Progress in Biomedical Engineering
EISSN : 25161091
Current Publisher: IOP Publishing (10.1088)
Total articles ≅ 12
Latest articles in this journal
Progress in Biomedical Engineering; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab9f41
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Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab8af8
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab871a
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab7cc4
To address the low success rate of new drug discovery, there has been significant growth of in vitro physiological micro-models based on human cells. These may be in the form of cell spheroids, organs-on-a-chip, or multi-cellular tissue cultures, and it is expected that the more biomimetic environment they create will be more accurate than standard cell culture in drug screening prior to clinical testing. However, commercial use of complex co-cultures is still limited. This is due to a lack of validation, low throughput rates, and a lack of compatibility with standard assessment techniques. This review paper focusses specifically on the different engineering approaches used to create, mature and analyse these micro-models, with the aim of exploring which approaches have the potential for high throughput. Active and passive pumping and nozzle based dispensing techniques are considered for fluid handling, with transwells, cell patterning, spheroid cultures and microfluidics considered for establishing and maintaining co-cultures, together with conventional analysis techniques (proteomic and genomic approaches, and immunohistochemistry) and novel sensor systems for downstream analysis are considered. It is concluded that (i) throughput is essential for validation as well as exploitation of the models, and (ii) an integrated approach to model re-design for high throughput is key, with the limitations on throughput at each stage considered in order to develop a system which can deliver and analyse at high throughput rates at all stages of the process.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab6c7d
Endovascular embolization treats vascular disease through a minimally invasive approach that significantly benefits patients and reduces health care costs. Advances in engineering and materials science have contributed significantly to novel embolic materials that address challenges of clinically used agents today. Here, we discuss the clinically available embolic agents, their formulations, and applications. Additionally, we examine materials in development for embolization and emphasize the challenges during the process of transitioning from basic science to translational applications in this field.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab5637
Vascularization is among the top challenges that impedes the clinical application of engineered tissues. This challenge has spurred tremendous research endeavor, defined as vascular tissue engineering (VTE) in this article, to establish a pre-existing vascular network inside the tissue engineered graft prior to implantation. Ideally, the engineered vasculature can be integrated into the host vasculature via anastomosis to supply nutrient to all cells instantaneously after surgery. Moreover, sufficient vascularization is of great significance in regenerative medicine from many other perspectives. Due to the critical role of vascularization in successful tissue engineering, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview of the fundamentals and VTE strategies in this article, including angiogenic cells, biomaterial/bio-scaffold design and bio-fabrication approaches, along with the reported utility of vascularized tissue complex in regenerative medicine. We will also share our opinion on the future perspective of this field.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab5418
Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications plague developed countries. The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques contributes to acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac deaths. Historically, coronary angiography has proved an invaluable tool for the detection and treatment of coronary stenoses which may result in myocardial ischemia; however, the method lacks the capacity to provide thorough information about properties of the lesion (i.e. whether it is lipid-rich, fibrotic, or calcified). The recent advances in electronics, biomaterials and microfabrication techniques have enabled novel multimodality catheters for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques, such as the integration of intravascular ultrasound with photoacoustic microscopy, or optical coherence tomography, and the utilization of stretchable electrodes for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These pave the way for identification of complexity and composition of potentially unstable plaques as well as investigations of stenosis severity, plaque formation and remodeling, in both humans and studied animal models. However, up to date, an effective real-time detection of the atherosclerotic lesions prone to rupture which could be ready for clinical trials, remains an unmet challenge. In this context, this review highlights existing and newly-emerged intravascular sensors to assess metabolically and mechanically unstable plaques. Advantages and limitations, as well as further development and potential clinical applications will be thoroughly discussed.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab3369
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab23df
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab22d5