Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2582-0273
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 198
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M. O. Ogbu, , A. M. Fulata, C. V. Nnam-Obi, D. E. Ndukwu
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230252

Abstract:
The recent surge in drug resistance and failure is belief to be a factor in the trend for the isolation of natural products from plants and other sources. This is largely due to the efficacy and safety of their components. Haemanthamine is an alkaloid of Amaryllidaceae family, the compound was reported to have lots of medicinal effects against microbes and some forms of cancers with significantly low or no side effects. The plant Daffodil is one of the commonest reservour of this alkaloid and used traditionally in the treatment of urinary disease, headache, fever, swelling growth, joint ailments, skin diseases, bruises, sprains, respiratory problems, gastrointestinal disorders among others. These medicinal potential of the plant stimulated our interest to isolate and characterized the Haemanthamine alkaloids from the plant using NMR and Mass Spectroscopic Techniques. The results obtained are in good agreement with the previously reported literatures which indicate that Haemanthamine was successfully isolated.
, Lorrie M. Murphy
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230251

Abstract:
The sorption uptake of lead by marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated in bimetallic solutions. The experimental data fitted very well to Langmuir model. In bimetallic systems, the affinity of biomass for lead and cadmium increased and the sorption uptake of these metals was not affected by increasing concentrations. However, in solutions with both metals there was a significant mutual decrease of their sorption levels at high concentrations of the other metal. There is practical removal up to 100 ± 4% for biomass dosage 4.0 ±0.1 g which correspond to lowest adsorbed amount of 0.25 ± 0.1 mg/g. The highest adsorbed value was recorded with biomass dosage 0.25 ± 0.1 g but with the lowest percentage removal of 92.50 ± 6%. In this study at initial metal concentration of 10 mg/L the highest metal removal of 96% was achieved.
Elham Abdalrahem Bin Selim, , Samia Mabrook Bin Mahram, Wedad Mohammed Al–Haik, Khalid Saeed Sonbol
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230250

Abstract:
Three new amide compounds 6, 8 and 9 were derived from diazo dye 4. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(2,6-dinitrophenyl) benzaldehyde 4 was reacted separately with compounds 5 and 7 to obtain 6 and 8, respectively. The amide compound 9 was synthesized by two different methods. The reaction between 6 and a diacyl chloride compound 7 gave compound 9. Also, compound 9 was produced via the reaction of compound 8 and an N-terminus compound 5. All compounds were characterized by their melting points, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectra. Moreover, the mass spectrum and elemental analysis of compound 9 were determined. All three synthesized compounds were tested against P. mirabilis, E. coli, and S. aureus at different concentrations and showed significant results.
Abdolahi Mohamed Adawe, Amir O. Yusuf, John Onyattac, Godfrey A. Wafulad
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230249

Abstract:
The need for clean and safe consumable water is of vital importance to any society since water is an essential substance for the sustenance of life. Mogadishu is one of the rapidly growing cities in the world with a high population, resulting in poor levels of sanitation and an inadequate clean water supply system. A total of 6 water samples were analyzed from the Mogadishu region in seven sites namely, Rer M.Shiekh, Gorgor, Umu batula, Cisse qodax, Soonikia (digfer), and Tarabuuna (umu caisha) respectively to assess the levels of heavy metals. The levels of selected heavy metals analyzed were Cd, Zn, and Pb, the analysis was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and other parameters analyzed were the level of pH, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, water hardness, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), and the status of water borehole quality in the Southern Mogadishu region, Somalia. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO). pH values ranged (8.1-8.9) which were below WHO standard limits except for Cisse qodax borehole (8.9) which was higher than WHO standard limits. Other value for parameters were fluoride (0.28-0.596 mg/L); chloride (279.57-888.92 mg/L); nitrate (4.27-146.6 mg/L); electrical conductivity (1.428-3.280 mS /cm); hardness (229.32-501.76 mg/L); total dissolved solids (1340-3428 mg/L); cadmium (0.03-0.07 mg/L). Lead and zinc were not detected. Hardness, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), cadmium values were higher than WHO standard limits. Nitrate values were below WHO standard limits except for Umu batula borehole (60.92 mg/L) and Rer M.shiekh borehole (146.6 mg/L) which are values higher than WHO standard limits. All boreholes had low fluoride content. However high cadmium concentration is of much concern health-wise. The presence of heavy metals in the water borehole is of concern since they could impact negatively on human health even at low levels due to their accumulation. This study is of significance in providing information on the heavy metals content of the selected water boreholes in Mogadishu, information that is currently lacking considering the management issues in the Country. Further, it could help in mapping out the boreholes based on their water quality.
Emmanuel Wellington, Onyeike Ogbomade, Eugene Nwaogwugwu, Dikioye Emmanuel Peters, David Joshua, Sampson Joe Ogbomade
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 55-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130247

Abstract:
There are numerous medicinal plants in the Southern and Eastern Nigeria. These plants are widely utilized in Nigerian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of countless of illnesses. This paper focused on the phytochemical and essential composition of the aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca. The phytochemical and essential oil screening and characterization were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Results obtained from this investigation showed seven different terpenoids and their total concentrations were 26.19 x 10-1 (mg/100 g), nine different phenolic acids (506.33 mg/100 g), twelve different saponin (62.33 mg/100 g), seven different cyanogenic glycosides (118.03 mg/100 g), thirteen different glycosides (16.17 mg/100 g), five (5) different anthocyanins (56.53 mg/100 g), twenty six different alkaloids (1.31 mg/100 g), six different flavonoids (7.31 mg/100 g), seven different sterol (5.91 mg/100 g), tannins (426.49 mg/100 g), and phytate (69.12 mg/100 g). Analysis for essential oils showed fourty one different essential oils (100. 00 %). Our uncovering indicated Leonurus cardiaca is an excellent source of terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, phenolic acid, sterols, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and essential oils. This present research exemplify the preparatory detection for discretion or selection of Leonurus cardiaca potential source of novel therapies for the treatment of various diseases.
Christopher A. Idibie, Kehinde J. Awatefe, Julius I. Ese
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130246

Abstract:
Adsorption using activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be effective in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, Carica papaya seeds were utilized for activated carbon (AC) preparation using zinc chloride as the activating agent. Experiment was carried out to explore the methylene blue uptake by both the Carica papaya seeds activated carbon (CPSAC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC). The physicochemical characteristics, Iodine number and adsorption isotherms of CPSAC were also compared with those of CAC. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fit for both CPSAC and CAC with the coefficient correlation (R2) values of 0.9922 and 0.9964, respectively. Going by the good fitting of the Langmuir isotherm, MB adsorption on both CPSAC and CAC can be ascribed to be of monolayer adsorption process, and is associated with the chemical functional groups inherent on carbon surface. The optimum adsorption capacities of CPSAC and CAC according to the Langmuir isotherm at approximately 25C were 238.78mg/g and 241.14mg/g, respectively. This implies that CPSAC demonstrated similar outstanding adsorption properties to CAC for MB.
, S. A. Adegbite, A. P. Onifade, A. A. Sangoremi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 73-78; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130248

Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate the impact of pollution on the receiving waters (Iguosa and Ikopba rivers) in Benin City. Effluents and water samples were analysed quantitatively for the presence of lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Nickel (Ni) for both wet and dry season were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Heavy metals analysis results for 7-Up Bottling Company showed that Pb (0.06mg/L – 0.97mg/L), Cu (0.12mg/L – 2.84mg/L), Cr (0.5mg/L – 8.16mg/L), Mn (0.88mg/L – 4.36mg/L), Fe (0.55mg/L – 7.55mg/L), Zn (0.38mg/L – 3.97mg/L), Ni (0.27mg/L – 1.66mg/L) and Cd (0.03mg/L – 0.74mg/L) while results for Guinness Nigeria Plc showed that Pb (0.06mg/L – 0.95mg/L), Cu (0.07mg/L – 2.62mg/L), Cr (0.14mg/L – 2.96mg/L), Mn (0.16mg/L – 6.63mg/L), Fe (0.31mg/L – 4.96mg/L), Zn (0.14mg/L – 7.98mg/L), Ni (0.12mg/L – 1.69mg/L) and Cd (0.03mg/L – 0.56mg/L) for both wet and dry season. This showed that the concentrations of the metals were higher during wet season than the dry season except that of lead and cadmium. However, the presence of metals at various concentrations revealed that the effluents from these industries contaminated the stream.
, F. A. H. El-Soukkary, E. A. El-Naggar, R. R. Abdelsalam
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 33-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130245

Abstract:
Gluten-free (GF) products are made using commercial flours formulas and are poor in protein, fiber, minerals and have weak physical properties that affect the quality of the final products. These factors are responsible for hampering adherence to the GF diet and for general dissatisfaction. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physio-chemical, functional and antioxidant evaluation of some combinations of GF flours formulas that have been prepared compared with available GF commercial flour formula in the local market. The moisture content of Gluten-free flour (GFF) formula sold in the local market used in the research was 12.60%. On the other hand, the prepared formulas' moisture content ranged from 12.23% (F2) to 12.90% (F3). The highest protein content was recorded with F2 and F4 formulas with no significant difference (p<0.05). Gluten-free flour formula had the lowest protein content (5.07% on a dry weight basis (DWB). In comparison to control (GFF), the amount of ash and crude fiber recorded in F2 doubled. The ash and crude fiber contents of the various formulas differed significantly. The GFF had the lowest ash and crude fiber content (0.51 and 0.31%, respectively on DWB). The highest values of total phenolic compound and antioxidant activity was observed in the F2 formula (313.15 mg/100g and 7.95%, respectively), followed by the F4 formula (226.56 mg/100g and 7.22%, respectively), then the F1 formula (223.57 mg/100g and 6.62%, respectively) on DWB. While, the lowest value was in the commercial flour formula sold in the local market (GFF) (75.10 mg/100g and 3.23%, respectively) on DWB. Gluten-free flours formulas exhibited high values for the water holding capacity in samples F2 (164.98%) and F1 (134.17%). While, GFF commercial flour formula showed lower water binding capacity in comparison to other GF flours formulas. Significant differences in the oil holding capacity of GF flours formulas were also observed. The mean values showed higher oil holding capacity for F2 (145.92%), followed by F4 (138.51%), F1 (130.11%) and F3 (126.64%), whereas, the lowest 75.43% was for GFF. The GF composite flour samples have close values and non-significant variations at p≤0.05 in the protein solubility. The increase in the values of emulsion stability and foam stability determined for GF flours formulas were significant at p≤0.05 as compared with those determined for the GFF commercial flour formula sample.
Caroline K. Nakiguli, Viola J. Kosgei, Jackson K. Cherutoi, John Odda
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 17-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130244

Abstract:
Aims: Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. barbadensis) is one of the most treasured species from the Aloe genus that has been used in management of various ailments. However, there are few reports on the secondary metabolites, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of its leaf latex and gel. This study aimed at comparing the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water extracts of latex and gel of A. barbadensis leaves from Kisumu, Elgeyo Marakwet and Baringo Counties of Kenya, East Africa. Study Design: The study employed quantitative and qualitative research designs. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya between May 2021 and August 2021. Methodology: Leaf samples were extracted by maceration using distilled water and PBS. Phytochemical screening was performed following standard screening procures while TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method, Aluminum Chloride colorimetric assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with Tukey post hoc test at P = .05. Correlations among TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of the extracts were assessed using Pearson’s bivariate correlation. The analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism for windows (v9.0, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Results: Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, terpenes and quinones as the main secondary metabolites in the extracts. TPC and TFC were found to be highest for the aqueous extracts, with the highest contents (102.393 ± 0.121 mg GAE/ g DW and 47.228 ± 0.248 mg QE / g DW) being for dry latex of leaves from Baringo. The highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 21.900 ± 0.0594 mg/mL) was for aqueous extract of fresh latex of leaves from Baringo, followed by those from Elgeyo Marakwet and then Kisumu. Conclusion: This study established that dry and fresh latex and gel extracts of A. barbadensis leaves possess therapeutic phytochemicals with antioxidant activities, which support their use in traditional phytomedicine in Kenya.
David Nørgaard Essenbæk, Andreas Erbs Hillers-Bendtsen, Kurt V. Mikkelsen
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130243

Abstract:
We present linear optical absorptions of photo/thermochromic molecules interacting with a gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic system is the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) system and our aim is to study the effects of the interaction between the gold nanoparticle and the molecular systems. We consider the changes of the one-photon excitations of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene system as we increase the interactions between the molecules and the nanoparticle by decreasing the distance between them. We utilize a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method for investigating the photo/thermochromic molecular system interacting with the gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic molecules are described quantum mechanically using density functional theory whereas the gold nanoparticle is represented as gold atoms with atomic polarizabillities using molecular mechanics. We observed that the optical properties of the photo/thermochromic systems are affected by the presence of the nanoparticle and the changes depend strongly on the conformer of the molecular system along with the relative orientation and distance between the photo/thermochromic molecules and the nanoparticle.
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