Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

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EISSN : 2582-0273
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 174
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Festus Chioma
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 40-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130228

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: The resistance of microbes against anti-bacteriological drugs leading to countless deaths and terminal ailments remains a basis for concern. Hence, the main interest of this study was to design, synthesize and report unusual compounds with basic hydrophilic moieties plus hydrophobic functions for anti-bacteriological studies. Materials and Methods: Analytical (melting points, micro-analysis (C. H.N.S) magnetic susceptibility (µeff), molar conductance plus solubility test) methods; spectral (Fourier Transform Infrared(FTIR)), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- plus 13C-NMR), electronic(UV-Vis)) measurements; theoretical (DFT) evaluations were utilized for the characterization of the chelator and its chelates. All synthesized compounds were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials while the chelator was singly evaluated for solvent extractive capacity. Results: A nitrogenous based chelator-ligand, (E)-1-(((4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)imino)methyl) naphthalen-2-ol(LH) synthesized through reflux-condensation reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine with 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde was acquired. Further reflux of the chelator-ligand with bivalent ions of iron-sulphate and zinc-acetate salts plus 2,2’-bipyridine resulted into separate bivalent-heteroleptic metallic chelates. The deprotonated nitrogen of the amine moiety and carbon of the carbonyl gave rise to the chelator-ligand with N2O2 chromophore detected around the metallic atom in the chelates. The µeff data plus UV-Vis spectral values of the chelates conformed to 6-coordinate octahedral geometry. All the chelates were high spin and non-ionic in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of the compounds presented moderate to fantastic results, while the metallic extractive proficiency of the chelator showed outstanding extractability for Fe2+ and Zn2+ions with an efficiency of 79.34% and 51.92% correspondingly. Conclusion: All the synthesized compounds are novel and demonstrated prospective biological, plus metallic ions’ extractive potentials required for designs plus isolation of products also for such actions.
, E. N. Obi, A. P. Okeke, U. E. Ukpai
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 26-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130227

Abstract:
The distribution of the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in surface water, sediment and three fish species (African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Trout fish (Mormyrus rume) and Hetrobranchus longefilis) from Ezu-river, Anaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. The samples were analysed for PAHs by means of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of PAHs showed that, in surface water, the highest concentration was related to benzo(a)pyrene whereas benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most important pollutant in sediment. For the fish samples, Hetrobranchus longefilis recorded the highest concentration in Naphthalene while Anthracene was the most dominant pollutants in Mormyrus rume and in Clarias gariepinus benz(b) fluoranthene was the highest pollutants. The Health and exposure risk assessment was conducted for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic exposure in adults and children which shows that the cumulative cancer risk and hazard index were within USEPA regulatory standard. Calculated Hazard Index for fish and water samples were less than one and thus be recommended for consumption.
Sujan Kanti Das, , Rajib Chandra Das, Manas Mondal, Snahasis Bhowmik
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 14-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130226

Abstract:
Compression molding has produced quartz-reinforced polyester composites (QPCs) weighing 10 to 40 per cent quartz relative to the weight of unsaturated polyester resin. Synergistic changes were made in the composite properties and were superior to those of the individual components. The composite's physical and mechanical properties such as bulk density, water absorption , tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness have illustrated the competency of the composite being developed. It was found that for the resultant composite examined, the percentage of water absorption is very small. However, when quartz content were increased, water absorption grew very slowly. Enhancement of mechanical properties strongly corresponds to strong adhesion force of quartz with the matrix and it influenced by well-disperse quartz particles on the whole surface of composite. This paper also performed thermal characterization of the composites. Because of these remarkable properties, as prepared composite can find applications in packaging, fuel cell, solar cell, structural materials and households purposes.
I. O. Oyo-Ita, U. A. Ugbaja, E. E. Oyo-Ita, C. Oge, B. B. Asuquo
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130225

Abstract:
Polychaetes play an important role in nutrient cycling and remediation of coastal ecosystems. Large quantities of organic matter that could lead to pollution of pond and coastal waters are generated by aquaculture waste. To assess the remediation prospects of Arenicola marina and Syllis prolifera species, laboratory sediment microcosm experiments were conducted where large size Arenicola marina and Syllis prolifera were introduced to sediment in microcosm A, large size Arenicola marina to sediment in microcosm B, large sized Syllis prolifera to sediment in microcosm C and no polychaetes to sediment in microcosm D. Microcosm A′, B′ and C′ as replicates for small size polychaetes were also set up, respectively. After 30 days, microcosm A, B and C had significant decrease in organic carbon levels with microcosm B being the highest (Total organic carbon (TOC); 27.87%; p< 0.05). Both large and small polychaetes promoted significant decrease in sulphur (S) content (mean=62.76±0.21; 62.81±0.21%) and iron(Fe) (mean=49.43±1.47; 36.28±5.90%) respectively. Increase in pH by 31.15±0.13% was found in the presence of large size polychaetes, most likely associated with the burrowing process involving oxidation of Fe to Fe2O3. Large size polychaetes had better survival (mean=92±0.82%) than their small size counterpart (mean=55±4.08%). The extent of biodegradation B>A>C>D observed revealed that large size Arenicola marina was a better bioremediator of organic matter (OM), Fe and S enriched aquaculture pond sediment, probably due to its biological characteristics, well suited for the aquaculture than other species of sea worms that produce free swimming larvae. Therefore, large size Arenicola marina significantly improved sediment quality as well as increased its pH without compromising their survival. As the search for a better bioremediator of organically enriched sediment continues, our result revealed large size Arenicola marina as a more promising candidate compared to other species documented elsewhere in the world. Hence, rearing of large size Arenicola marina sp is recommended as their feeding habits are well suited for aquaculture.
, Badra Boubakeur, Noura Ayad, Laid Boukraa, Si Mohamed Hammoudi, Boumedienne Abdelhak, Rachida Benaraba
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430224

Abstract:
Aims: In this study the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata were investigated. Study design: The study contains determination of the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. caryophyllata and the in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of this oil. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the laboratory of research on local animal products of Ibn-Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria during the period from December 2020 to March 2021. Methodology: The essential oil composition was characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometrical analyses. The antibacterial activity of this oil was tested against four pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33862, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 by using disc diffusion method and agar incorporation method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the tested oil. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results: Our results have shown a greater antibacterial effect of E. caryophyllata essential oil against all the bacterial tested strains with inhibition zone diameters varied from 17.5 to 20.5 mm and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged between 0.8 μl / ml and 4.4 μl / ml, B. cereus and S. aureus are the most sensitive species with a MIC value of 0.8 μl / ml, however P. aeruginosa is the most resistant species with a MIC value of 4.4 μl / ml. The result of the antioxidant effect showed that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata is a powerful antioxidant that expresses a higher antioxidant activity than the standard antioxidants: gallic acid, vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata has a strong antibacterial and antioxidant effect and it may be an alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and oxidative stress.
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430222

Abstract:
Cementation or metal displacement reaction is one of the most effective techniques for removing toxic metals from industrial waste solutions. Aims: The main purpose of this work is to study the rate of cementation of cadmium by using a rotating bed of Zn Raschig rings packed in a perforated impeller basket for the investigation of the removal of Cd 2+ from waste solution. Study Design: The reactor was tested for Cd2+ concentration removed, the diameter of Zinc Raschig rings, and the rotational speed of the basket. Methodology: The results indicate that there are two rates of cementation for Cd-Zn system, a high rate at the beginning, followed by a lower rate after the initial period. The results also show that percentage removal of Cd2+ ions from solution increases by increasing the speed of basket rotation, and as the diameter of Zn Raschig ring packed in the basket reactor, increases the removal of Cd2+ decreases. The cadmium deposits on zinc as powder. Results: The removal of Cd2+ is optimum for ring diameter of 0.5 cm, initial concentration of 100 ppm, and basket rotation speed of 500 rpm. The experimental data fit the following equation: Sh=0.041 Sc0.33Re0.40. This equation can be used for the design scale-up and operation of reactors used to remove Cd2+ from wastewater by cementation. Conclusion: Rates of cementation were expressed in terms of the rate of mass transfer, the mass transfer coefficient increases as the rotational speed of the basket increases.
Akpan Esther Emmanuel, , Kinigoma Boma
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430221

Abstract:
Aims: This study evaluates total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in wastewaters from three locations of the oil-producing flow station in Rivers State. Study Design: By experiment and the results obtained by analytical means. Place and Duration of Study: This work was conducted at the Department of Industrial Chemistry/Petrochemical Technology, School of Science and Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria between February and August, 2021. Methodology: The evaluation was done using gas chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer Detector (GC-MSD). Results: Results obtained showed low levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranging from 0.051, 0.119, and 0.07 mg/l and 0.01, 0.06, and < 0.01 mg/l for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the three locations, respectively. The results also revealed that the concentrations of the total petroleum hydrocarbons of the samples from the three locations were highest at carbon atom 17 suggesting a biogenic contribution of organic matter. The chromatographs obtained gave evidence that the nature of the contamination was minimally crude oil, because crude oil normally distributes in broad range, as observed in the locations samples as against the narrower carbon range of C8 to C40 characteristics of refined products. The pristane/phytane ratios, which were 0.925, 0.891 and 0.372 for the three samples, depicted an oxygenated environment. The C17/pristane ratios (39.53, 38.93, and 31.48) for all three locations revealed that the wastewaters were slightly weathered. The low concentrations as well as absence of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and higher concentrations of low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons support the petrogenity of the wastewaters. The phenanthrene/anthracene ratios (1.26, 0, and 0) for the three samples confirm the nature of the wastewaters. In addition, the absence of benzo(a)anthracene to chrysene ratio for all three samples point to proper treatment of the wastewaters. Conclusion: From this study, the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) obtained from all the samples were lower than the maximum recommended levels by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). This study recommends constant monitoring in the total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic hydrocarbons concentrations because even at its low concentrations can be injurious to health of the people residing within the facility and beyond.
, Phanice T. Wangila, Jackson K. Cherutoi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 17-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430219

Abstract:
Aims: To establish the shelf -life of mango fruits coated with unmodified and modified M. esculenta edible coating at low (4 ± 2°C) and room temperature (23 ± 2°C) conditions. Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at Moi University, School of Sciences and Aerospace studies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry between January 2021 and June 2021. Methodology: Ocimum gratissimum leaves essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using Clevenger apparatus. Preparation and modification of the coating were homogenized at 70 ± 2 °C. Physico-chemical parameters including weight loss, titratable acidity (TA), Vitamin C concentration, total soluble solids (TSS), and pH were used to establish the fruits’ shelf-life. Results: The modified M. esculenta (cassava) starch coating (1.5%) treatment, their interactions and storage duration significantly affected the physico-chemical parameters of mango fruits. The modified coating-maintained TA 0.66%, 0.87%, reduced weight loss by 27.81%,14.62%, delayed the increase of TSS 7.50%, and pH 5.20, 4.93 while retaining the vitamins C 8.13 mg/100g, 15.09mg/100g concentration up to eighteen days and twenty-seven day of storage at 23 ± 2°C and 4 ± 2°C respectively. The distilled water treatment (control) reduced TA to 0.11%, 0.23%, increased weight loss to 47.12%, 24.21%, TSS 20.22%, 17.41%, and pH 8.21, 5.20 while retaining the vitamin C 3.74 mg/100 g, 8.13 mg/100 g concentration at 23 ± 2°C and 4 ± 2°C respectively. Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that M. esculenta edible coating incorporated with O. gratissimum essential oil extended the shelf life of mangoes up to eighteen and twenty-seven days of storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and low temperature (4 ± 2°C), respectively. This treatment might be an effective farm-based post-harvest treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fresh produce while maintaining their physico-chemical parameters.
Lucy N. Karanja, Isaac O. K’Owino, Phanice T. Wangila, Rose C. Ramkat
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430218

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of Solanum incanum fruits against Ralstonia solanacearum. Study Design: Experimental design involving completely randomized design Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace studies, Moi University, Kenya, between January and June 2021. Methodology: Extraction was done by maceration using ethanol as the extracting solvent. Phytochemical screening was done following standard procedures. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The extract was further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier transformed Infrared (FT-IR). In vitro antibacterial activity was determined using disc diffusion method while in vivo studies was done under greenhouse conditions. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and terpenoids. The TPC and TFC were found to be 84.997 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g and 20.535 ± 0.2 mg/g QE of dried sample respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 15 compounds, (9E)-1-Methoxy-9-Octadecene (26.85%), 9-Octadecenamide (Z) (21.43%), E-15-Heptadecenal (7.28%), E-14-Hexadecenal (6.28%), 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (4.96%) among others. FT-IR analysis revealed presence of OH, C-H, N-H, CO functional groups at wavenumbers 3348 cm-1, 2931 cm-1, 1589 cm-1, and 1218 cm-1 respectively. The antibacterial activity for in vitro studies at concentrations 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 g/10 mL, the diameters of zone of inhibition were 20.75 ± 1.3, 25.75 ± 0.5, 27.25 ± 0.5, and 30.75 ± 0.5 mm respectively. This was comparable (P= .02) to that of ampicillin (positive control) which had zones of inhibition of 26.75 ± 0.5, 28.75 ± 0.5, 31.75 ± 0.4, and 35.00 ± 0.0 mm at the concentrations respectively. For the in vivo studies the plant extract and ampicillin delayed the development of the disease by eight and ten days post-inoculation respectively while symptoms of bacterial wilt for water treatment (negative control) were observed four days post-inoculation. Conclusion: The plant extract had remarkable antibacterial activity and can be used to make viable formulations to control the devastating bacterial wilt disease.
, Salah Aldin Naman, Kanaan Ramadan Ahmed, Anastasiya Vladimirovna Razina, Akhmetov Arslan Faritovich
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330217

Abstract:
Four types of Kurdistan crude oils have been studied to determine the heavy and trace metals. The significance of determining trace elements that exist in crude oils is helpful for further information about exploration, production and the refining process. In this work crude oil can be separated into products such as (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and atmospheric distillation residue +350°C) by using atmospheric distillation unit and vacuum distillation unit. The trace metals can be determined with acceptable accuracy and precision by spectroscan MAX-G. However, the values of Ni concentration were the best in accuracy among the group of metals of interest. The average values of the results will be employed as reference values of the trace metal content in the coming discussion and using Ni and V as test elements. The crude oil samples are characterized by with a dominance of V over Ni with a V/Ni ratio of 3.7 to 2.5. Trace element analysis of the five metals in crude oils and atmospheric distillation residues +350°C, for each crude oils and atmospheric distillation residues +350°C is investigated, samples of these areas has not been previously examined for trace element contents. In this study to find the relation between metals in crude oils and atmospheric distillation residue of samples. To detect the concentration of trace elements by using this instrument.
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