Journal of Botanical Research
EISSN : 2630-5054
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 53
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.4056
Studies on plants are important evidence not only for their diversity and richness in the world, but also for revealing the relationship between the environment and the organisms. How important are the concepts of climate crisis and global warming? What is the number of people in the world, other than scientists, who are aware of the seriousness of the problem? Do we have any information about the number of people who have knowledge about what can be done? Do we want to experience the carbon richness of millions of years ago (Carboniferous) again? Let's not forget that this reality, which seems to be an advantageous situation at first glance, has actually been moved to a platform where today's leaders discuss the effects of climate balance. We need more and more plants all over the planet. With the increase in the human population, it is time to change our prejudices about “uncertain or suspicious” plants to be used. Could some toxic metabolites be usable or even edible by appropriate treatments? Can countries that are lucky in terms of endemic species make better use of these reserves? Plant biochemistry studies should be encouraged in this respect.In addition, there is evidence that the consumption of a large number of products that we use as food causes health problems that we do not know yet, but which can increase greatly with daily use and even be fatal when contaminated by pathogenic organisms.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3586
Coffea cultivation with shade tree is used for improving soil health, increasing coffea production, sustaining agro ecology. The study was attended in two kebele, on 36 farmers’ fields, at Gololcha district of East Arsi zone. The study was intended to assess the influence of coffea shade trees on farm lands versus mountainous area. Household interviews were used to get imperative separately, i.e. from old farmers, middle age farmers and young farmers. Significant difference value was observed between farm land and mountainous area coverage. Based on this respondents’ idea, before 25-30 years; the ‘condition of tree coverage at mountainous’ area in Arsi Gololcha district was ‘medium condition’ but not normal that means as deforestation of mountainous area have been starting before 30 years’ time; while the condition of tree coverage at farmland area also has been starting before 30 years’ time. The third respondents’ idea was interpreted with the real situation of the district, that it gave us a constructive inspiration on the role of coffea shade tree to enable the farm land to be taken as regular natural forest. The existing coffea shade trees are Cordia africana followed by Erythrina abyssinica and Acacia senegal. Farmers accounted 95% of coffea shade users and 4.6% without shade users. The respondents said that even if the rainfall intensity is increasing at farmland rather than mountainous area occasionally due to shade tree effect. On the contrary side, mountainous area exposed to deforestation since the farmers have been shifting to hilly side for their livelihood dependency.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3482
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is usually contaminated with many fungi where some of them are mycotoxigenic causing economic and health problems. This study investigated the percentage composition of fungi contamination of sesame seeds in Benue state Nigeria. Using direct plating technique; the study revealed twelve species of fungi contamination in sesame seed obtained in Benue State. The percentage occurrence of fungal isolates shows that Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were found in all the locations and their occurrence was significantly different (P≤0.05). The percentage contamination of Sesame samples collected from Otukpo LGA has the highest fungal (23.35%) contamination and was significantly higher (P≤0.05) from samples of other places whereas Sesame contamination from Gboko was the least with total percentage of (12.05%). In conclusion, considering the benefits of sesame, it is recommended that several treatments should be applied to reduce the levels of contamination in sesame seeds before consumption utilization such as environmental conditions leading to fungal proliferation (a high temperature, humidity, poor soil fertility, drought and insect damage). Also poor harvesting practices, unsuitable storage conditions, improper transportation, marketing and processing should be discouraged.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3455
The aim of this research was to find and assay phytochemical compounds and various biological macromolecules of the tender stems of Dioscorea praehensilis benth and evaluate their antioxidant activity and to compare the content of oxalates and cyanogenetic glucosides between raw and cooked tender stems. The plant collection and identification, phytochemical evaluation: phytochemical screening, preliminary (qualitative) analyses and in vitro assays. Phytochemical screening was performed by qualitative methods. The estimation of the content of secondary metabolites was evaluated by spectrophotometry-UV. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS and DPPH assays and preliminary composition by the gravimetric method. The results obtained show that the stems of Dioscorea praehensilis are devoid of certain important chemical groups, the flavonoids were not detected and they were rich in total polyphenols (17.22 ± 0.16), tannins (19.32 ± 0.52) and anthocyanins (25.22 ± 0.04). Our extracts showed a lower antioxidant activity than that of positive controls. The samples are rich in carbohydrates and fiber, with low levels of proteins, lipids and ash. Dioscorea praehensilis has a high toxicity in HCN, but after a good cooking of about 1 hour, 99.97% of the cyanide are eliminated and does not have many oxalates. The results obtained show that Dioscorea praehensilis has a high dietary value and can therefore be used as a nutritive food.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3505
The aim of this study was to inventory plant biodiversity and to evaluate the carbon sequestration potential of the Misomuni forest massif. An inventory of all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm measured at 1.30 m height was performed. The aerial biomass (AGB) was used for estimating the stored CO2 and its carbon equivalent. 88 plant species belonging to 71 genera and 32 families were inventoried. Fabaceae family displayed the highest number of species and genera. The highest basal area values were displayed by Scorodophloeus zenkeri (7.34 ± 2.45 m2 /ha), Brachystegia laurentii (5.82 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Entandrophragma utile (5.28 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Pentadesma butyracea (4.53 ± 1.51 m2 /ha). The highest values of stored carbon and their carbon equivalent were observed in Pentadesma butyracea (15.13 ± 5.00 and 50.55 ± 16.85 t/ha), Picralima nitida (7.02 ± 2.34 and 23.66 ± 7.88 t/ha), Strombosia tetandra (6.56 ± 2.18 and 22.10 ± 7.36 t/ha). The Misomuni forest massif is thus much floristically diversified and plays a significant role in the sequestration of CO2. The total AGB of the inventoried trees is 183.78 ± 61.26 t/ha corresponding to stored carbon and carbon equivalent of 96.63 ± 32.21 t/ha and 289.92 ± 96.64 t/ha respectively. The protection of this ecosystem is highly needed for combatting climatic changes at local, national and regional scales and for the conservation biodiversity habitat.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3343
The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought about another age on world as the human civilization is restricted in many aspects of everyday lives. There is no exception in the sector of food production and the supply chain of food. Due to constraints on demand, shutting of food production facilities, financial limitations, enterprise operations and delivery of different food items have been interrupted in the food supply chain. Every nation must comprehend the importance of the situation according to the spreading scenario of the ongoing pandemic. The probability of transmission via the food sector is regarded inconsequential, and the public authorities do not believe it necessary to follow COVID into workplaces. The unfavourable effects on the climate, the food framework and the people of the foodstuffs network are evident. An installation for the food supply chain should focus on amenities such as maintaining the safety and health of employees and changing working circumstances. This paper aims at discussing the effects of COVID-19 on the socio-economic status of human being including the negative impacts on the agriculture and food supply chain.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3380
Biotechnology plays an important role in mitigation of various pollution in a cost effective manner by using the complex chemistry of living organisms, various cell manipulations and their approaches for environmental cleanup along with environmental sustainability. One such technology is phytoremediation technology or green technology which has emerged and evolved as a novel tool for remediation of toxic contaminants from environment. Plants with its diverse range show a remarkable range of their phytoremediation potentiality for establishing a sustainable environment. There is a huge exploitation of natural resources through expanded industrialization, urbanization, modern agricultural development, energy generation to fulfill the never-ending human desires and need. This disturbs the balance in nature where we reside and leads to progressive deterioration of the environment. There are several biotechnological advances which are employed for combating both the biotic and abiotic stress problems caused due to toxic contaminants in the environment. Various biotechnological interventions such as bioinformatics, proteomics, genomics, metallomics and metabolomics play a crucial role and open new avenue in this context. This omics approach is now integrated with bioinformatics to serve as a novel tool in phytoremediation technology. This smart technology provides insights into the complex behavior of enzymes, proteins and metabolites action and their biochemical pathways for degradation of wastes. This leads towards deriving a sustainable solution for environmental pollution.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3265
By using the OLS model, an equation for the rate of decomposing wood by a variety of fungi was established. We analyzed the effects of various fungi in the experimental data under different temperature and humidity. Based on the growth performance of different fungi at different temperatures and humidity, we use the method of systematic cluster to divide the fungi into 5 categories, and introduce competition levels as the viability of different species of fungi. We have established a logistic model that introduces competition levels to obtain a fungal habitat model. The fungal habitat model includes predictions about the relative advantages and disadvantages for each species and combinations of species likely to persist, and do so for different environments including arid, semi-arid, temperate, arboreal, and tropical rain forests.
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3387
Democratic Republic of the Congo is a real reservoir of medicinal plants. These plants play a major role in the treatment of certain common pathologies in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to list the ethnomedical uses of Uvariodendron molundense, a medicinal and aromatic plant from the Ubangi ecoregion. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Gbado-Lite with 200 people using stratified probability sampling. The respondents were interviewed individually on the basis of free consent. The study revealed that the majority of respondents were men (72%) and had a secondary education (37%), followed respectively by illiterates (34%) and those with a primary education (28%), and finally, university graduates represented only 1% of the respondents. 83% of the respondents were farmers, while 79% of the respondents were married. The leaf is the most used organ (81%) followed by stem and root bark. U. molundense is used both as food and medicine. The plant treats eight diseases (pain, malaria, cold, hypertension, gastritis, infection, headache and rheumatism). The calculated value of the informant consensus factor is 0.96 and indicates that there is a high degree of consensus among informants regarding the use of U. molundense against these diseases in Gbado-Lite. Decoction is the most commonly used method of preparation (89%) and 50% of the respondents stated that the species is currently not very abundant, while 31% of the respondents felt that the plant was rare. The calculated value of the vulnerability index shows that U. molundense is very vulnerable in its natural environment (Iv ˃ 2.5).
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i3.3319
A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Hamelmalo Agricultural College during summer 2017, to evaluate the agronomic, physiological, and biochemical performance of the collected Eritrean germplasm of pearl millet. A total of 16 accessions were tested, out of which 2 were improved varieties included as a check. The experiment was laid out in 4 x 4 Simple Lattice Design with Randomized Block using 4 replications with a gross plot size of 3.0 m x 1.2 m, row to row spacing of 75 cm and plant to plant spacing of 30 cm. The data collected were Agronomic parameters (growth, development, yield, and yield contributing characters); Physiological parameters (Relative water content and Water Use Efficiency); and Biochemical parameters (crude fat, crude fiber, protein content, TSS, and ash content). The data were analyzed using GENSTAT software and correlation analysis was worked to see the positive and negative contribution of agronomic, physiological, and biochemical attributes. The results of the study showed that Bariyay908 and Kona being statistically at par with Bariyay 910, Hagaz, Zibedi, Shleti, Delkata, Tokroray, and Kunama produced significantly higher grain yield. However, among these Baryay908 because of its superior agronomic characteristics, lower incidence of downy mildew, relatively higher water use efficiency and higher crude protein content were found to be comparatively superior to the check improved varieties Kona and Hagaz. Grain yield has shown a positive and significant correlation with harvest index, number of seeds per panicle, panicle length, leaf area and water use efficiency. These promising accessions need to be further tested for future breeding programs to develop varieties higher in productivity and resistant to downy mildew under semiarid conditions of Eritrea.