Journal of Management Policy and Practice

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1913-8067 / 1913-8067
Published by: North American Business Press (10.33423)
Total articles ≅ 140
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J. Brian Adams, Nathaniel Netznik
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4461

Abstract:
With each decennial census states create the boundaries that are to be used for their legislative districts for the next ten years. In this paper we present a Random Walk Monte Carlo technique that can be used to determine the probability that a set of districts has been drawn without partisan bias – gerrymandered. This is done through the creation of random spanning trees to form the representative districts. Historical election results will then be used to estimate the party representation of that random redistricting map. Through bootstrapping a probability distribution can estimated. This distribution will be used to test the hypothesis that a particular redistricting plan does not disenfranchise voters of that state.
Nicholaus Bhikolimana Tutuba
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4467

Abstract:
Why value chain activities of rural economies in emerging markets are not commercial? Carpenters in rural Tanzania have been working hard to improve their lives, but they remained poor as they cannot create value for customers and capture a sizable value from the activity. This qualitative case study uses the Theory of Constraints to detect the limiting factors for the commercialization abilities of carpenters in rural Tanzania. Access to finance and basic amenities, technology, business management skills, business attitude, and commitment are the weakest links that limit the ability of carpenters to commercialize their activities. Enhancing technology adoption, building business attitude, culture and skills for rural carpenters is important to commercialize carpentry activities in emerging markets. Linking the Theory of Constraints and the Value Chain theory in management sciences sets an empirical suggestion to commercialize rural economies in emerging markets. Commercialization of rural value chain activities can be done by changing the firms’ abilities to create value to potential customers and capture value from the activity.
Amala Luncheon, Karina Kasztelnik
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4459

Abstract:
The perception of entrepreneurship managers plays crucial roles in the leadership style all managers. However, the managers may confront challenges when attempting to provide sufficient support for all their employees. The current study implemented a case study approach involving the modern natural language processing analysis to investigate the perception of entrepreneurship managers and impact on the leadership style in the United States. The result that texts mining improves model performance in predicting the best perceptions leadership strategies targeted at increasing understanding of the emotional intelligence to influence employee’s engagement. In the current study, essential keywords were identified from the unstructured text data, which were revealed as strong predictors in the data mining process, and also supported meaningful analysis. The study contributes to the literature through its successful use of a modern natural language processing model to derive important perspectives and opinions related to the improvement of managers performance, thus constituting a new and innovative approach to business leadership research.
Esther Lee, Jinook Jeong
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4465

Abstract:
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) has been a global public health threat. For countries battling the coronavirus pandemic, stringent social or physical distancing (referred to as lockdown), contact tracking in real-time (referred to as trackdown), and/or herd immunity measures have been used to flatten the COVID-19 epidemic curve. This study aimed to examine the effect of lockdown, trackdown, and herd immunity on daily COVID19 cases and related deaths using time series data from Jan 22, 2020 to Nov 05, 2020. The Susceptible- Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model was applied to characterize the epidemic dynamics and to predict possible contagion scenarios of COVID-19. Optimized parameter values were used to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) for Sweden, South Korea, Germany, and the United States. Our results suggested that lockdown and trackdown measures have successfully controlled the outbreak and transmission of COVID-19, and herd immunity was able to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Sweden. However, even if the proportion of immunized individuals in the population as a whole may surpass the herd immunity threshold, these pockets of susceptible individuals are still at risk for local outbreaks as immunity is unevenly distributed within a population. This study also found that lockdowns should remain in place for at least 90 days to prevent the epidemic growth, and both social distancing and public health measures could potentially remove the need for the lockdowns. The fewer confirmed cases and deaths were ascertained by trackdowns.
John A. Grummel, Jaime Collins
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4460

Abstract:
This research examines LGBTQ+ data collection for Community Health Needs Assessments (CHNA) by Wisconsin Health care organizations as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and whether data collection considered LGBTQ+ populations. If collected, it assesses what types of LGBTQ+ data was collected and how it was used and/or reported in the CHNA. Furthermore, a comparison by location (rural/urban) regarding whether there is a difference in likelihood that a health care organization would collect LGBTQ+ data. The results of this study indicate that data collection is collected by approximately one-quarter of Wisconsin health care organizations for the purpose of their CHNAs and there is not a significant difference by location regarding inclusion of LGBTQ+ data.
Bradley Mankoff
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4466

Abstract:
While much research studies what political attitudes and political behaviors distinguish American nonpartisans (“Independents”) from partisans, little research has investigated what environmental factors in an individual’s life are associated with self-identification as an Independent. This paper begins that investigation by testing whether a rudimentary measure of distance of oneself from one’s congresspeople is positively associated with one’s probability of self-identifying as an Independent. Seminal research from social psychology about the availability heuristic and social desirability bias combined with Klar’s and Krupnikov’s insights about a general aversion to partisan labels provide the theoretical framework for my hypothesis. Individuals’ ideologies are taken from self-reports from the CCES cumulative file (~424,000 respondents), and congresspersons’ ideologies are taken from DW-NOMINATE. I find a modest positive association between distance and independent-identity, however the inconsistency of that result across different ideologies and across the House and Senate leads me to doubt the substantive significance of my findings. A panel study or experiment could better test my hypothesis.
Mary Ann Hofmann
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i2.4463

Abstract:
This paper discusses tax laws and federal court decisions relating to the taxation or exemption of religious non-profit organizations. In a democracy characterized by separation of church and state, what role does the federal government play in regulating the activities and financial transactions of churches and other religious non-profit organizations? What are the federal statutory requirements regarding tax exemption for churches, tax deductibility of donations to churches, and political activity by churches, and are these requirements justified? Does this regulation interfere with the free exercise of religion, or does the federal government violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment by providing inappropriate tax benefits to churches and clergy?
Filippo Verre
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i1.4177

Abstract:
International isolation is the main concern of Taiwan’s foreign politics. The proximity with mainland China urged Taiwan to rely on several different strategies to maintain the coveted geopolitical survival from Beijing’s sovereignty claims. Recently, among the various strategies adopted across the years, Taipei has used hydro-diplomacy to expand its presence in Southeast Asia. The main sponsor of such peculiar form of diplomacy has been President Tsai Ing-wen, in charge since May 2016. In January 2019, her inclusive policies towards ASEAN nations, particularly towards Indonesia, led to the signing of a historic agreement for the construction of a water purification plant in East Java.
Oluwole Owoye, Olugbenga A. Onafowora
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i1.4175

Abstract:
This paper uses conceptual economics to analyze the nationwide demand for hatred nurtured by political divisiveness and conflicts in the United States. The study asserts that politicians from the Democratic and Republican Parties are the prime suppliers of hatred that hate groups willfully consume to reveal their preference for overt racial-gender hatred and that the hate crime laws or the legal penalties of hate crimes may have altered the dynamics of hatred and hate crimes in both directions in the United States. In the current political environment, the consensus among political pundits and legal scholars is that the 45th President of the United States could be considered as one of the largest suppliers of conspiracy theories and disinformation used to nurture hate-creating stories and false narratives that many hate groups consumed nationwide thus their revealed preference for overt hatred and hate crimes. The aggregate demand for hatred depends on the legal penalty paid for hatred and the continuous hatred signals received from political leaders such as the 45th POTUS.
Shangran Zhang, Yeyu Zhang, Yujie Zhu
Journal of Management Policy and Practice, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.33423/jmpp.v22i1.4178

Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of underwriter reputation on coupon rate of bonds in China's inter-bank bond market and how this effect changes according to different credit ratings. This research finds that the improvement of the underwriter reputation can significantly reduce the coupon rate of bonds, and the higher the credit rating of the issuer, the more significant this effect is. This is mainly caused by the lack of junk bond market and the high risk-aversion level of investors in China’s market. Further research finds that the effect of the underwriter reputation on the coupon rate of bonds and its significant changes among different credit ratings only appears after the first substantial default cases occurred, and this phenomenon are more significant in short-term bonds comparing with long-term bonds.
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