European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2174-8144 / 2254-9625
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 609
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European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1269-1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040092

Abstract:
(1) Background: The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian adaptation of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) in Iranian adolescents. (2) Methods: Adolescents with a mean age of 15.10 (n = 3197; 47.1% males) were recruited from Qazvin city of Iran using a stratified cluster random sampling technique. All children completed the five-item Persian MDAS and information related to background characteristics. Psychometric testing was conducted using classical test theory (CTT) and Rasch models. For CTT, an item-total correlation of >0.4 was considered satisfactory while for Rasch analysis, infit and outfit mean squares (Mnsq) ranging from 0.5–1.5 were considered satisfactory. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to confirm the unidimensional structure of MDAS using various fit indices. Differential item functioning (DIF) was evaluated based on gender and time since last dental visit. Moreover, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify the participants into different levels of dental fear based on their pattern of responses. Both item level reliability using Cronbachs alpha (α) and test-reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients were evaluated. (3) Results: Item-total correlations ranged from 0.69–0.78, infit MnSq ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 and the range of outfit MnSq was 0.84–1.10. The data confirmed a one-factor structure of MDAS with satisfactory fit indices. DIF analysis indicated that the scale was interpreted similarly across the genders and time since dental visit groups. LCA analysis identified three levels, low, moderate and high levels of dental anxiety. The groups with moderate and high levels of dental anxiety had more females (44.6% and 36.7%) than the group with low level of dental anxiety (18.8%; p< 0.001). α of the total scale was 0.89 and item test-retest reliability ranged from 0.72–0.86. (4) Conclusions: The Persian MDAS was unidimensional with satisfactory psychometric properties evaluated using both CTT and Rasch analysis among Iranian adolescents. The scale was stable across the genders and individuals with different dental visiting patterns. The Persian MDAS also demonstrated excellent reliability.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1239-1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040090

Abstract:
(1) Background: While a number of studies among military personnel focus on specific pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, they do not address the cumulative impact on mental health of stressors related to the profession. The present study aims to determine the relationship between allostatic load and mental health status in a cohort of fit-for-duty soldiers prior to their deployment to Afghanistan. The aim is to better-define the consequences of stressor adjustment. (2) Methods: A cohort of 290 soldiers was evaluated in a cross-sectional study with respect to psychopathology (PTSD, anxiety, depression), psychological functioning (stress reactivity, psychological suffering), and allostatic profile (urinary cortisol and 8-iso-PGF2α, blood cortisol and BDNF). A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify allostatic patterns. (3) Results: Around 10% of the cohort reported high scores for psychopathology, and biological alterations were identified. For the remainder, four allostatic profiles could be identified by their psychological functioning. (4) Conclusions: Both biological and psychological assessments are needed to characterize subthreshold symptomatology among military personnel. The psychological significance of allostatic load should be considered as a way to improve health outcomes.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1254-1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040091

Abstract:
Background: Workplace injuries in Italy still occur despite laws and safety norms. We need to understand the causes rooted in the context and social conditions, and need to improve the practice of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) inspectors of the Workplace Safety and Prevention Services (WSPS) of the Italian regional health boards. The aims of this study were to describe the setting up of a Community of Practice (CoP) for the production of best practices for injury prevention and to evaluate the motivation of OSH inspectors for participating in the CoP and the effects of CoP participation on their professional practice. Methods: Two workplace injury stories underwent peer review during each CoP meeting. We evaluated the CoP using a focus group and a questionnaire. Result: Between 2014 and 2021, the CoP met in 18 workshops. Over the 8-year period, the CoP grew from 20 to 150 participants. Overall, 30 stories underwent peer review and were published on the institutional website. The focus group participants stated that the reasons why they participated in the CoP were the need to share experience and to tackle new challenges. Conclusion: The CoP was found to be useful for improving professional practice by strengthening professional identity and contributing to the production of new knowledge.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1221-1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040089

Abstract:
The challenges of modern civilization resulted in the premature biological and psychological aging of professionals of working age. This phenomenon raises both medical and psychological problems associated with personality factors that affect psychobiological maturity and the rate of aging. The influence of religiosity and spirituality on biopsychological age remains the least studied area of psychology. Progress in this area will help to identify the components of religiosity—predictors of the aging rate of professionals. The sample included 295 people (148 women) aged 24 to 54 years (average age 31.7 years) and consisted of Christians (67.12%), Muslims (5.76%), Buddhists, deists, Shintoists, etc., (7.79%) and atheists (17.29%). The average work experience was 9 years. Using correlation analysis and methods of multivariate linear regression and t-test for independent samples, we found that the religiosity of professionals increases with natural aging and deterioration of their physical condition and does not depend on gender. Religiosity to a greater extent affects psychological age, the indicator of the psychobiological maturity of a professional and, to a lesser extent, biological age. Most of the indicators of religiosity are inherent in a person who is more mature in psychobiological terms. The biological age of professionals increases due to asthenic experiences, while gaining faith in God, unusual religious experiences and the existential meaning of life can reduce it. An increase in the spirituality of professionals is associated with a slowdown in the rate of biological aging.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1205-1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040088

Abstract:
It is necessary for the university environment to contribute to the improvement of the attention paid to affective-sexual, bodily, and gender diversity. This research deals with how, by means of a teaching innovation program, competences for affective-sexual diversity were developed. Specifically, negative attitudes towards diversity, knowledge, and degree of empathy on these issues before and after the implementation of the program are compared. The degree of satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and fulfillment of the objectives proposed in the program were also evaluated. An ex post facto design was used. The participants in this study were 129 students belonging to Educational Sciences and Psychology, out of 2400 who benefited from the innovation program. The results showed an increase in competences related to the attention to diversity, with the improvement of attitudes and knowledge about affective-sexual diversity after the application of the program. It is concluded that this type of innovation program, with quality training, contributes to the improvement of coexistence and the prevention of gender violence in university classrooms, eliminating stereotypes and negative attitudes towards diversity.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1181-1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040087

Abstract:
The Coronavirus pandemic has impacted the entire school population’s emotions and the disruption of the organization of the school world. In this context it is important to reflect on the role of health promotion at school. The present study aimed at exploring school leaders’ and teachers’ perspectives and experiences about COVID-19 pandemic and its effects in the school and education system. The first objective was to gather the experience of school leaders regarding the change in school organization, with particular attention to organizational and health promotion aspects. The second was to investigate the perception of health promotion and self-efficacy of teachers in primary, middle and high schools. The research was conducted using qualitative (focus groups for the school leaders) and quantitative methods (questionnaires for the teachers). The findings showed new ways of improving wellbeing at school and implementing health promotion through the sharing of good practice between school leaders. The need for time and space to reflect among school leaders on the educational and didactic aspects of school organization also emerged. Teachers showed a low to medium level of self-efficacy regarding the adoption of strategies in line with health promotion; specificities for each grade and level will be discussed.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1166-1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040086

Abstract:
Learning innovation is a positive approach on the contemporary higher education international stage. This article stresses the need to devise physical spaces that are also innovative. For that purpose, using a qualitative methodology, we investigated recent trends based on the synergies between certain creative disciplines: architecture, music, and fashion. The comparison was based on compositional features and formative dimension. Using a qualitative methodological comprehensive approach, a set of case studies was analysed. The findings show the usefulness of activating these synergies as effective strategies when enriching educational processes in different ways. Six cases of excellence wherein university physical spaces reached levels of innovation were studied, representing relevant transfers among the three disciplines. The text presents examples that show the educational consequences in the establishment of those synergies, in terms of both composition (music–architecture) and the activation of heritage sites in the city as venues of learning innovation (fashion–architecture). The basic conclusions were based on the fact that the increase in teaching and spatial creativity that emanates from said synergies among the three disciplines can be potentially extrapolated to other areas of knowledge.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1156-1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040085

Abstract:
(1) Background: Diet and statins are commonly used to treat high cholesterol (CHOL) levels. (2) Aim: To compare adherence to Mediterranean diet (Med-D), orthorexia nervosa (ON), and musculoskeletal pain in individuals in treatment with statins metabolized by CYP3A4, not metabolized by CYP3A4 or red yeast rice (RYR, containing monacolin K: MON-K). (3) Methods: starting from 80 individuals, after the exclusion of those with other causes of possible pain, 56 individuals were selected and divided into three groups according to the type of statin (CYP3A4, NO-CYP3A4 and MON-K). Adherence to the Med-D was evaluated with the MEDScore and a sub-score was calculated for fruit and vegetables consumption (MEDScore-FV). ON and musculoskeletal pain were assessed with the ORTO-15 and with the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaires, respectively. A retrospective analysis of CHOL decrease after treatment was conducted. (4) Results: CHOL levels were lower in CYP3A4 and NO-CYP3A4 after treatment (182.4 ± 6.3 and 177.0 ± 7.8 mg/dL, respectively), compared with MON-K (204.2 ± 7.1 mg/dL, p< 0.05). MON-K and CYP3A4 groups had a high prevalence of reported knee pain (33.3% and 18.8%, respectively) than NO-CYP3A4 group (0%, p< 0.05). A high percentage of individuals in MON-K take supplements and nutraceuticals (87.5%), whereas MEDScore-FV was higher in CYP3A4 (9.4 ± 0.2) compared to NO-CYP3A4 (7.6 ± 0.5, p< 0.05). (5) Conclusions: This study suggests that individuals receiving treatment with statins and RYR should be monitored from the perspective of plant foods’ consumption and nutraceutical use, to prevent musculoskeletal pain.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1134-1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040084

Abstract:
School psychologists’ relevance has been broadly affirmed. However, there is no shared definition of their professional role, and more efforts are needed to promote an organisational and whole-school approach. The present study aims to investigate practices and representations of Italian school psychologists, advance knowledge of the status and development of school psychology, and learn more about the approaches currently adopted in schools. A qualitative method was used and 11 focus groups with a total of 86 participants were carried out. Ad hoc instruments were defined. The results highlighted that school psychologists are more focused on building one-on-one relationships, whereas relationships with the organisation as a whole appear to be more difficult. However, participants reported a wide range of activities, targeted to both the individual and the organisation. Moreover, efforts to strengthen the relationships with school principals and the entire school community were described. Specific needs emerged and the necessity to better define the school psychologists’ role was reported by the participants. More efforts are needed to promote an organisational approach among Italian school psychologists and specific training should be offered.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 11, pp 1120-1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040083

Abstract:
This cross-sectional study aims to determine the psychological factors that contribute to the perceived impact of COVID-19 on travel using a convenience sample (N = 1122) from the general population to whom instruments assessing the perception of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on travel, anxiety, fear, phobia, risk perception, and stress were applied. The participants were mainly female (65.6%), had not attended university, and who were professionally active, with a mean age of around 30-years-old (M = 31.91, SD = 13.76, Min = 18, Max = 81). The perceived impact of COVID-19 on travel correlates with all of the psychological variables, mainly in terms of the emotional fear of COVID-19. Together with the perceived risk of COVID-19, social phobia due to COVID-19, and COVID-19 stress contamination, these variables explain 20% of the perceived impact of COVID-19 on travel variance. The relationship between COVID-19 stress socio-economic consequences and the perception of the pandemic’s impact on travel is moderated by the emotional perceived risk of COVID-19. Fear and perception of this risk explain the impact of the COVID-19 on travel in pandemic times, suggesting that the psychological impact of fear and anxiety induced by the pandemic needs to be handled as a public health priority.
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