Neuroanatomy and Behaviour
EISSN : 2652-1768
Current Publisher: Episteme Health Inc (10.35430)
Total articles ≅ 9
Articles in this journal
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 3; doi:10.35430/nab.2021.e18
Animal models of relapse to drug-seeking have borrowed heavily from associative learning approaches. In studies of relapse-like behaviour, animals learn to self-administer drugs then receive a period of extinction during which they learn to inhibit the operant response. Several triggers can produce a recovery of responding which form the basis of a variety of models. These include the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), drug availability (rapid reacquisition), extinction of an alternative response (resurgence), context change (renewal), drug priming, stress, and cues (reinstatement). In most cases, the behavioural processes driving extinction and recovery in operant drug self-administration studies are similar to those in the Pavlovian and behavioural literature, such as context effects. However, reinstatement in addiction studies have several differences with Pavlovian reinstatement, which have emerged over several decades, in experimental procedures, associative mechanisms, and terminology. Interestingly, in cue-induced reinstatement, drug-paired cues that are present during acquisition are omitted during lever extinction. The unextinguished drug-paired cue may limit the model’s translational relevance to cue exposure therapy and renders its underlying associative mechanisms ambiguous. We review major behavioural theories that explain recovery phenomena, with a particular focus on cue-induced reinstatement because it is a widely used model in addiction. We argue that cue-induced reinstatement may be explained by a combination of behavioural processes, including reacquisition of conditioned reinforcement and Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer. While there are important differences between addiction studies and the behavioural literature in terminology and procedures, it is clear that understanding associative learning processes is essential for studying relapse.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 3; doi:10.35430/nab.2021.e16
Aversive memories underlie many types of anxiety disorders. One area of research to more effectively treat anxiety disorders has therefore been identifying pharmacological targets to affect memory processes. Among these targets, the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) has received attention due to the availability of drugs to utilize its role in learning and memory. In this review, we highlight preclinical studies examining the role of mGlu5 at various stages of aversive learning and its inhibition via extinction in order to gain a better understanding of its therapeutic potential. We suggest that mGlu5 has distinct roles at different stages of memory that not only makes it a tricky target, but a double-edged sword as a therapeutic. However, the selective involvement of mGlu5 in different memory stages allows for certain precision that could be harnessed clinically. We therefore suggest potential applications, limitations, and pitfalls when considering use of mGlu5 modulators as therapeutics. In addition, we recommend future studies to address important gaps in this literature, such as sex and age factors in light of anxiety disorders being more prevalent in those demographics.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 2; doi:10.35430/nab.2020.e13
Multidisciplinary research has the potential to address pressing global challenges. When working across disciplinary boundaries, brain and behavioural scientists can contribute to technological developments that enhance human health, safety, well-being and performance. However, multidisciplinary research comes with its own unique challenges that can hinder team communication, cohesion and research progress. In this article, I share tips that can help readers to navigate the challenges of working in multidisciplinary applied research. It is important for researchers in diverse teams to gain cross-disciplinary literacy and self-confidence that enables them to contribute their full potential, and to engage teammates in a way that fosters collaboration based on effective communication and shared motivations. Ultimately, overcoming these challenges is a key step towards realising the benefits of multidisciplinary research to science and technology, and also contributes to the personal and professional development of individual researchers.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 2; doi:10.35430/nab.2020.e10
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which is worsened substantially by substance abuse/addiction. Substance abuse affects nearly 50% of individuals with schizophrenia, extends across several drug classes (e.g. nicotine, cannabinoids, ethanol, psychostimulants) and worsens overall functioning of patients. Prominent theories explaining schizophrenia and addiction comorbidity include the primary addiction hypothesis (i.e. schizophrenia susceptibility primes drug reward circuits, increasing drug addiction risk following drug exposure), the two-hit hypothesis (i.e. drug abuse and other genetic and/or environmental risk factors contribute to schizophrenia development) and the self-medication hypothesis (i.e. drug use alleviates schizophrenia symptoms). Animal models can be used to evaluate the utility and validity of these theories. Since this literature was last reviewed by Ng and colleagues in 2013 [Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 37(5)], significant advances have been made to our understanding of schizophrenia and substance abuse comorbidity. Here we review advances in the field since 2013, focussing on two key questions: 1) Does schizophrenia susceptibility increase susceptibility to drug addiction (assessing the primary addiction hypothesis), and 2) Do abused drugs exacerbate or ameliorate schizophrenia symptoms (assessing the two-hit hypothesis and the self-medication hypothesis). We addressed these questions using data from several schizophrenia preclinical models (e.g. genetic, lesion, neurodevelopmental, pharmacological) across drug classes (e.g. nicotine, cannabinoids, ethanol, psychostimulants). We conclude that addiction-like behaviour is present in several preclinical schizophrenia models, and drugs of abuse can exacerbate but also ameliorate schizophrenia-relevant behaviours. These behavioural changes are associated with altered receptor system function (e.g. dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic) critically implicated in schizophrenia and addiction pathology.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 2; doi:10.35430/nab.2020.e9
The dissemination of scientific results and new technologies in biomedical science is rapidly evolving from an exclusive and fee-oriented publishing system towards more open, free and independent strategies for sharing knowledge. In this context, preprint servers such as bioRxiv answer a very real scientific need by enabling the rapid, free and easy dissemination of findings, regardless of whether these are novel, replicated, or even showcasing negative results. Currently, thousands of manuscripts are being shared via bioRxiv each month, and neuroscience is the largest and fastest growing subject category. However, commenting on bioRxiv is declining and no structured scientific validation such as peer-review is currently available. The Peer Community In (PCI) platform addresses this unmet need by facilitating the rigorous evaluation and validation of preprints, and PCI Circuit Neuroscience (PCI C Neuro) aims to develop and extend this tool for the neuroscience community. Here we discuss PCI C Neuro’s mission, how it works, and why it is an essential initiative in this new era of open science.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 1; doi:10.35430/nab.2019.e8
The number of students enrolling in postgraduate by research degrees has seen a large increase in recent years, a trend which is evident globally as well as within Australia. However, the rate at which PhD students are dropping out has also increased, indicating that students are not receiving adequate resources to support them throughout their candidature. We highlight that mentoring programs are effective in addressing inequality between PhD students, and describe a program that we have recently launched at UNSW Sydney.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 1; doi:10.35430/nab.2019.e6
The increasingly competitive academic job market has forced PhD graduates in psychology, neuroscience, and related fields to maximize their research output and secure grant funding during the early postdoctoral period of their careers. In the present article, based on a Q&A session presented at a research retreat (Brain and Behaviour Lab, University of Sydney) in February 2018, we draw on our firsthand experiences of navigating the transition from graduate student to postdoc. We offer practical advice to students who may be nearing the end of their PhDs and planning their first steps toward an academic career. Although the postdoc experience is varied, it is important for early-career researchers to make optimal choices to increase their chances of securing a continuing academic position. Ultimately, the goal of a postdoctoral position should be to develop all the facets of an academic career, but with a strong focus on the quantity and quality of research outputs.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 1; doi:10.35430/nab.2019.e5
The three-minute thesis (3MT) competition was founded in the Univeristy of Queensland in 2008, and has since spread globally. The goal of the event is for graduate students to present their research to a non-specialist audience with no props and only one non-animated slide. To top it all off, this presentation must be under three minutes! Why would someone want to do take on this challenge? Czarina Evangelista is a PhD student at Concordia Univeristy's Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, and she explains the motivation behind her participation and what she learned from the experience.
Neuroanatomy and Behaviour, Volume 1; doi:10.35430/nab.2019.e7
Almost every open access neuroscience journal is pay-to-publish. This leaves neuroscientists with a choice of submitting to journals that not all of our colleagues can legitimately access and choosing to pay large sums of money to publish open access. Neuroanatomy and Behaviour is a new platinum open access journal published by a non-profit association of scientists. Since we do not charge fees, we will focus entirely on the quality of submitted articles and encourage the adoption of reproducibility-enhancing practices, like open data, preregistration, and data quality checks. We hope that our colleagues will join us in this endeavour so that we can support good neuroscience no matter where it comes from.