Research in Ecology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2661-3379
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 69
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Research in Ecology, Volume 4, pp 24-50; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i2.4552

Abstract:
Variations in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide, and the variables influencing it, at woodland sites over multiple years determine the long term performance of those sites as carbon sinks. In this study, weekly-averaged data from two AmeriFlux sites in North America of evergreen woodland, in different climatic zones and with distinct tree and understory species, are evaluated using four multi-linear regression (MLR) and seven machine learning (ML) models. The site data extend over multiple years and conform to the FLUXNET2015 pre-processing pipeline. Twenty influencing variables are considered for site CA-LP1 and sixteen for site US-Mpj. Rigorous k-fold cross validation analysis verifies that all eleven models assessed generate reproducible NEE predictions to varying degrees of accuracy. At both sites, the best performing ML models (support vector regression (SVR), extreme gradient boosting (XGB) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP)) substantially outperform the MLR models in terms of their NEE prediction performance. The ML models also generate predicted versus measured NEE distributions that approximate cross-plot trends passing through the origin, confirming that they more realistically capture the actual NEE trend. MLR and ML models assign some level of importance to all influential variables measured but their degree of influence varies between the two sites. For the best performing SVR models, at site CA-LP1, variables air temperature, shortwave radiation outgoing, net radiation, longwave radiation outgoing, shortwave radiation incoming and vapor pressure deficit have the most influence on NEE predictions. At site US-Mpj, variables vapor pressure deficit, shortwave radiation incoming, longwave radiation incoming, air temperature, photosynthetic photon flux density incoming, shortwave radiation outgoing and precipitation exert the most influence on the model solutions. Sensible heat exerts very low influence at both sites. The methodology applied successfully determines the relative importance of influential variables in determining weekly NEE trends at both conifer woodland sites studied.
Bhushan Kumar Sharma,
Published: 22 April 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4, pp 3-23; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i2.4520

Abstract:
The authors analyze phytoplankton diversity of a small urban wetland of Meghalaya to assess biodiversity and limnology interest of small water bodies. This “slightly acidic-circumneutral, demineralized and soft water” subtropical wetland reveals diverse phytoplankton (64 species), indicates high desmid richness and highlights the speciose littoral constellations of up to 55-58 species per sample. Phytoplankton comprises dominant quantitative component of net plankton and registers Charophyta dominance; Chlorophyta > Bacillariophyta > Dinozoa > Chrysophyta > Cyanobacteria depict sub-dominance, and Euglenozoa and Cryptophyta show poor abundance at the littoral and semi-limnetic regions. The richness of phytoplankton and abundance of phytoplankton, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinozoa, Chrysophyta and Cyanobacteria follow bimodal spatio-temporal variations. Closterium, Cosmarium, Staurastrum, Micrasterias, Netrium, Staurodesmus and Scenedesmus are notable genera, and 14 species collectively influence phytoplankton abundance. Phytoplankton registers high species diversity, lower dominance and high evenness. Amongst 15 abiotic factors, only the rainfall and sulphate exert notable influence individually, while the canonical correspondence analysis registers lower cumulative influence of the selected 10 factors on the littoral and semi-limnetic phytoplankton assemblages. This study merits interest for neglected biodiversity and ecology of small aquatic biotopes of India and urban wetlands in particular.
Inoussa Maman Maarouhi, Ibrahim Fataw
Published: 11 March 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i1.4362

Abstract:
Plant biodiversity plays a major role for sustaining livelihood of rural population. However, unsustainable exploitation of woody plants for firewood in Niger is creating ecological challenges. This study aims to evaluate plant species composition, richness and equitability for sustainable and inclusive management in rural areas. Plot vegetation inventory method was employed. Forty-eight plots each measuring 2500 m2 were laid down systematically on a transect with the village at the centre. On each plot, plant species were identified and the number of each species counted. A total of twenty-five (25) plant species belonging to thirteen (13) families were identified among which Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel. accounted for 61%. The Shannon index was low (H’ = 0.45) as well as species equitability (E = 0.14). Species richness differed significantly (p < 0.000) with land use type with agroforestry parklands recording significantly higher species compared to plateaus. For effective plant biodiversity restoration and management, irrigated agroforestry is recommended to restore ecological balance and to assure and improve the quality of plant biodiversity in the study area.
Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Tony Hadibarata
Published: 23 February 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i1.4363

Abstract:
Seagrass meadows provide important ecological functions, particularly by serving as carbon sinks and breeding grounds for marine species. Climate change has threatened seagrass communities, causing their replacement, loss and increased vulnerability. This review examined scholarly articles published between 2010-2021 to comprehensively present the impacts of climate change on seagrass meadows. It shows that ocean warming negatively affects seagrass communities by favouring communities of lower structuring capacities, thus reducing the effectiveness of their ecological functions. Ocean warming also promotes the propagation and spread of invasive species, and changes the trophic structures leading to further loss of seagrasses of value. Higher seawater temperature is associated with shoot mortality and retarded growth of certain seagrasses. Sea level rise causes more wave energy to be received by coastal seagrass communities, thus, creating more damage to the communities. Deepening sea limits light penetration and alters distribution of seagrass meadows. Carbon dioxide enrichment of seawater increases photosynthetic rate of seagrasses but ocean warming and acidification counteract this beneficial effect. Carbon dioxide enrichment affects different seagrass species and different parts of a seagrass species differently, and, where beneficial to seagrass communities, could enhance their ecological services. Temperature extremes could kill seagrasses while marine heatwaves and flooding could act synergistically to increase carbon demand of certain seagrasses and unfavourably change their biomass. These impacts are often aggravated by anthropogenic activities. This review calls for more studies and conservation efforts to understand the impacts of climate change on seagrass communities and future-proof them against the changing climate.
Mengtian Sun, Kai Huang, Jinhua Shao, Weixiong Wu
Published: 16 February 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4, pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i1.4259

Abstract:
China is rich in hydropower resources, and mountain rivers have abundant water resources and huge development potential, which have a profound impact on the pattern of water resources allocation in China. As the main way of water resources and hydropower development, the construction of cascade hydropower stations, while meeting the requirements of water resources utilization for social development, has also brought adverse effects on river ecosystems. Therefore, the impact of the construction of cascade hydropower stations on mountainous river ecosystems, where the minimum ecological flow of rivers must be ensured and reviewed. The deficiencies and outlooks of cascade hydropower stations is presented in the article.
Amawulu Ebenezer, Akpoebiere O. Mercy Ekwuribe
Published: 11 February 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i1.3773

Abstract:
Evaluating the presence of fresh water snails in a location is germane in establishing a snail-borne disease control program. The purpose of the study was to see how physicochemical parameters influenced the population distribution of four fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeiffer, and Melanoides spp.) in the Amassoma community and Niger Delta University between March, 2021 and May 2021. Snails were gathered by plucking and scooping them by hand. Snail was identified using standard pictorial keys. Physicochemical of the water of the snail habitat were measured using standard in-situ apparatus across eight sites Physico chemical measured were temperature, pH, conductivity, BOD, turbidity, salinity, and alkalinity. A total of 258 snails were gathered from the eight (8) different sites. In all sites, Lymnaea natalensis was more abundant. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeiffer, and Melanoides spp. were among the other snails discovered. Lymnaea had negative correlation with pH, conductivity, BOD, and alkalinity and a positive correlation with salinity and temperature. Bulinus had a positive relationship with pH, salinity, and conductivity and a negative correlation with temperature, turbidity, BOD, and alkalinity. Biomphalaria had a positive correlation with temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, and alkalinity Melanoides had positive correlations with Temperature, pH, salinity, BOD, and alkalinity and a negative correlation with turbidity and concentration. The was correlation between snails and snails. The presence of these snails suggests that the Amassoma village and Niger Delta University campuses are potential hotspots for a variety of snail-borne diseases.
Ihuma J. O., Agida I. O., Nashima T. N.
Published: 11 February 2022
Research in Ecology, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v4i1.4190

Abstract:
Assessment of fungal species associated with a multicultural orchard and cultivated land in Bingham University landscape was carried out, with the ultimate aim of identifying the fungi species present in soil under different agricultural practices. A total of 30 soil samples were collected and the composite from each land use pattern was analyzed in the laboratory using standard methods. Soil type, percentage Soil Moisture (SM), percentage Organic Carbon (OC) and percentage Organic Matter (OM) were measured using standard methods; fungi species were isolated and identified on the basis of mycelia and spore characteristics, after staining with lactophenol-in-cotton blue. The results showed that, four types of soil exist in the sites including sandy, clayey, silt and loamy. SM ranges between 3.6% -5.7%, and OC in the sandy soil was the highest 1.01% in the orange plantation (Op5) followed closely by loamy soil on cultivated site C with 0.97% OM and 0.56% OC and least in clay soil with 0.72% OM and 0.42% OC. The results of colony forming unit per gram (cfu/g)in relation to land use type, Cultivated Site C (CC1-CC5) had the highest (262 cfu/ g) and mango plantation (Mp1-Mp5) had the least with 156 cfu/g. Pictorial representation of isolated fungal species are indicative of suspected presence of Aspergillus Spp, Mucor Spp, Cladosporium Spp, Fusarium Spp, Aspergillus Spp etc. This qualitative study concluded that fungal species population in the soil depends on the management practice in place and the moisture content of the soil.
Haocheng Wang, Guoqin Huang
Published: 1 December 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i4.4161

Abstract:
To tackle with the problem of prevailing farmland abandonment in winter, 5 treatments includes Chinese milk vetch-double cropping rice (CRR), rape-double cropping rice (RRR), garlic-double cropping rice (GRR), winter crop multiple cropping rotation (ROT), winter fallow control (WRR) were set up. By measuring soil total organic carbon, active organic carbon and its components and calculating the soil carbon pool management index in 0~15 cm and 15~30 cm soil layers in the early and late rice ripening stage. The effects of different winter planting patterns on the changes of soil organic carbon and carbon pool management index were discussed. In order to provide theoretical basis for the optimization and adjustment of winter planting pattern of double cropping rice field in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. The results showed that soil total organic carbon, active organic carbon and its components in different winter cropping patterns were increased, and ROT and CRR treatments were more beneficial to the accumulation of soil total organic carbon, active organic carbon and its components as well as the improvement of soil carbon pool management index, which should be preferred in the adjustment of cropping patterns.
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