Research in Ecology
EISSN : 2661-3379
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 40
Latest articles in this journal
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2631
The objective of this study was to compare the soil seed bank of an area under natural regeneration (F1) and another reforested through seedling planting (F2), seven years after bauxite mining, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each area, 10 sampling points were randomly distributed, using three samples of topsoil to represent each point. The samples were transported to a shade house and evaluated for six months, where emerging individuals were identified every two weeks. In F1, 2,114.94 propagules m-2 were registered, belonging to 51 species and 24 botanical families, H’=2.770 e J’=0.705. In F2, 1,168.62 propagules m-2 were registered, belonging to 42 species and 22 families, H’=2.618 and J’=0.700. The Jaccard index between F1 and F2 was 0.61, indicating a high similarity between the analyzed areas. The results showed high density of propagules, good diversity and absence of ecological dominance. The high similarity between forests is related to geographical proximity, the same topsoil origin (agricultural/pasture) and also to the role of the dispersing fauna. The high number of individuals and diversity of tree species with zoochoric dispersion found in the areas indicate that both natural regeneration and reforestation were efficient in the ecological restoration of bauxite mined areas.
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2865
Different sets of dry spell length such as complete series, monthly maximum, seasonal maximum, and annual maximum are applied and modeled with different probability distribution functions (such as Gumbel Max, generalized extreme value, Log-Logistic, generalized logistic, inverse Gaussian, Log-Pearson 3, generalized Pareto) to recognize in which duration, dry spells cause drought. The drought situation and temporal analysis in the North of Iraq region were done using the SPI index and by software of DrinC at a time scale of 3.6 and 12 months. Because of applicability, availability of data and the aim of the study, SPI is selected to analyze the dry spells in this study. Based on the maximum length of the available statistical period, the statistics for the years 1980 to 2019 were used from nine meteorological stations for analysis. The results of the study showed the severity of drought during the study period which related to dry spells. The results of this research confirm the variation of drought occurrence with varying degrees in different time and different dry spells condition in Iraq.
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2895
The population of Turkey has grown rapidly in parallel with the rise in technology and industrialization. The increasing population of the country has triggered urbanization, and environmental problems have drawn attention. One of the issues resulting from urbanization is solid waste. Every object we use in our daily life is transformed into solid waste when its economic life has ended. The processes from the storage of these wastes to their disposal, often referred to as solid waste management, come under the municipalities' authority and responsibility. Waste must be processed with the least environmental impact. This study investigated the solid wastes in Turkey according to the geographic regions and their relationships with the population. Data collected are related to population data. Solid waste materials, their volumes, daily solid waste per capita, and the population of municipalities served by waste management and waste treatment techniques are also discussed in this study.Keywords: Disposal methods, Solid waste, Local government, Turkey
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2904
The study area is one of the areas in the south-south region of Nigeria that has been ravaged by erosion. This has lead loss of infrastructure and has also affected the livelihood of the inhabitant of the study area. In this study, the physiochemical properties of soils in Agbor and its neighboring communities was assessed in eleven different locations. A total of eleven soil samples, consisting of 5 samples each at a depth of 0 – 200 cm were taken in accordance with the clarification of different horizons. The samples were air-dried, crushed and sieved in 2mm mesh sieve then subjected to analysis for both physical and chemical properties in the laboratory. The physiochemical analysis results showed that pH value ranges from 5.0 to 6.3 indicating very strongly acidic to strongly acidic. Bulk density ranged from 1.29 to1.35 indicating a slight increase due to the presence of sand fraction. And low level of porosity which ranged from 49.4 to 50.9. The low obtained from Total Organic Matter (TOM) indicate intense rainfall and constant leaching. The low Ca, Mg, K+ and Na+ values indicate intense rainfall and leaching problems. The values obtained from Al3+, H+, EA and P revealed slight increase and cause of acidity nature across eleven soils test site. The properties showed by all soils revealed that they are vulnerable to weathering, leaching and easy removal by runoff. Therefore, there resistivity is low.
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2637
Legume green manure is extensively planted to improve soil fertility in crop field. However, the application of legume in Eucalyptus plantation is still limited and depends on site specific and species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of green manure inter-plantation on soil fertility and plant growth of Eucalyptus plantation in a short term. A field experiment of one year was established to investigate the green manure growth, forest soil nutrients and Eucalyptus plant growth inter-planted with two legume species (Tephrosia candida, TC and Sesbania cannabina, SC) at south subtropical China. Legumes were inter-planted in linear among the tree space of Eucalyptus stand. Result showed that the green manure inter-plantation increased soil organic matter by 9.66% of TC and 18.44% of SC. Soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were improved significantly by the legume treatments as well. The increment of height and diameter in breast height of Eucalyptus during the experiment was significant in legume treatments. Thus, the timber volume increment was improved significantly by 46.81% of TC and 35.47% of SC compared with the control treatment. Therefore, the inter-plantation of legume green manure under the Eucalyptus plantation is effective to improve soil fertility and tree growth. Such a measure is potential and referenced for the sustainable forest management.
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2874
Food insecurity in most dry regions in Zimbabwe has taught many people a lesson of using non timber forest products (NTFPs) to reduce food insecurity and improve livelihoods as well as poverty alleviation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential contribution of non-timber forest products to smallholder farmers in arid and semi-arid regions. The research was carried out as a survey and data was collected using interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussion. Data was analysed for descriptive statistics using IBM SPSS version 25. Results indicated that 64 % were females and 36 % were males with the majority of participants being married (57.6 %) with only 8.8 % being widowed. Results show that all respondents (100%) indicated that they obtain fruits from the forests as major source of food during winter and rain season. Vegetables (84.2 %), thatching grass (80.8%) and edible worms (62.5 %) were also major non-timber forest products obtained from the forests by participants. All participants (100%) indicated that income generation, firewood and source of heat for brick moulding were major benefits they obtain from forest with vegetables (74.2 %), brooms (91.7 %) and improved nutrition (85.0 %) being regarded as other important benefits enjoyed by local people from forests. Afforestation and reforestation were regarded as major sustainable forest management practices by all (100%) participants with agroforestry being indicated by only 12.5 % since people had no knowledge about it. NTFPs has capacity of improving food security, human livelihoods and alleviate poverty. People are encouraged to harvest NTFPs sustainably to allow future use. Use of agroforestry can be a best way for managing forests sustainably, improve food security, crop yield, poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation.
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/re.v3i1.2905
The present investigation is conducted to study the year wise (2011 to 2018) changes of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) cover at Santragachi Lake a Wetland under National Wetland Conservation Programme of India. Further the relationship between water hyacinth cover and the most abundant migratory waterbirds of Satragachi, Lesser Whistling Teal (LWT; Dendrocygna javanica) is assessed because this bird species is fully depended on water hyacinth mat for their roosting. The study comprises of eight satellite images procured from Google earth (2011 to 2018) to explore this relationship. A marked decline in the number of LWT at Santragachi wetland is observed in the year of 2017 and 2018. It is very interesting fact that from 2017-2018, the water hyacinth mat of this wetland is almost cleared before winter and the result of cluster analysis supports this fact. Significant positive correlation is also observed within LWT number and water hyacinth cover area (r = 0.7481 at p< 0.05) along with the total perimeter (r = 0.8648 at p< 0.05) of the water hyacinth islands at Santragachi wetland. However, open water area is also needed for diving, swimming, food searching for the LWT and other waterbirds. Therefore, more study is needed to optimize the clearing operations, focused on optimizing shape and size of water hyacinth islands for proper management of the waterbirds habitat.
Research in Ecology, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/re.v2i4.2368
Physical and chemical properties of soils interact each other either positively or negatively depending on the condition. Vegetation has influence on the soil physico-chemical characteristics. Land use land cover changes are the main factors in the process of land resource degradation. The objectives of this study were to define the soil texture, bulk density and extent of organic carbon in church forests and adjacent croplands and to compare the values. Transect lines of 100 apart and plots of 20mx20m were established to collect soil samples in the church forests and individual farm plots. The distance between plots was 100m. Horizon based soil sampling was undertaken. Soil samples were collected on a diagonal position from 2 edges and the center from 2 soil horizons (H1 and H2) for soil texture and soil organic carbon (SOC) analysis. For bulk density (BD) soil core samplers were used. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA in SPSS v20. Mean separation was undertaken by LSD. The results revealed the %clay content was significantly higher in croplands than church forests and the %sand was higher in church forests than croplands at (p
Research in Ecology, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/re.v2i4.2512
The Gaza Strip (365 km2) of Palestine (27,000 km2) is home to a wealth of terrestrial vertebrate fauna. Some of these faunistic species find their ways to preservation at the local universities. Hence, the current study comes to document the Palestinian terrestrial vertebrate fauna acquired by the biology exhibitions (BEs) of Al-Azhar University, Islamic University of Gaza and Al-Aqsa University that are located at the Gaza City of the Gaza Strip. The amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals preserved at BEs of the universities in question were surveyed and scientifically classified during a three-month period extending from January to March, 2012. The study showed that all BEs of local universities are underdeveloped, lacking attention and suffer from specimen scarcity and good preservation. The BE at Al-Azhar University is the best in the arrangement and preservation of bird specimens. A total number of 200 specimens belonging to 54 terrestrial vertebrate fauna species, 39 families and 17 orders was recorded at BEs. Reptiles constituted 40.7% of the total species recorded, followed by birds (38.9%), mammals (14.8%) and amphibians (5.6%). The Islamic University of Gaza was considered the best in terms of the number of preserved species (39.8%), followed by Al-Azhar University (36.3%) and Al-Aqsa University (23.9%). The Common Toad (Bufo viridis) was the most preserved among the amphibian species recorded. Squamata was the biggest reptilian order, comprising 20 species (8 lizards and 12 snakes), with the Syrian Black Snake (Coluber jugularis asianus) was the commonest. The Palestine Viper (Vipera palaestinae) is endemic to Palestine and most venomous and dangerous to human health. The Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) was the largest Palestinian bird preserved at BE of Al-Azhar University. The Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and the Common Badger (Meles meles) were the biggest mammalian specimens preserved, while the Palestine Mole-rat (Spalax leucodon ehrenbergi) was the only Palestine endemic species encountered among the preserved mammals. Finally, the improvement of BEs of local universities and the construction of a Central Museum of Natural History is highly recommended in order to change the Palestinians' attitudes toward a sustainable ecological conservation in the Gaza Strip.
Research in Ecology, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/re.v2i4.2608
Currently there is an urgent and special attention in actions to restore tropical forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different restoration methods on aboveground biomass (AGB) stock, tree community diversity and structure, in areas affected by the Fundão tailings dam collapse in Mariana, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We measured and compiled data of the AGB, community diversity and structure attributes in 36 plots distributed in six restoration treatments and six replicas: planting of native tree seedlings with fertilization and pH correction (PSf) and without fertilization and pH correction (PS); seeding of native trees with fertilization and pH correction (SDf) and without fertilization and pH correction (SD); natural regeneration with fertilization and pH correction (NRf) and without fertilization and pH correction (NR). No significant differences in substrate properties and AGB between treatments. Although biomass storage between treatments was not statistically different, there is a clear pattern showing higher values active restoration method. The Pielou index ranged from 0.520 (SDf) to 0.943 (NR), except for SDf all the others treatments had values higher than 0.76. This result suggests floristic heterogeneity, without ecological dominance in the plant community. Overall, active restoration had important implications for the forest restoration where natural regeneration is limited.