Riset Arsitektur (RISA)
ISSN / EISSN : 2548-8074 / 2548-8074
Current Publisher: LPPM UNPAR (10.26593)
Total articles ≅ 74
Latest articles in this journal
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 69-85; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4418.69-85
- The shopping center as one of the commercial buildings becomes a building that The shopping center as one of the commercial buildings becomes a building that accommodates various groups of people. In this day and age, especially in urban areas, going to a shopping center has become a necessity for the community so that activities in a shopping center must also be able to keep up with the times that make the shopping center not only function as a shopping place but also must be able to function as a place recreation and socializing for the community. The combination of shopping, recreation and socializing has become a lifestyle for urban communities to reduce the level of depression. The convenience offered in a shopping center is an important point for achieving a shopping center's success. Confusing visitor circulation will certainly disrupt the comfort of visitors when in a shopping center. The possibility that causes visitors to feel confused is the circulation itself or the presence of multi-entrance in a shopping center. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the multi-entrance at Paskal 23 Shopping Center causes visitors to feel confused when they are inside the building and how it affects. The method used is a qualitative method, data obtained from literature studies, direct collection to the field, and interviews with visitors to Paskal 23 Shopping Center. Such a conclusion was obtained when discussing multi-entrances at Paskal 23 Shopping Centers can give visitors consent to the building. The multi-entrance system must have its own elements and have a strong character to be able to access the location of each entrance. The existence of this element is not seen in the multi-entrance Paskal 23 Shopping Center which in turn causes confusion for visitors in circulation.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 86-101; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4419.86-101
- In 2007 the people of Nglepen Village in Yogyakarta were relocated to an aid settlement area built by the Dome For The World Foundation. This relocation was carried out because the Nglepen Village community house was destroyed after the 2006 earthquake. The condition of the housing aid which has physical characteristics is very different from the house in general, triggering the Nglepen Village community to make adaptations. This study discusses the classification based on the background of the adaptation triggers to the adaptation classification based on the space, and shape of the people of Nglepen Village. This research was conducted to find out how the characteristics of the adaptation products produced are based on the background of adaptation drivers in an effort to accommodate daily activities.The research used a descriptive method with a qualitative approach by describing the existing condition of the dome house along with the background of the changes. The research sample in this adaptation classification is determined by the people of Nglepen Village who want to make habitation of their dwelling. Data collection was carried out through a process of observation and interviews with dome dwellers and literature studies. The analysis was carried out based on the theory of adaptation strategies and factors influencing adaptation behavior to look for the classification of adaptation based on the background of the influencing factors.The results of the classification based on background and classification based on space, and shape are the characteristics of each adaptation based on the background of the adaptation trigger. Characteristics of adaptation include the nature of the space between closed or open, then the addition of mass that affects the shape include the addition towards the front, back, and separate in the dome house.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 52-68; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4417.52-68
- Indonesia is one of the many muslim-majority countries in the world. The extensiveness of muslim population in Indonesia has resulted in high demand of mosque buildings. A mosque is a particular building which primarily function as a community’s house of worship where muslims perform the religious ritual of shalah in congregation (jamaah).As a house of worship, ideally mosques should have the appropriate spatial aspects consistent with characteristics of all activities inside the building. Specifically, the religious ritual of shalah in congregation (jamaah) bears certain prequisites and directions. Therefore, the management and character of mosques are different from other types of building.Over time, the architecture of mosques continues to evolve. Structural and technology advancement leads to innovations in terms of mosques architectural shapes that are both diverse and captivating. Al-Ahdhar Mosque is one interesting example. Its unique shape of building which is very much different from many other mosques has made it an interesting object of study. It is very interesting to discover whether or not the architectural design of this mosque has also serves the function well. This study is specifically aimed to expose the consistency and interpretation of the concept of space of religious jamaah ritual in Al-Ahdhar Mosque as the chosen study object. Research is made by observing aspects of religious jamaah rituals and henceforth determining the building’s property and composition aspects that complements such concept. Furthermore, evaluation is made towards the implementation of the space concept of religious jamaah rituals based on the building’s anatomy theory. The result of this research hopefully present a contribution towards the study of architectural designs, specifically in designing mosques. Therefore, although the architecture of mosques may vary, the basic requirements of religious practices is fulfilled.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 36-51; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4416.36-51
- House is a consequence of cultural phenomena, its form and organization are strongly influenced by the cultural environment to which it belongs. Sociocultural itself defined as a product of mind and intellect made by human, which exists by living among society. The results of this cultured process produce various manifestasions, such as art, beliefs, and even architectural form. Tepal Village, which is located in Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara, is one of the few secluded village in the island of Sumbawa that still retains traditions and customs inherited by their ancestors. Its architectural form is inseparable to the values and traditions that apply. This can be seen in the physical form, measurement system, and other elements within the house. The formulation of problem that forms the basis of this research covers how sociocultural aspects affect the spatial configuration and space forming elements of Tepal House. This study aims to explain the forces in terms of sociocultural aspects that affect the spatial configuration and space forming elements of traditional house in Tepal Village, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara. The method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative method by observing the physical form of the village that strongly influenced by the sociocultural aspects of the prevailing customs. The findings of this research analysis suggested that there are evidences the influence of sociocultural values on the spatial configuration and other elements related to it. Philosophy and values such as beliefs, gender roles, age, routines, and economy affect the interior and exterior spatial arrangement as well as the space forming elements in the house.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 18-35; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4415.18-35
- The energy crisis is caused by uncontrolled energy consumption that is increasing beyond the availability. The biggest energy consumption in buildings is energy to cool the room using Air Conditioning (AC). This happens because the design of the building envelope cannot effectively reduce heat transfer from outside to inside the building. GBCI (Green Building Council Indonesia) determines the appropriate building envelope design standards in conserving energy stated in OTTV (Overall Thermal Transfer Value) not more than 35 Watt / m2.Emersia Lampung Hotel is a 4 star hotel that did renovations in 2012. Judging from the design of the building, the architect is trying to make a hotel that is environmentally friendly. Starting from the north-south building orientation, external shading in each opening, to the addition of secondary skin on the west side of the building. But after calculating the OTTV, the Emersia Hotel building envelope still has problems with the building envelope in reducing heat transfer. The OTTV value of this hotel is still above the criteria of 40.19 W / m2, therefore it is necessary to do research on the building envelope elements in order to reduce the building OTTV value. This study aims to find out the cause of the heat problems that occur and provide suggestions for improvements that can reduce heat transfer in the envelope of the Emersia Hotel Lampung building so that it meets the OTTV value standards issued by the GBCI (Green Building Council Indonesia).The research method used is descriptive-evaluative. The study was conducted by analyzing the elements of the building envelope Emersia Hotel. Then analyze how the effort to reduce heat transfer in the building envelope. The results of the study are recommendations for improvements to the building envelope that can reduce the value of OTTV in Emersia Hotel.The results showed that the main cause of the high heat transfer that occurred in the envelope of the Emersia Hotel Lampung building was a large WWR value on all three sides of the building and lack of sun shade, especially on the east side causing the radiation and conduction value of the window to become large. In addition to these two things, the trees and vegetation around the site are still small so that the area of the site has minimal shadowing and causes high temperatures. Efforts such as reducing the value of WWR to the replacement of glass material with a small Uf value can reduce the value of building OTTV up to 24.05 W / m2. Other efforts such as increasing the shade ratio to changing the orientation of the openings can also reduce the value of OTTV, but the decline does not occur up to the specified OTTV standards.
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 1-17; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4414.1-17
- Classical Indian architectural principles and traditions has been collected and preserved in a vast body of literature collectively known as the Vāstuśāstra. This branch of classical Indian knowledge is a realization of Hindu ideals in terms of architectural ediﬁce, which signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the religious architecture of the Indian cultural sphere which extends to the medieval Island of Java. Indian influence can be seen in Hindu temples of Java during the Śailendra’s dynasty even though some of it’s architectural elements can’t be found in vāstuśāstra. However, in contrast of Hindu’s vāstuśāstra, Buddhism has no architecture guideline and free standing structure as of sources that are used as it’s guide are questioned, especially Buddhist Temples in Central Java during ancient Mataram’s Dynasty of Śailendra. Although Buddha’s teachings and some parts of vāstuśāstra are known to play a role in the construction of Buddhist Temples in Indonesia, how far they are applied is difficult to observe, giving the absence of special studies and free standing temple references to build Buddhist Temple, and it’s interviewees are gone. By finding information about architecture’s theory of Buddha’s teachings that entered Indonesia and identify as well as compare the relevant parts of vāstuśāstra, then the architectural elements that are part of the concept of Buddha’s teachings and vāstuśāstra can be seen.In this research, descriptive method and qualitative approach are used by the author. The author focused in terms of figure and ornament as well as mass and spatial order. This research collects and compares parts of vāstuśāstra that are relevant as well as Buddha’s teachings concept to compare them with datas from the twelve samples of Buddhist Temples in Central Java during ancient Mataram’s Dynasty of Śailendra. Comparison by the author shows a number of results. Firstly, the concept of mahāyāna, vajrayāna, and mānasāra book applied in terms of figure, ornament, mass, and spatial order are seen in Central Java’s Buddhist Temples. However, various architectural details of these elements have marked differences from what is instructed in the Vāstuśāstra. The distinctive Javanese Kala-Makara for example, does not conform the mānasāra book. Secondly, the application of mānasāra book concepts in Central Java’s Buddhist Temples prove the influence of Hinduism which was affected by the harmonious relationship between Buddhism and Hinduism during that time. Lastly, the first free-standing Buddhist Temples is 5th Batujaya Temple/Blandongan Temple (2-3 CE and 7-10 CE) because the Mahabodhi Temple in India was built as we see today during the 6th restoration phase (8 CE).
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 4, pp 234-251; doi:10.26593/risa.v4i03.3930.234-251
- Classical Indian architectural principles and tradition has been collected and preserved in a vast body of literature collectively known as the Vāstuśāstra. This branch of classical Indian knowledge is a realization of Hindu ideals in terms of architectural edifice, which significantly influence the religious architecture of the Indian cultural sphere which extends to the medieval Island of Java. Even though Indian influences are recognizable in the design of Javanese Hindu candis from the Ancient Mataram era, to what extend the Indian vāstuśāstra was followed is less obvious, for the Javanese candis contain some architectural elements that are not found in vāstuśāstra or Indian temples. By identifying and comparing vāstuśāstra and ancient Indian temples with Javanese candis, it should bring more clarity on which elements are part of the Indian culture continuity and which are part of the local genius. By doing so, the relation between Javanese candi and vāstuśāstra could be reasonably deduced. In this study, a comparative and qualitative method with with historical and textual approach is used. The author focuses on the overall form of the elevation as well as the mass and spatial arrangement. This study would collect and compare the relevant parts of vāstuśāstra as well as Indian examples obtained from literary studies with datas from six samples of Mataram era candis, three from the early period and three from the midclassic period.Comparison by the author shows several results. Firstly, the elevation of Mataram era Hindu candi fits into the basic mould of Indian temples as described in the vāstuśāstra, with seven distinct elements in the vertical direction termed Upapīṭha, Adhiṣṭhāna, Pada, Prastara, Gala, Śikhara, and Stūpi. However, various architectural details of these elements have marked differences from the norms of Indian temples and from what is instructed in the Vāstuśāstra. The distinctive Javanese Kala-Makara for example, does not conform to the Indian Toraṇa-Makara described in Mānasāra. Some Javanese elements has no Indian prototype at all. Secondly, the mass and spatial arrangement of Javanese candis have even more pronounced difference than Indian temples. The typical Javanese arrangement of main temple opposing three secondary temples in a row is not found in India. Conversely, Indian arrangement with an attaching Maṇḍapa in front of the main temple tower is not present in Java at all. In the case of orientation, Javanese candis may be oriented to west or east, while Indian temples overwhelmingly preferred east.The result of this study suggests that the relation between Javanese candi and the vāstuśāstra is a loose and flexible one; vāstuśāstra is used on some aspect such as the basic temple shape but disregarded in the details and ornaments. Javanese candi designers freely adopts and discards various parts of the vāstuśāstra according to prevailing conditions. Those conditions might be due to local materials and taste which form distinctive traits of local genius. Javanese designers never sought to replicate a perfect imitation of Indian temples in Java; rather, Javanese designers shows a creative and selective attitude in responding to foreign influence which yields the innovative and unique design of candi. In the oldest phases, Indian influences can be detected in such a way that candi can be considered an Indian export that has been localized. As time goes, especially since the time of Prambanan, Indian prototype becomes more difficult to discerned until candi becomes a thoroughly local architectural product.Key Words: Javanese candi, Indian temple, Vāstuśāstra, Ancient Mataram
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 4, pp 252-268; doi:10.26593/risa.v4i03.3931.252-268
- Cirebon is one city that has been established for a long time in the archipelago. The city of Cirebon existed before the Dutch arrived. The city that has long been experiencing a process of change is longer than other cities that are relatively newer. Cirebon at the beginning of its growth, was a city centered on the Kingdom and included in the cosmic city according to S. Kostof (1991). Settlements in Cirebon City were initially oriented to the Cirebon Palace, one of which was the Kanoman Palace. The settlements around the Kanoman Palace were originally settlements that surrounded and centered on the Kanoman Palace. These settlements experience growth and change to become the form they are now. The objection of the research is to find out how the growth and development (morphology) of a settlement and what elements of the settlement were lost or maintained by the local residents and the Kanoman Palace. Settlement elements that are seen as changes are roads, nodes, district groups, landmarks, and edges. To find out growth, development, and change, it is necessary to compare the physical elements based on the longest maps that can be found, namely maps of 1695 to maps in 2019. In addition to archival data, other data are sourced from direct observation to the Kawassan settlement of Kanoman Palace, interviews with elders and the family of the Kanoman Palace. It was concluded that the housing mass grew rapidly and still maintained the Kanoman Palace and the Square as a regional landmark that had symbolic historical and religious values. Key Words: morphology, maintained, settlement elements, Kraton Kanoman
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 4, pp 205-233; doi:10.26593/risa.v4i03.3929.205-233
- Existence of the need for a semi-permanent or temporary shelters that are easily and quickly built for certain events, for this reason this study explored the potential of transformative wide-span structures with the development and development of usable and reciprocal structural systems in the form of bamboo gridshell roof structures, into an independent arrangement composed of configuration modules with computational assistance according to architectural design needs. This is done by knowing the adequante potential of structural systems, design patterns, and connection systems in several study objects that are evaluated by comparative methods on system structure, connections, trunk character, distribution load, structure locking system, and application. The benefits of research on bamboo research for new materials in the engineering of bamboo materials that can increase the value of Indonesian locality by being able to be used by the community are needed in using bamboo materials for the development of permanent permanent shade. In result, discussion of the criteria for structural systems according to research objectives analysis of the objects of the study where transformation structures based on character structures that can be used as reciprocal structures are supporting systems to provide stability and an independent locking system. both of these structures are flexible and easily duplicated structural systems so that according to the wide span structure, the structural system is designed to make a gridshell. this gridshell form is processed with computational help to effectively create reciprocaldeployable structure systems. The research was explored, experiments were carried out on reciprocal patterns to find the most stable patterns and change the character of straight rods into reciprocal rods that could be deployed using elements such as scissors, which then developed the connection type with potential analyzers and displacement of each connection. The experiment produced a new structural system by collecting the second structural system obtained by a structure that can be transformed, has an independent locking system, and can stretch wide with a gridshell shape. Keywords : reciprocal, deployable, dome, gridshell, transformable
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 4, pp 288-305; doi:10.26593/risa.v4i03.3933.288-305
- The difference atmosphere between the dynamic and diverse on outer spaces, gradually becomes singular and static, is expected to be found in @Batubata. This is different from common architectural space which is only understood as hegemony of occulocentrism, that only focuses on visual studies. The study was conducted to scrutiny the formation of the atmosphere of space, by understanding the physical-spatial-material elements and unconscious peripheral sensations that experienced by the user subject. The atmosphere of space is abstract and intangible whose atmosphere can be felt through the medium of space in the built environment that is slow and encourages solitude. The study is done through two stages. The first stage is to describe the physical-spatial-material elements through elaboration of layering and transparency, dimensions and proportions, density and emptiness, and material based on Bert Bielefelt's spatial design theory. The second stage is to expose the peripheral vision felt by observers when experiencing spaces in @Batubata. Peripheral vision is felt simultaneously arising the emotions and imagination of its users. The elaboration was based on the theory presented by Juhanni Pallasmaa. The formation of atmosphere of the space is understood by the conclusions at these two stages. This is a study of the phenomenon that happens in architectural space. The method used is descriptivequalitative, data obtained from literature studies, field observations, interviews with architect planners and open questionnaires to the user subject. The study was conducted by reviewing the physical elements of spatial and material through initial observation, which was enriched by interviews and open questionnaires to space users. From the results of first phase analysis, it was concluded that the characters of the spaces were secluded, static and dense. In second stage analysis, the result was silent and calm space experience. From these two stages, it can be understood that @Batubata was able to provide an opportunity for visitors to feel solitude and slowness to experience the atmosphere through their peripheral vision. The subjects’ feelings and mood are always influenced the abstract formation of atmosphere of space. Key Words: @Batubata, physic-spatial-material, peripheral vision, atmosphere