric isomers of constitutional ones also possess functional groups. Therefore, a comparison could be made between a real and a possible situation, and an interesting and unique conclusion results from this comparison. A series of symmetric compounds, especially C2 symmetrical ones, have been isolated from plants and microorganisms, however no counterparts of these combinations were ever found in vertebrates. However, a preliminary conclusion could be drawn: symmetry phenomenon is much better represented in plants and microorganisms than in vertebrates. Of symmetric isomers, the meso ones are characterized by a mirror plane of symmetry, i.e. an area capable to hide (mask) atoms or planar structures of polarized light.
Dong Chen, Zhiqiang Zhang,
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 15-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430231

Abstract:
Achillea species have been widely used as herbal medicine for a time. Achillea millefolium L. has one of the broadest applications in herbal medicine because of its antioxidant activity. As congeneric subspecies of the A. millefolium L., the A. alpina L. and A. wilsoniana L. also have many medical properties. This paper explored the essential oils of these two plants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the differences in their antioxidant activity. The result showed that the major components of essential oil from A. wilsoniana L. were (+)-2-bornanone (8.51%), (-)-β-bisabolene (6.7%), chamazulene (6.4), neointermedeol (6.12%). And the major components of essential oil from A. alpina L. were chamazulene (6.53%), (1S)-(1)-beta-pinene (5.19%), nerolidol (3.6%), and esquisabinen (2.7%). The results indicated that A. alpina L. had the highest composition of chamazulene compared with the other two. Due to the variety of compounds in the two essential oils, their antioxidant activities were different on DPPH and ABTS assays. The antioxidant activity of A. wilsoniana L. was better than A. alpina L. but lower than the A. millefolium L.
Havva Ersoz, , Ramazan Bilgin
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 6-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430230

Abstract:
The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a dimeric enzyme in which each of its subunits has a Zn2+ metal-containing catalytic domain and a cofactor binding domain. This enzyme converts alcohol into an aldehyde. In this article, the activity of the enzyme was investigated by applying the immobilization process directly to the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme purified and activated florisil from the chicken liver. For this purpose, homogenization of chicken liver was achieved and its supernatants were separated by applying the ultracentrifugation process to the resulting homogenate. Then, % ammonium precipitation, dialysis, and ion exchange chromatography processes were performed, respectively. As a result of these processes, the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase was purified 150.3 times compared to the coarse homogenate, and the specific activity of the enzyme was determined to be 0.631 U/mg protein. The activity of the enzyme directly immobilized was found to be 0.034 U/mg protein.
M. A. Adris, B. M. H. Elkhair, M. A. Abd Elbagi Rasha
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430229

Abstract:
Malathion is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide that a large number of population are undesirably exposing themselves to severe health risk due to taking up the contaminated foods, water and vegetables. The present study was aims to evaluate the chronic toxicity of orally administered low doses of malathion in rabbits based on the body weight loss and blood profile. The study was conducted on sixty male rabbits, non-adult male rabbits they were divided into three equal groups, thirty rabbits of each group. The rabbits were treated orally with different dose (5 and 15 mg/ kg/day) of malathion for thirty days. After treatment; body weight were recorded and blood samples were collected for blood profile analysis to investigate the health changes. Changes in total body weight in both treatment groups were showed reduction while total body weight in control group showed significant increase (p ≤0.5). The counts of WBC were showed significant increase in low and high dose respectively compared with control group. We concluded that malathion decrease body weight.
, Nancy O. Uchenna, Obinna M. Aguwa
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 42-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i330227

Abstract:
Aims: To screen for the presence of bioactive antioxidant phytochemicals and determine the antioxidant activity of Detarium Senegalense root bark. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, between April 2018 and December 2018. Methodology: Two solvents, water mixed with chloroform (70:30) was used for extraction. The plant extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals by standard qualitative analysis and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity by determining the reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity in comparison with ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Results: The reducing power and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extract increased in a concentration/dose dependent manner and was significantly (P<.05) lower when compared to ascorbic acid and gallic acid at all concentrations tested. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extract also increased as the concentration increased. Interestingly, at 1000µg/ml, the extract (201.45±0.95) was found to be significantly higher (p<.05) than that of ascorbic acid (198.36±0.83), although lower than gallic acid (266.50±0.84). The % DPPH inhibition of the extract was also significantly lower when compared to ascorbic acid and gallic acid at all concenterations tested. Overall, the results showed the extract was able to scavenge free radicals in a dose dependant manner and revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins and phenols whose synergistic effect may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the extract. Conclusion: From the study, it is concluded that the aqueous extract of Detarium Senegalense root bark possess appreciable/considerable antioxidant properties and could be exploited as source of antioxidant additives or supplements. However, there is need for further work to clarify and isolate the different classes of phytochemical constituents and also to investigate it’s in vivo potential.
G. Pallavi Rao, Pavitra Chettri, C. Vinutha,
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i330226

Abstract:
Rhus chinensis is a dioecious shrub, found in warm temperate zone across Asia. In India it is found in Northeastern part like South Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. [16] The roots, stem, leaves and seed have various therapeutic effects on ailments like hemoptysis, jaundice, snakebites, diabetes. Phytochemical analysis of Rhus chinensis extracts revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates. These compounds have well proven remarkable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The adverse effect of oxidative stress results in many disorders such as aging, cardiovascular disorders and so on. Inflammation is yet again another problem which causes many disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and Crohn’s disease etc. This research was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus chinensis seed (Methanolic Extract). The in-vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by testing 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric chloride reducing activity. Further, effect on protein denaturation, inhibition of proteinase and Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization was carried out to screen for anti-inflammatory activity.The total phenolic content was found to be 5 mg/mL of Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and flavonoid content was found to be 335 µg/mL of Quercetin equivalent (QE). Aspirin and Diclofenac sodium were used as standard drug. All the assays showed positive results and it was concentration dependent. Thus, Rhus chinensis seed is a promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with significant activity. Moreover, the use of natural products like Rhus chinensis can be highly efficient, beneficial, cost effective, safer alternative with lesser side effects. Altogether, studies on Rhus chinensis seeds have huge scope as an alternative ethno-pharmaceutical compound for inflammations.
Ayodele Ifeoluwa Aderonke, Olaniyan Adebola Oluwapolola, Olayiwola Kehinde Olamide,
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i330225

Abstract:
Aim:Kunun-zaki (KZ) is a highly refreshing local beverage that is commonly consumed both in urban and rural areas. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of KZ on lipid profile and other markers of cardio-vascular risks in Wistar rats. Methods: Fourteen adult male Wistar rats (mean weight of 150 g) used for the study were randomly divided into 2 groups (Groups A & B) of 7 rats each. The experimental rats in Group A and B were administered daily with 5 mL of distilled water and kunun zaki respectively for a period of 2 weeks. All experimental animals were allowed access to standard feed and water ad libitum. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) using standard biochemical methods. The body mass index (BMI), atherogenic index, and adiposity index were also determined. Liver, kidney and heart were harvested and weighed to determine organ weights. The results were statistically analyzed using Student’s 't’test and by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. All values were presented as mean ± standard error of mean. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: While TC, LDL-C, HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different, both TG and VLDL-C concentrations in KZ administered rats were significantly higher compared with control. BMI, antherogenic index and adiposity were not significantly different also when both groups were compared. Conclusion: the results of the study indicate that kunun-zaki does cause modulatory elevation in lipid profile.
Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe, Akinade William Owoade, Esther Oluwakemi Kehinde
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry pp 10-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i330224

Abstract:
This study is aimed at investigating the effects of tamoxifen on lipid profile. In order to achieve this, tamoxifen was administered once daily intraperitoneally to the female rats at a dose of 2.07mg/kg body weight for 1 and 2 weeks, while a group of rats was allowed to recover for a week after 2 weeks of tamoxifen administration. Rats in the control group were similarly treated but were given corn oil instead of the drug. Tamoxifen administration caused perturbations of major lipids in the animals. Administration of tamoxifen for 1 week lowered cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the plasma by 23.63 % and 39.74 % respectively and in the low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins (LDL+VLDL) by 79.72 % and 67.59 % respectively, while it increased high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol by 3.44 fold. In the tissues, tamoxifen administration for 2 weeks did not significantly affect cholesterol and triglycerides levels but phospholipid levels in the liver, kidney and heart were lowered by 52.38 %, 42.98 % and 73.82 % respectively, while phospholipidosis was the hallmark of its effect in the spleen. The result of our study affirmed that tamoxifen exerts a favourable effect on lipid profile. The hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridesmia effects of tamoxifen observed in this study may partially explain the decrease in coronary heart disease related mortality seen in patients receiving tamoxifen treatment.
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