Asian Plant Research Journal

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EISSN : 2581-9992
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 151
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, Toufiq Ahmed, Riyadh Arefin
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 44-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430184

Abstract:
Aims: Pruning is the cutting of branches of a tea bush at predetermined height and at a specified interval in order to reinvigorate and bring tea bushes within reach of the pluckers, which directly related to the productivity and quality of tea. In Bangladesh, Three and four year pruning cycles were the conventional recommendations for the tea plantation. In this experiment, along with BTRI recommended four types of pruning operations (LP, DSK, MSK and LSK), two more types of pruning operations such as: UP (Unprune) and LoS (Level of Skiff) were considered as treatments. This experiment was conducted with two main objectives: to evaluate the yield and yield related parameters of tea due to different types of pruning operations as well as to find out the effect of pruning operations on organoleptic quality of black tea. Study Design, Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was conducted ‘D2 Thall’ area at the main research farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI) from December 2017 to November 2019. The experimental design was Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with six treatments and three replications. Methodology: The treatments are denoted as T1 (UP: Unpruned) control, T2 (LP: Light Pruning), T3 (DSK: Deep Skiffing), T4 (MSK: Medium Skiffing), T5 (LSK: Light Skiffing) and T6 (LoS: Level of Skiffing) respectively. Data were collected under the following parameters: Number of plucking point or pluckable shoot/bush in each plucking Fresh weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud) Oven Dry weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud) to calculate Dry Matter Content Green leaf weight (kg) to calculate Yield of each treatment Number of plucking round to calculate Yield gap of each treatment Black Tea Quality of each treatment by Organoleptic Tasting Method. Results: It was found that, number of plucking points/pluckable shoot and yield were found significantly high in T6 (Level of Skiffing), T5 (Light Skiffing) and T1 (Unpruned) than the other treatments. But in terms of tea quality, lowest quality tea was found in T1 (Unpruned), T6 (Level of Skiffing) and T5 (Light Skiffing) treatment. So, it can be concluded that, ‘Skiff Pruning’ or ‘Unprune’ technique had positive effect on yield but the quality of these technique were poor in comparison with other treatments. T2 (Light Pruning) treatment gave more tender and fresh shoot than the other treatment. For this reason, dry matter was low in T2 (Light Pruning) treatment but tea quality was much better than the other pruning technique. Conclusion: Pruning has positive or negative effect on yield and quality of tea. ‘Skiff Pruning’ or ‘Unprune’ has positive effect on yield but the quality of is poor than the other treatments. Best Quality tea can be produced from Light Pruning tea section because of having more tender and fresh shoot than other treatments.
Bhagat Suberi, , Karma Sherub
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 33-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430183

Abstract:
The Himalayan Birch (Betula utilis D. Don) an essential tree species due to its ecological and social importance in the himalayan region. The study assessed the effect of environmental factors on habitat, growth, and regeneration patterns of the Himalayan Birch at the Royal Botanical Park, Lampelri, Bhutan . Two vertical transects with a spacing of 75 m were laid across the altitudinal gradient. A total of 10 circular sample plots were laid on each transect with a plot size of 12.62 m for trees, 3.57 m for regeneration, and 0.57 m for ground cover vegetation. A total of 119 vascular plant species under 45 families were recorded in 20 survey plots. The Spearman rho’s correlation showed strong negative correlation between the species abundance and temperature (rs=- .83) and positive correlation with the species count and altitude (rs = .83). The species richness in the study area showed an initial increase up to certain with elevation and then decreased with further increase in elevation. The importance value index (IVI) of tree species showed Tsuga dumosa as the most dominant species. Betula utilis indicated an increasing density with an increase in elevation. The regeneration of Betula utilis was poor as it was mostly found in a sapling stage. From a total of 43 tree species regenerating, 13.95% showed good regeneration, 34.88% fair, 23.25% poor, and 4.65% without regeneration. The remaining 23.25% seems to be either reappearing or immigrating.
, Syed Muhammad Atif Tasleem, Syed Bilal Hussain
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430182

Abstract:
Agroforestry remained a profitable venture across the globe if managed well spatially and temporarily. Farmlands are viable option to practice agroforestry in Pakistan for sustaining farmers’ livelihoods as well as to provide products and services for ever increasing population. This study focusses on how agroforestry is being perceived as profitable enterprise by the farmers in Multan, Punjab Pakistan. Rural areas of Multan were selected for this study and 200 farmers were selected randomly from 10 villages across 02 union councils using multi-stage sampling procedure. The results revealed that agroforestry remained the prime land use system as reported by the farmers (99%) belonging to agropastoral and agroforestry practice. Moreover, agroforestry perceived as high-income system providing variety of product (increased crop and fodder production, variety of products and income) and services (Carbon sequestration, climate amelioration, soil conservation). The study concluded the need for public-private partnership for the promotion of agroforestry in the region.
Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe, Akinade William Owoade
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 15-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430181

Abstract:
The study was aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of methanolic extract Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves in high cholesterol-fed rats. The preliminary study showed that R. vomitoria leaves were able to scavenge the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sufonic acid) (ABTS) and 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and these radicals scavenging abilities were found to be dose-dependent. Administration of cholesterol to rats for 45 days induced a significant increase in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increase lipids levels in the plasma and tissues while HDL cholesterol was decreased. It also elevated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the tissues. However, co-administration of high cholesterol-fed rats with R. vomitoria extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reversed lipids levels to near normal with cholesterol in the plasma, liver, heart, kidney and lung reduced by (23.13% and 56.43%), (30.09% and 20.90%), (38.21% and 74.53%), (12.61% and 32.49%) and (37.11% and 29.90%) respectively while HDL cholesterol level was increased by (225.44% and 110.39%). The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the plasma and MDA in the tissues were also decreased while SOD activities in the liver, heart, kidney and lung were elevated by (89.35% and 149.21%), (74.91% and 68.35%), (56.76% and 114.77%), and (204.91% and 274.62%) respectively. The extract of R. vomitoria was found to be rich in phenolic content and was proved to have no toxic effects on rats when administered alone to normal rats at a dose level of 200mg/kg/day. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects of R. vomitoria and, suggests that the plant could serve as a new potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
, Rana Mohsin Ijaz, Syed Bilal Hussain, Akash Jamil, Imran Khan
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i330179

Abstract:
The study assessed the utilization, marketing and transportation of Non WoodForest Products (NWFPs) in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK)with the view to improving ivelihoods of local inhabitants. Data collection were made in AJK districts of Neelam and Bagh. The respondents that were sampled for the study comprise of local ihabitants involved in collection of NWFPs. A total of 200 respondents were interviwed using simple random sampling technique. The results revelaed most of the farmers were literate having very small land holdings with farming as their prime profession. The main reason for NWFPs collection and selling is to buy food and cater for health needs of the family. Most of the NWFPs are sold directly to local traders at spot and fellow collector/trader remained most worthy source of information in NWFP collection and selling. Regarding mode of transportation manual transportation (on foot) is being used due to low quantityof NWFP collection at most of the times. There is now the need of time that the people of this area involved with NTFPs should be trained. Trainings on collection, processing and packaging of NTFPs must be carried out. Therefore the local communities would be able to add value to their products and are able to fetch high premiums to support their livelihoods.
Dinesh Singh Rawat, Deep Shekhar Das, Prabhawati Tiwari, Preeti Naithani, Jay Krishan Tiwari
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430180

Abstract:
The physicochemical properties of soils of six forests varying in elevation (lower, middle, and upper), slope, aspects, and floristic composition viz. L1 (Oak mixed), L2 (Chir pine), M1 (Rhododendron mixed), M2 (Rhododendron mixed), U1 (Abies mixed) and U2 (Abies mixed) from Western Ramganga Valley (Chamoli, Uttarakhand Himalaya, India) were scrutinized. The composite soil samples from three depths (0–10 cm, 11–20 cm, and 21–30 cm) were collected during the different seasons and the physicochemical parameters were analyzed using standard manual and protocol. Texture, bulk density, moisture content, water holding capacity, organic matter, organic carbon, pH, nitrogen content, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and C:N ratio of soil samples from each forest site were analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the physical properties of soils either do not vary across the three depths (0–10 cm, 11–20 cm, and 21–30 cm) or show slight changes whereas chemical properties show notable variations comparatively. The significant variation (ANOVA, P < 0.05) was observed in the soil texture (sand, silt, and clay contents), moisture content, water holding capacity, and nitrogen content across the six forest types (study sites). The soil texture ranged between loam and sandy loam which is considered supportive for plant growth. Besides, the lower bulk density and higher soil organic carbon and organic matter with other determined parameters in the studied soils indicate that the studied six forests have sustained nutritive soils. It can be concluded from the present results that the soil physicochemical properties vary with changes in the vegetation composition (forest types) at different elevations in Western Himalaya. Further elaborative study will be done to ascertain interrelationship among the vegetation and soils.
, Saade Abdalkareem Jasim
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i330178

Abstract:
This review represent plants genetic diversity (PDG) generally in crop plant and especially in Barley (Hordeum vulgare), can be studied (PDG) and stored as a (PGR) plant genetic resources as gene bank , DNA library for saved genetic material at long time and crops improvement can be utilized in breeding programs strategies in future. In this study observed the significance of plant genetic diversity (PGD) and (PGR) especially on agriculturally important crops , analysis of plant genomic using molecular markers. Barley is a well important studies crops using as a model for study genetic plant, cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare easily hybridization by genetic fingerprinting with wiled barley Hordeum spontaneum. The molecular markers showed their relation with locus of geographic factors and imposed stresses. Here, discussed barley genomic through relationship between genotype and phenotype traits using molecular markers useful for genetic physiological maps construction.
Mai Hai Chau, Ngo Xuan Chinh
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i330177

Abstract:
Plant density and fertilization are key practices for improving the fruit quality and yield of vegetables grown in greenhouses. The experiment was performed to investigate the effects of density and fertilization on the fruit yield and quality, economic efficiency of Solanum lycopersicum L. at Duc Trong district of Lam Dong province. The density (50,000; 33,000; 25.000 plants ha-1) and the fertilizer rates (240N – 100P2O5 – 275K2O; 300N – 125P2O5 – 344K2O; 360N – 150P2O5 – 413K2O kg and 420N – 175P2O5 – 482K2O kg ha-1) were studied in a completely randomised split plot design with three blocks. The fertilizer rate (420N – 175P2O5 – 482K2O kg ha-1) was produced the highest height (562.39 cm), fruit setting rate (69.87%), number of fruit per plant (95.65 fruits), average fruit weight (106.37 g), fruit yield (441.11 tons ha-1) and marketable fruit yield (204.31 tons ha-1). The density (25,000 plants ha-1) gave the highest fruit setting rate (75.35%), number of fruit per plant (94.84 fruits), average fruit weight (113.24 g), individual fruit yield (10.02 kg per plant) and fruit yield (501.17 tons ha-1). The combination of density (25,000 plants ha-1) and fertilizer rate (420N – 175P2O5 – 482K2O kg ha-1) have the highest fruit yield (613.5 tons ha-1), marketable fruit yield (223.91 tons ha-1) and rate of return (2.44). In addition, this combination was the best density and fertilizer level management strategy for greenhouse-grown Lahay 334 tomato cultivar in Lam Dong province, Vietnam.
F. O. Ivbarue, , O. A. Oseni
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 10-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i330176

Abstract:
Consequents upon the efficacies of the local claims of Aframomum melegueta (Ataare) and Syzygium aromaticum (Kanafuru) in the treatment of respiratory infections and diseases in the study area, the present study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant capacity and nutritional composition in compounds of Aframomum melegueta and Syzygium aromaticum seeds to validates their local claims. The aqueous extracts of the plants seeds were obtained using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols in the aqueous extracts of the plants seeds, while tannins was absent in the extract of Aframomum melegueta. Flavonoids and phenols revealed the highest antioxidant potential of the plants quantitatively at 0.1 g/m. The proximate contents of the plants seeds showed the level of crude contents ranging from moisture (7.34% ± 0.01 and 13.74% ± 0.03), fiber (28.33% ± 0.02 and 16.23% ± 0.02), protein (21.03% ± 0.02 and 10.79% ± 0.05), fat (7.13% ± 0.02 and 27.94% ± 0.10) and carbohydrates (32.76% ± 0.03 and 26.53% ± 0.02) respectively. The results also revealed the presence of potassium (63.50% ± 0.2 ppm and 64.20% ± 0.2 ppm), calcium (7.54% ± 0.2 ppm and 10.40% ± 0.2 ppm) and magnesium (9.05% ± 0.2 ppm and 9.11% ± 0.2 ppm) in the two plants seeds respectively. Therefore this study justifies the local use of Aframomum melegueta (Ataare) and Syzygium aromaticum (Kanafuru) as sources of medicine to manage and alleviate various symptoms associated with respiratory diseases and health conditions.
, Korir Kibet Nicholas, Wafula Wekha Nelson, Joseph P. Onyango Gweyi
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i330175

Abstract:
Finger millet (Elusine coracana) accounts for 8% of the total area and 11% of the millet production worldwide. It is grown on over 4 million ha globally, mainly for food purposes. Millions of people in the dry lands of Central and East Africa, and South of India depend on finger millet as an important source of food to them (CGIAR, 2001). Finger millet is one of the most neglected and underutilized crops. Additionally, the crop has received limited research attention compared to wheat, rice, and maize (FAO, 2011). Therefore, production challenges such as those caused by weeds like goose grass Elusine indica remain at large. Manual weeding is the commonly employed weed control method in finger millet production, but is expensive and labour intensive. The current study was set to evaluate the influence of weed management practices on finger millet growth and yield components. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The plots measured 2 by 2m with a border width of 1m. The treatments included Pendimethalin, Dimethyl amine, Metolachlor, Metribuzin, Atrazine (at three rates each 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l/ha), No weeding and Hand weeding. Data was collected on the number of weed species, weed biomass, number of basal tillers, herbicide phytotoxicity, weed and crop heights, number of panicles, weight of panicles, weight of un-threshed and threshed grains and 1000 grain weight. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA using GenStat version 15.1. Application of Pendimethalin at 1.5 and 2.0 L/ha Active Ingredient (AI), resulted in weed optimal control and least phytotoxicity. Results also indicated that the height of finger millet was significantly (p<0.001) higher where the herbicides were applied. Lower weed biomass was also positively correlated with higher crop height, more panicles, high unthreshed and threshed weights and a 1000 grain weight. Application of 2,4D at rates of 1.5L and 2.0L resulted in significantly taller plants 33.00 cm, than the other weed management methods. Finger millet under Pendimethalin 1.5 L gave the highest number of 86 panicles while Atrazine 2.0L and Pendimethalin1.5L methods of weed control, had significantly higher weight compared to all the other treatments. The 1000 seed mass across the treatments averaged 2.31 g while the on the untreated treatments had an average of 1.54 g. Weed control using pre emergence herbicides significantly (p<0.001) increased the yields of finger millet.
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