Journal of Botanical Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2630-5054
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 66
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Hangtian Li, Siying Li, Hui Lu, Jingjing Zhang, Xi Yang, Dayu Zhang, Yike Zhang, Yongjian Xie
Published: 7 July 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i3.4793

Abstract:
In worldwide, the use of chemical pesticides to protect wood has been greatly restricted. In recent years, a large number of researchers devoted to the search for natural, safe and non-polluting bioactive chemical compounds from plants as an alternative to synthetic organic chemical preservative. In Chinese folk, tung oil can be used as paint for wooden furniture to protect them from pests. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of raw and heated tung oil and their activity against termite. In choice bioassays, weight loss of wood treated with 5% raw or heated tung oil after 4 weeks was significantly less than that of the control group. In no-choice bioassays, there was a significant difference in termite survival and wood weight loss on raw and heated tung oil-treated wood. When tung oil-treatment concentrations increased to 5%, wood weight loss was less than 10%. There was no significant difference in termite survival and wood weight loss between raw and heated tung oil-treated wood. Survival of termites in both tung oil wood treatments was significantly lower than that in the starvation control after 4 weeks. Raw and heated tung oil significantly improved the resistance of pine wood to termites, and have the potential for the development of natural wood preservatives.
, Raymond J. Ritchie
Published: 7 July 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i3.4820

Abstract:
Dwarf Water Lilies (Nymphoides aquatica (J.F. Gmel) Kuntze have floating and submerged leaves. Some submerged aquatic vascular plants have a form of CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) called Submerged Aquatic Macrophyte (SAM) metabolism. Blue-diode based PAM technology was used to measure the Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution Rate (POER: 1O2 ≡ 4e ). Optimum Irradiance (Eopt), maximum POER (POERmax) and quantum efficiency (α0) all vary on a diurnal cycle. The shape of the POER vs. E curves is different in seedling, submerged and surface leaves. Both Eopt and POERmax are very low in seedling leaves (Eopt ≈ 104 μmol photon m–2 s–1, PPFD; POERmax ≈ 4.95 µmol O2 g–1 Chl a s–1), intermediate in mature submerged leaves (Eopt ≈ 419 µmol photon m–2 s–1 PPFD, POERmax ≈ 38.1 µmol O2 g–1 Chl a s–1) and very high in surface leaves (Eopt ≈ 923 µmol photon m–2 s–1 PPFD, POERmax ≈ 76.1 µmol O2 g–1 Chl a s–1). Leaf titratable acid (C4 acid pool) is too small (≈20 to 50 mol H+ m–3) to support substantial SAM metabolism. Gross daily photosynthesis of surface leaves is ≈3.71 g C m–2 d–1 in full sun and as much as 1.4 gC m–2 d–1 in shaded submerged leaves. There is midday inhibition of photosynthesis.
Omotayo Olalekan Adenuga, Abigail Funlayo Adepoju, Ibrahim Olalekan Sobowale, Olayinka Olufemi Olaniyi, Oluwatobi James Areola, Terkula Felix Nyamkyume
Published: 7 July 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i3.4694

Abstract:
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important commodity tree crop which produces the cocoa bean, a major source of income for most West African countries and many smallholder farmers. Declining yield of cacao is a major limitation to cocoa production in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the correlations of the phenotypic traits that were related in the yield of the cacao genotypes. Nine cacao hybrids produced from some high-yielding parents in the research farm of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria were evaluated from 2012 through 2017 in Owena (7°11’ N, 5°1’ E), Ondo state, Nigeria. Character Correlations and Path Coefficient Analysis were used in the description of the performance of the genotypes. The study concluded that significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations existed among many of the pairs of the fruit and bean characters with one another and with pod index, suggesting a complex contribution of these characters either positively or negatively to growth and yield in cacao, and that fruit and bean traits are determinants of yield in cacao.
José L. S. de Almeida, Clécio S. Ramos
Published: 7 July 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i3.4699

Abstract:
There is no doubt that the chemical composition of plants, including norvolatile and volatile compounds, is widely affected by abiotic and biotic stress. Plants are able to biosynthesize a variety of secondary metabolites against actions of natural enemies, such as herbivores, fungus, virus and bacteria. The present study revealed that the chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from Ipomoea alba underwent quantitative and qualitative alterations both when infested with the grasshopper Elaeochlora trilineata and mechanically damaged. Grasshopper attack and mechanical wounding induced the biosynthesis of nine volatile compounds in leaves of I. alba: cumene, α-ylangene, β-panasinsene, β-gurjunene aromadendrene, β-funebrene, spirolepechinene, cubenol and sclareolide. The amount of germacrene D (33.2% to 20.4%) decreased when the leaves were mechanically damaged; but when the leaves were attacked by a grasshopper, the germacrene D increased from 33.2% to 39.4%. The results showed that I. alba leaves clearly responded to abiotic and biotic stress and contribute to an understanding of plant responses to stress conditions.
Sahar Nadeem, Najeeb Ullah, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar, Amjad Hameed, Muhammad Yussouf Saleem
Published: 28 April 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i2.4579

Abstract:
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) drastically affects the tomato production worldwide. To deal with this problem, breeding of ToMV-resistant hybrids/varieties is the ultimate need and most successful approach. In wild tomato species, three dominant ToMV-resistant genes (Tm-1, Tm-2 and Tm-22 ) were identified and the World Vegetable Center developed few fresh market tomato lines resistant to ToMV by the introgression of these genes. Recently at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan a breeding programme was initiated to develop high yielding and ToMV tolerant hybrids using these lines. Current study was performed to screen elite F1 hybrids carrying Tm gene along with their parents against ToMV using mechanical inoculation, confirmation of the virus using DAS-ELISA and marker assisted selection of hybrids. Out of 28 hybrids and 17 parent accessions/genotypes, eight hybrids and five accessions were found to be highly resistant and the virus was not detected in DAS-ELISA. Five hybrids were resistant, nine hybrids and four genotypes were tolerant, while the remaining six hybrids and eight genotypes were susceptible. For the confirmation of Tm-22 gene, the tomato hybrids and their parents were subjected to molecular analysis using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) primers. The result of CAPS markers for the confirmation of Tm-22 gene was found consistent with phenotypic data of the inoculated tomato genotypes/ hybrids. Higher phenolic content, total soluble proteins, better CAT and SOD activities were positively correlated with resistance. Screening results based on phenotype, biochemical and molecular marker data indicate that hybrids carrying Tm-22 gene are good sources of resistance against ToMV.
P. K. Deroliya, Harminder Singh, , S. K. Singh
Published: 28 April 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i2.4651

Abstract:
An account of 20 species under 11 genera of the family Fabaceae is presented based upon a thorough study of the collected specimens and field surveys in this paper from Sechu Tuan Nalla Wildlife Sanctuary, Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh. Of these, fourteen taxa are reported first time from the Chamba district of the state. The updated nomenclature of the species, local name if any, a brief description of the plant, flowering and fruiting period, distribution in the study area, habitat and ecology and specimen examined have been provided.
Elaigwu Matthew, Hyacinth Ocheigwu Apeh Oluma, Terrumun Amom Tor-Anyiin
Published: 28 April 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i2.3537

Abstract:
Phytochemical components have been reported for various plants but very little information on Psorospermum febrifugum (SPACH). The presence of biocidal activity makes the spach of potential interest for the control of micro-organisms. Methanolic extract of the leaves of spach shows the various constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phenols, and steroids). Further investigation revealed phytoconstituents of methanolic leaf extract using gas chromatography-spectrophotometric techniques (GC-MS). Result of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight (8) botanical pesticides with valuable biological activities. The GC-MS results revealed that eight (8) biocidal activities were present in spach namely: 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachloronaphtalene, Permetrin-a, permetrin-b, cyfluthrin-b, cypermethrin-a, cypermethrin-c, and flumethrin-b. The result clearly shows that Psorospermum febrifugum hold phytocomponents species of botanical interest that could still be exploited.
Fatemeh Zarinkamar, Maryam Rezayian, Reyhaneh Medhat
Published: 28 April 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i2.4512

Abstract:
Trigonella persica is a valuable medicinal plant which comprises trigonelline that is secondary metabolite and important component in cosmetic and medicine. This research was conducted in order to evaluation the drought stress effect on growth parameters, root anatomical changes and trigonelline content in T. persica. Plants were grown under soil moisture corresponding to 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity for two weeks. The data showed that drought stress was significantly decreased fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and root. In addition, leaf area was declined due to drought stress. Interestingly, root length was enhanced by drought stress. Root microscopic study demonstrated that drought stress increased thickness of epidermal, endodermal, vascular bundle, central cylinder and parenchyma in T. persica. Drought stress caused a significant increment in alkaloid and trigonelline content in aerial parts and roots of T. persica. These results revealed that T. persica responded to drought stress by increasing the alkaloid and trigonelline, as well as the anatomical changes in root. Considering the importance of trigonline and alkaloids, this work may open prospects for production of the pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites thereby drought stress.
Kimberly A. Bowman, Xiongwen Chen
Published: 7 January 2022
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v4i1.4350

Abstract:
Climate change poses many risks to economically and ecologically crucial species. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees are keystone species that were once dominant across the southeastern United States, but now occupy less than 5% of their historic range and are thus classified as endangered. Here we review the current status and challenges facing longleaf pine trees, what is known on how changing climate will impact longleaf growth and reproduction, and gaps in the literature that are important to address. We found that many fundamental aspects of longleaf pine growth and reproduction are understood. However, these systems are complex, and not all is known about each factor that influences the relationship between climate, growth, and reproductive output. Additionally, long-term data sets capable of examining all relevant factors in these relationships do not currently exist. To fill necessary gaps, we recommend a joint approach between using readily available data sets and establishing new long-term monitoring plots targeted to collect data on missing or poorly understood conditions. This review provides a clue from an ecological complexity perspective to understand and manage longleaf pine forests under climate change.
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