Journal of Botanical Research

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EISSN : 2630-5054
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 48
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M. Elaigwu, H.O.A. Oluma, A. Onekutu
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3482

Abstract:
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is usually contaminated with many fungi where some of them are mycotoxigenic causing economic and health problems. This study investigated the percentage composition of fungi contamination of sesame seeds in Benue state Nigeria. Using direct plating technique; the study revealed twelve species of fungi contamination in sesame seed obtained in Benue State. The percentage occurrence of fungal isolates shows that Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were found in all the locations and their occurrence was significantly different (P≤0.05). The percentage contamination of Sesame samples collected from Otukpo LGA has the highest fungal (23.35%) contamination and was significantly higher (P≤0.05) from samples of other places whereas Sesame contamination from Gboko was the least with total percentage of (12.05%). In conclusion, considering the benefits of sesame, it is recommended that several treatments should be applied to reduce the levels of contamination in sesame seeds before consumption utilization such as environmental conditions leading to fungal proliferation (a high temperature, humidity, poor soil fertility, drought and insect damage). Also poor harvesting practices, unsuitable storage conditions, improper transportation, marketing and processing should be discouraged.
Patience Mpia Ngelinkoto, André-Marie Kassia Lokassa, Bernadin Bulumuka, Jeff Kawaya Maliani, Myriam Mukadi Ngondo, Ruth Luntadila Mbuli, Johnny Bopopi Mukoko, Florent Biduaya Mukeba
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3455

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to find and assay phytochemical compounds and various biological macromolecules of the tender stems of Dioscorea praehensilis benth and evaluate their antioxidant activity and to compare the content of oxalates and cyanogenetic glucosides between raw and cooked tender stems. The plant collection and identification, phytochemical evaluation: phytochemical screening, preliminary (qualitative) analyses and in vitro assays. Phytochemical screening was performed by qualitative methods. The estimation of the content of secondary metabolites was evaluated by spectrophotometry-UV. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS and DPPH assays and preliminary composition by the gravimetric method. The results obtained show that the stems of Dioscorea praehensilis are devoid of certain important chemical groups, the flavonoids were not detected and they were rich in total polyphenols (17.22 ± 0.16), tannins (19.32 ± 0.52) and anthocyanins (25.22 ± 0.04). Our extracts showed a lower antioxidant activity than that of positive controls. The samples are rich in carbohydrates and fiber, with low levels of proteins, lipids and ash. Dioscorea praehensilis has a high toxicity in HCN, but after a good cooking of about 1 hour, 99.97% of the cyanide are eliminated and does not have many oxalates. The results obtained show that Dioscorea praehensilis has a high dietary value and can therefore be used as a nutritive food.
Masens Da-Musa Y.B., Briki K. Cyril, Masens Mandung, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3505

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to inventory plant biodiversity and to evaluate the carbon sequestration potential of the Misomuni forest massif. An inventory of all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm measured at 1.30 m height was performed. The aerial biomass (AGB) was used for estimating the stored CO2 and its carbon equivalent. 88 plant species belonging to 71 genera and 32 families were inventoried. Fabaceae family displayed the highest number of species and genera. The highest basal area values were displayed by Scorodophloeus zenkeri (7.34 ± 2.45 m2 /ha), Brachystegia laurentii (5.82 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Entandrophragma utile (5.28 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Pentadesma butyracea (4.53 ± 1.51 m2 /ha). The highest values of stored carbon and their carbon equivalent were observed in Pentadesma butyracea (15.13 ± 5.00 and 50.55 ± 16.85 t/ha), Picralima nitida (7.02 ± 2.34 and 23.66 ± 7.88 t/ha), Strombosia tetandra (6.56 ± 2.18 and 22.10 ± 7.36 t/ha). The Misomuni forest massif is thus much floristically diversified and plays a significant role in the sequestration of CO2. The total AGB of the inventoried trees is 183.78 ± 61.26 t/ha corresponding to stored carbon and carbon equivalent of 96.63 ± 32.21 t/ha and 289.92 ± 96.64 t/ha respectively. The protection of this ecosystem is highly needed for combatting climatic changes at local, national and regional scales and for the conservation biodiversity habitat.
Monalisa Mohanty
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3380

Abstract:
Biotechnology plays an important role in mitigation of various pollution in a cost effective manner by using the complex chemistry of living organisms, various cell manipulations and their approaches for environmental cleanup along with environmental sustainability. One such technology is phytoremediation technology or green technology which has emerged and evolved as a novel tool for remediation of toxic contaminants from environment. Plants with its diverse range show a remarkable range of their phytoremediation potentiality for establishing a sustainable environment. There is a huge exploitation of natural resources through expanded industrialization, urbanization, modern agricultural development, energy generation to fulfill the never-ending human desires and need. This disturbs the balance in nature where we reside and leads to progressive deterioration of the environment. There are several biotechnological advances which are employed for combating both the biotic and abiotic stress problems caused due to toxic contaminants in the environment. Various biotechnological interventions such as bioinformatics, proteomics, genomics, metallomics and metabolomics play a crucial role and open new avenue in this context. This omics approach is now integrated with bioinformatics to serve as a novel tool in phytoremediation technology. This smart technology provides insights into the complex behavior of enzymes, proteins and metabolites action and their biochemical pathways for degradation of wastes. This leads towards deriving a sustainable solution for environmental pollution.
Ambika Prasad Mishra, Jyoti Prakash Sahoo
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3343

Abstract:
The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought about another age on world as the human civilization is restricted in many aspects of everyday lives. There is no exception in the sector of food production and the supply chain of food. Due to constraints on demand, shutting of food production facilities, financial limitations, enterprise operations and delivery of different food items have been interrupted in the food supply chain. Every nation must comprehend the importance of the situation according to the spreading scenario of the ongoing pandemic. The probability of transmission via the food sector is regarded inconsequential, and the public authorities do not believe it necessary to follow COVID into workplaces. The unfavourable effects on the climate, the food framework and the people of the foodstuffs network are evident. An installation for the food supply chain should focus on amenities such as maintaining the safety and health of employees and changing working circumstances. This paper aims at discussing the effects of COVID-19 on the socio-economic status of human being including the negative impacts on the agriculture and food supply chain.
Farid T. Badé, Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon, Sina Haziz, Cissé Hama, Aude Kelomey, Assogba Sylvestre, Oladélé Gautier Roko, Adjanohoun Adolphe, Savadogo Aly, Baba-Moussa Lamine
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3113

Abstract:
Since the time of our ancestors, natural products issued from plant play a therapeutic crucial role. About 25-30% of all medicines (drugs) available for the treatment of diseases are derived from natural products (from plants, animals, bacteria and fungi) or are derivatives of natural products. The aim of this research was to scientifically identify and supply tangible documentation on these two plants employed in the traditional medicine. From November 2020 to February 2021, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted within four markets at the south of Benin, employing a semistructured questionnaire. Two hundred respondents including 80% of females and 20% of males were interviewed. The 2 studied plants are mainly used for different types of sickness related to infections. Females’ herbalists are the most represented. From this research, it appears that the 2 plants are widely used for the treatment of severe infections. On the market, 95% of the leafy steam are sold against 5% of the roots for both plants. The main preparation way is decoction. Oral use is reported to be common in all region. The value of samples sold varies from 200F CFA (Financial Cooperation of Africa) to 1000F CFA. The decoctions are usually obtained through one of a mix of different types of plants. Traditional knowledge is transmitted from one generation to another by oral education. Till today there was no record found. During our study, we did no record prohibition or side effect related to these plants’ use. These medicinal plants occupy a crucial place within the therapeutic arsenal of west Africa. Our results constitute a vital tool to determine the true potentials of these plants. These results could lead to new improved traditional medicine.
Habteslase Teklu Tesfagiorgis, Woldeamlak Araia, N. N. Angiras
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3319

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Hamelmalo Agricultural College during summer 2017, to evaluate the agronomic, physiological, and biochemical performance of the collected Eritrean germplasm of pearl millet. A total of 16 accessions were tested, out of which 2 were improved varieties included as a check. The experiment was laid out in 4 x 4 Simple Lattice Design with Randomized Block using 4 replications with a gross plot size of 3.0 m x 1.2 m, row to row spacing of 75 cm and plant to plant spacing of 30 cm. The data collected were Agronomic parameters (growth, development, yield, and yield contributing characters); Physiological parameters (Relative water content and Water Use Efficiency); and Biochemical parameters (crude fat, crude fiber, protein content, TSS, and ash content). The data were analyzed using GENSTAT software and correlation analysis was worked to see the positive and negative contribution of agronomic, physiological, and biochemical attributes. The results of the study showed that Bariyay908 and Kona being statistically at par with Bariyay 910, Hagaz, Zibedi, Shleti, Delkata, Tokroray, and Kunama produced significantly higher grain yield. However, among these Baryay908 because of its superior agronomic characteristics, lower incidence of downy mildew, relatively higher water use efficiency and higher crude protein content were found to be comparatively superior to the check improved varieties Kona and Hagaz. Grain yield has shown a positive and significant correlation with harvest index, number of seeds per panicle, panicle length, leaf area and water use efficiency. These promising accessions need to be further tested for future breeding programs to develop varieties higher in productivity and resistant to downy mildew under semiarid conditions of Eritrea.
Ruphin Djolu Djoza, Colette Masengo Ashande, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Mawunu Monizi, Jeff Iteku Bekomo, Damien Sha-T. Tshibangu, Dorothée Dinangayi Tshilanda, Pius T. Mpiana, Mudogo Virima
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3387

Abstract:
Democratic Republic of the Congo is a real reservoir of medicinal plants. These plants play a major role in the treatment of certain common pathologies in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to list the ethnomedical uses of Uvariodendron molundense, a medicinal and aromatic plant from the Ubangi ecoregion. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Gbado-Lite with 200 people using stratified probability sampling. The respondents were interviewed individually on the basis of free consent. The study revealed that the majority of respondents were men (72%) and had a secondary education (37%), followed respectively by illiterates (34%) and those with a primary education (28%), and finally, university graduates represented only 1% of the respondents. 83% of the respondents were farmers, while 79% of the respondents were married. The leaf is the most used organ (81%) followed by stem and root bark. U. molundense is used both as food and medicine. The plant treats eight diseases (pain, malaria, cold, hypertension, gastritis, infection, headache and rheumatism). The calculated value of the informant consensus factor is 0.96 and indicates that there is a high degree of consensus among informants regarding the use of U. molundense against these diseases in Gbado-Lite. Decoction is the most commonly used method of preparation (89%) and 50% of the respondents stated that the species is currently not very abundant, while 31% of the respondents felt that the plant was rare. The calculated value of the vulnerability index shows that U. molundense is very vulnerable in its natural environment (Iv ˃ 2.5).
Mingkai Zhou, Bingjie Sun, Wentao Wu
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3265

Abstract:
By using the OLS model, an equation for the rate of decomposing wood by a variety of fungi was established. We analyzed the effects of various fungi in the experimental data under different temperature and humidity. Based on the growth performance of different fungi at different temperatures and humidity, we use the method of systematic cluster to divide the fungi into 5 categories, and introduce competition levels as the viability of different species of fungi. We have established a logistic model that introduces competition levels to obtain a fungal habitat model. The fungal habitat model includes predictions about the relative advantages and disadvantages for each species and combinations of species likely to persist, and do so for different environments including arid, semi-arid, temperate, arboreal, and tropical rain forests.
Abhisek Shrestha, Bharti Thapa, Anil Gautam
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i2.2991

Abstract:
Ratooning is common practice done in sugarcane with purpose of reducing the total cost of cultivation and early cane maturity. More than 35% of sugarcane productivity is lost due to improper attention of the farmers towards ratoons. Majority of farmers reported that the ratoonability wasn’t good when harvested in December-January. This experiment was carried out to find the appropriate ratoon shaving time with response to different varieties in sugarcane ratoon crop in the year 2018/19 at national sugarcane research project, Jitpur, Bara. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with four levels of cane genotypes as Co – 0238, CoLk – 94184, Co – 0233 and CoS – 07250 as the main plot factor while four harvesting dates as sub plot factor with three replications. Observations of a number of millable canes, single cane weight, plant height and single cane diameter were recorded, tabulated and analyzed in R-studio. Ratoon stubble shaving in the month of November had the highest number of millable canes (88079/ha) which wasn’t significantly different from the stubble shaving in the month of December, January. Likewise, highest cane yield (60.04 mt/ha), single cane weight (0.757 kg), cane diameter (2.11 cm), plant height (1.82 m) were found in early stubble shaving dates. Cane Yield and various yield parameter shows better performance in early ratoon shaving periods i.e. from November to January than late ratoon shaving dates.
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