European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2593-8339
Current Publisher: European Open Science Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 468
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Zameer Shervani, Deepali Bhardwaj, Roma Nikhat
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 38-41; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.860

Abstract:
The first and second serosurvey results of COVID-19 antibodies in Dharavi and Cuffe Parade slums (Mumbai, India) were studied. The seroprevalence data of the slums explained the zero novel coronavirus cases reported in the slum dwellers verified first in real on the ground the concept of much needed herd immunity against the pandemic. First serosurvey data showed that more than half (57%) of the population of Dharavi was infected with the virus. The antibodies were waned off in two month time and diminished to 45%, as found in the second survey conducted after two months of the first survey. The antibodies prevalence was highest at 75% in Cuffe Parade slums of Mumbai. Initially, Dharavi slums were a hotspot of novel coronavirus which later became nearly a no-new infection zone. The herd immunity acquired in Dharavi residents stopped the new infection. One million Dharavi slum dwellers living in a crowded semi-isolated cluster mimic the petri-dish model of a human population which is now a near COVID-19 free zone due to the presence of antibodies in the residents. The infection rate in Maharashtra, India, and Dharavi slums was compared. The concept of herd immunity that occurred on the ground in real has been first established. The research is very useful to vaccinate populations to eradicate the pandemic from the globe.
Kavita Nagar, G.P. Sujatha, Ashok Lingappa
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 34-37; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.864

Abstract:
Background: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder with areca nut being the main etiological agent. Increased risk of malignant potential of OSMF necessitates the early diagnosis of the condition. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenges oxygenated free radicals and can be used as a potential biomarker for oral cancer detection. Objectives: The present study was conducted to estimate and compare salivary SOD levels in patients with OSMF and healthy controls and to compare its levels in different clinical and functional stages of OSMF. Methodology: The study group (Group 1) included 30 patients of OSMF, and the control group (Group 2) was formed by age and sex-matched healthy individuals. Salivary SOD levels were determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) chloride method. The levels of salivary SOD were compared between the two groups and the data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using independent sample t-test and one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The mean salivary SOD in the study group was 0.583 IU/mL and 0.864 IU/mL in control group and the difference was found to be statistically significant. Thus, the patients with OSMF had significantly lower levels of salivary SOD compared to the controls. Conclusion: The decrease in the salivary SOD levels in patients with OSMF suggests the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OSMF and initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. Thus, it can be used as a prognostic marker for early detection of carcinoma in patients with OSMF and thereby, improving the quality of life patients.
Simarpreet Kaur, Mandeep Kaur, Anupama Verma, Tarun Singh
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 41-45; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.853

Abstract:
Background: Each organ serves a specific function in the human body. Congenital absence or loss of even minor parts of it can pose extreme psychological trauma in addition to the functional impairment and esthetic issues encountered by the individual. Amputation of complete or a part of phalange of hand is frequently encountered either due to trauma or necrosis. Restoration of such defects become mandatory to improve general form and function combined with the esthetic requirements of the patient. It can either be done by microvascular reconstruction or prosthetic rehabilitation. The latter becomes the means of choice in cases where the former is either not possible, unavailable, unsuccessful, or unaffordable. Case Report: A case report has been presented of a 60 years old patient with an old traumatic partially amputated index finger. Treatment Plan: A custom-made glove-type prosthesis was fabricated using silicone elastomer. Conclusion: A ring is provided for better esthetics and special adhesive is recommended for retention of the prosthesis.
Zack Z. Cernovsky, Larry C. Litman, Vitalina Nosonova
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 29-33; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.858

Abstract:
Background: The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is widely used in clinical assessments of insomnia in patients injured in high impact motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). This study examines the criterion and convergent validity of ISI on this clinical population. Method: De-identified archival data were available on 112 post-MVA patients (37 men, 75 women, mean age 38.8 years, SD=13.1). They completed the ISI as well as the Brief Pain Inventory, the Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, the Subjective Neuropsychological Symptoms Scale (SNPSS), Items 10 to 12 of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (ratings of depression, anger, and of anxiety), Whetstone Vehicle Anxiety Questionnaire, Driving Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ), Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory, and some of them also completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The ISI responses were also available from a community sample of 21 controls (10 men, 11 women, mean age of 39.2 years, SD=18.5). Results: The mean ISI total score of post-MVA patients (23.6, SD=13.1) was significantly higher than the one of the controls (6.0, SD=5.4) and significant between groups differences in the same direction were also observed on all 7 individual ISI items: the magnitude of these underlying relationships ranged from Pearson point biserial r of 0.68 to 87. The ISI total score also significantly correlated with ratings of post-MVA pain, depression, generalized anxiety, scores on measures of the post-concussion and whiplash syndrome, PTSD, and on Whetstone’s and DAQ measures of post-MVA driving anxiety. Discussion and Conclusions: The results show an excellent level of criterion and convergent validity of ISI for clinical assessments of insomnia in post-MVA patients.
Maha Hakimi, Omar Oulghoul, Benhoummad Othmane, Youssef Rochdi, Abdelaziz Raji
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 18-20; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.827

Abstract:
Fibromatosis colli is a rare congenital pseudotumor of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, mainly found in the pediatric population. We propose to present four cases diagnosed in the ENT-Neck and head surgery department of the university medical center Mohammed VI in Marrakech, moreover we will recap the management strategy of this entity but also its evolution. We received in the pediatric emergency three infants of 1, 3 and 6 months old and one child of 7 years old, with as a main symptom a painful congenital torticollis. The ultrasound added to our clinical inspection allowed us fairly easily to diagnose the patients. No drug or surgical treatment was prescribed in the infant cases, though surgical treatment was inevitable in the 7 years old patient’s case. During the follow-up, carried out each month, we observed a gradual regression of swelling and torticollis. The prevalence of FC is estimated at 0.3-2% of births. The diagnosis is made at the age of 3 to 4 weeks of life by a thorough inspection of a torticollis associated with a later cervical mass in the framework of a difficult delivery (use of forceps or suction cup). Ultrasonography allows us to diagnose this entity due to the typical aspect of a fusiform thickening of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle. Surgical and medical treatment is rarely useful, and only symptomatic treatment is indicated. The spontaneous evolution of Fibromatosis colli is, even in the absence of treatment, the regression spontaneously in 4 to 6 months. Fibromatosis colli is a relatively rare entity, its frequency in Africa remains to be established, but it is clear that an early diagnosis is key to a speedy recovery.
Saquib Navid Siddiqui
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 8-11; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.817

Abstract:
A novel corona virus (SARS-COV-2) started to spread around the world eventually being declared as a global pandemic crisis by WHO in March,2020. Total number of cases have reached to a staggering 140 million by 17th April, 2021 with sad demise of 4 million of the world population. A few number of patients appear to be suffering from cardiac conductive abnormalities have been noted to be associated with SARS-CoV-2. This case unfolds story of a cardiogenic delirium induced by COVID-19. It’s a roller coaster journey of a 62-year -old gentleman presenting with acute delirium which was later found to be due to low brain tissue perfusion resulting from complete heart block. After ruling out all possible causes for the sudden development of complete heart block we came into conclusion of association of SARS-CoV-2 in the development of complete heart block which retrospectively lead the gentleman to become delirious.
Adekunle O. Adeoti, Taiwo H. Raimi, Joseph O. Fadare, Raphael Ibidapo
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 10-14; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.293

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease of global health importance. It is a metabolic disorder caused by increased levels of blood glucose over a prolonged period of time. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is usually associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Several studies have also revealed that diabetes mellitus hampers pulmonary functions. This study was aimed at estimating the spirometric indices in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of T2DM patients and apparently healthy control attending the medical outpatient clinic in a tertiary institution in south western Nigeria. Results: A total of 146 participants with 73 patients with T2DM and 73 control groups. There were no significant differences in the age, body mass index, and gender distribution of the diabetics and control. However, patients with diabetes had higher SBP (133.2±20.17 mmHg vs 111.6±6.5 mmHg p<0.0001), and DBP (78.4±11.8mmHg vs 73.7±6.3 mmHg, p=0.003) when compared to the control. The mean FEV (1.98±0.5 vs 2.09±1.2, p=0.033), FVC (2.35±0.6 vs 2.53±1.3, p=0.045) and FEV/FVC ratio (83.61±7.2 vs 81.14±10.7, p=0.029) were significantly lower in diabetic patients when compared to matched controls. There was no significant difference in the PEF and FEF of both groups. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients had significant decrease in their spirometric indices, hence pulmonary function should be included in the periodic comprehensive diabetic check for holistic management.
D. S. Lodhe, V. V. Akulwar, S. Deshmukh
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 15-17; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.688

Abstract:
Purpose: We evaluated the effect of adding Sufentanil to the mixture of Lidocaine and Bupivacaine used for supraclavicular brachial plexus block in reducing postoperative pain. Method: This double-blind clinical intervention trial was conducted in 2007. Patients scheduled to undergo upper limb orthopedic surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were recruited. Participants of one arm were given the mixture of Sufentanil, lidocaine, and bupivacaine (Group S) while those of the other arm were given the mixture of later two drugs (Group C). Postoperative pain assessment was done every hour postoperatively till the first administration of systemic analgesic. We used a subjective pain score and duration of lack of muscle movement as a parameter to judge outcomes. The mean and standard deviation were compared of both arms. Result: We included 50 patients in both arms. The mean duration of the motor blockade in group S and C were 342.8 (± 145.4) and 171.1 (±50.2) minutes respectively. The additive effect of Sufentanil in motor blockage was 171.7 (95% CI 128.5–214.9) (p = 0.1×10-6). The mean duration of analgesia in group S and C were 892 (±34.7) and 350 (±72.1) minutes respectively. The additive effect of Sufentanil in analgesia was 542 (95% CI 524–559) (p = 0.1×10-6). In group S, one patient developed cardiac pain following pneumothorax and two had temporary Horner syndrome. Conclusion: Analgesia in the postoperative period can be enhanced with the addition of Sufentanil (an opioid) to local anesthetics in supraclavicular brachial plexus block.
O. Ojo Bola, T. O. Korode, D. E. Oguntunnbi, F. B. Ajimojuowo, A. A. Aladejare, O. Jegede, O. S. Adeniyi
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 18-21; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.811

Abstract:
Rubella virus infection poses a great threat to the foetus whose mother acquires the infection. This study was therefore carried out to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus IgM antibodies among the pregnant women attending Federal Teaching Hopsital, Ido Ekiti. One hundred and ninety two (192) sera were collected from pregnant women and screened for rubella virus IgM antibodies. A structured questionnaire was administered to subjects to obtain socio-demographic data. The sera samples were analysed using Enzymes Immunosorbent Assay (EIA) IgM rubella kit. Out of 192 pregnant women screened, 6(3.1%) subjects were sero-positive. Age group 31-35years recorded the highest prevalence 3(1.56%). Pregnant women with tertiary education had the highest prevalence of 4(2.08%) among different educational level; civil servants have a prevalence of 4(2.08%) compared with other occupational status. However, prenatal screening and post-partum is highly encouraged to detect congenital rubella syndrome. There is also a need to include rubella screening as part of the routine procedure for the expectant mother.
Monira Parveen, Dilip Kumar Bhowmick, Shafiqul Islam, Sayedur Rahman, Akm Akhtaruzzaman
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 3, pp 25-28; doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.816

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Adequate post-operative pain management can improve surgical outcome. Patients undergoing surgery can be affected socially, psychologically, economically with undertreated pain. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 0.25% bupivacaine infiltration on postoperative pain, analgesic requirement, satisfaction level, hospital discharge and quality of life after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methodology: Fifty eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and randomized in two groups – placebo and intervention. Patients were infiltrated with 10 ml 0.25% bupivacaine in intervention and 10 ml 0.9% normal saline in placebo group. Post-operative pain was managed with morphine using Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA). Pain intensity was assessed on the matrix of visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale up to 12 post-operative hours. This study also assessed its effect on analgesic requirements, hospital stay, patient satisfaction level after 24hours, pain score on discharge, time taken to return to job and quality of life (on 15th and 30th post-operative day). Results: It was revealed 0.25% bupivacaine can lower post-operative pain up to six post-operative hour of performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Total analgesic requirement was also reduced (p= 0.0003) with decreased side effect like vomiting (p= 0.0002). However, satisfaction and quality of life were not affected by bupivacaine infiltration in this study. Conclusion: 0.25% Bupivacaine infiltration offered more effective management of postoperative analgesia with decreased analgesic requirement and less incident of vomiting. But it was not effective after long duration in terms of satisfaction level, hospital discharge, time to return to job or quality of life.
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