Progress in Biomedical Engineering
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Progress in Biomedical Engineering; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab7cc4
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Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab6c7d
Endovascular embolization treats vascular disease through a minimally invasive approach that significantly benefits patients and reduces health care costs. Advances in engineering and materials science have contributed significantly to novel embolic materials that address challenges of clinically used agents today. Here, we discuss the clinically available embolic agents, their formulations, and applications. Additionally, we examine materials in development for embolization and emphasize the challenges during the process of transitioning from basic science to translational applications in this field.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab5637
Vascularization is among the top challenges that impedes the clinical application of engineered tissues. This challenge has spurred tremendous research endeavor, defined as vascular tissue engineering (VTE) in this article, to establish a pre-existing vascular network inside the tissue engineered graft prior to implantation. Ideally, the engineered vasculature can be integrated into the host vasculature via anastomosis to supply nutrient to all cells instantaneously after surgery. Moreover, sufficient vascularization is of great significance in regenerative medicine from many other perspectives. Due to the critical role of vascularization in successful tissue engineering, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview of the fundamentals and VTE strategies in this article, including angiogenic cells, biomaterial/bio-scaffold design and bio-fabrication approaches, along with the reported utility of vascularized tissue complex in regenerative medicine. We will also share our opinion on the future perspective of this field.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab5418
Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications plague developed countries. The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques contributes to acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac deaths. Historically, coronary angiography has proved an invaluable tool for the detection and treatment of coronary stenoses which may result in myocardial ischemia; however, the method lacks the capacity to provide thorough information about properties of the lesion (i.e. whether it is lipid-rich, fibrotic, or calcified). The recent advances in electronics, biomaterials and microfabrication techniques have enabled novel multimodality catheters for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques, such as the integration of intravascular ultrasound with photoacoustic microscopy, or optical coherence tomography, and the utilization of stretchable electrodes for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These pave the way for identification of complexity and composition of potentially unstable plaques as well as investigations of stenosis severity, plaque formation and remodeling, in both humans and studied animal models. However, up to date, an effective real-time detection of the atherosclerotic lesions prone to rupture which could be ready for clinical trials, remains an unmet challenge. In this context, this review highlights existing and newly-emerged intravascular sensors to assess metabolically and mechanically unstable plaques. Advantages and limitations, as well as further development and potential clinical applications will be thoroughly discussed.
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab3369
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab23df
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab22d5
Progress in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1; doi:10.1088/2516-1091/ab22cc